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Nothing marks the presence of humans better than a massive hole in the ground (clear-cutting came a close second).
The mine was discovered on June 13, 1955 by Soviet geologists Yuri Khabardin, Ekaterina Elagina and Viktor Avdeenko. The winter temperatures were so low that car tires and steel would shatter and oil would freeze. In the 1960s the mine was producing 10,000,000 carats (2,000 kg) of diamond per year, of which a relatively high fraction (20%) were of gem quality.
It had long been anticipated that the recovery of diamonds by conventional surface methods would saturate.
Boring deep into the Earth for the love of riches and resources, we humans dig deep and often.
Seven months of winter per year froze the ground into permafrost, which was hard in winter, but turned into sludge in summer. During the winter, the workers used jet engines to defreeze and dig out the permafrost or blasted it with dynamite to get access to the underlying kimberlite.

The upper layers of the mine (down to 340 meters) had very high diamond content of 4 carats (0.80 g) per tonne of ore, with the relatively high ratio of gems to industrial stones. The mine operation was interrupted in 1990s at a depth of 340 m after the pit bottom became flooded but it eventually resumed. Thus, in the 1970s, construction has started on a network of underground tunnels for diamond recovery.
In the town of Mirny in Eastern Siberia, lies the largest open pit diamond mine in the world. The hole is so big that even the airspace above the mine was closed to helicopters as there were several incidents of them being sucked in by the downward air flow. This finding was the first success in the search for kimberlite in Russia, after numerous failed expeditions of the 1940s and 1950s. Buildings had to be raised on piles, so that they would not sink in summer, and the main processing plant had to be built on a better ground found 20 km away from the mine.
The yield decreased to about 2 carats (0.40 g) per tonne and the production rate slowed to 2,000,000 carats (400 kg) per year near the pit bottom.

After the collapse of the USSR in the 1990s, the mine was operated by the Sakha diamond company, which reported annual profits in excess of $600 million from diamond sales. It’s also the second largest excavated hole in the world, second only to the Bingham Canyon Mine in Salt Lake City, Utah. For this discovery, in 1957 Khabardin was given the Lenin Prize, which was one of the highest awards in the Soviet Union.
Currently, the mine is operated by Alrosa, the largest diamond producing company in Russia, and employs 3,600 workers. In order to stabilize the abandoned main pit, its bottom was covered by a rubble layer 45 meters thick.

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