Treating dogs with severe separation anxiety

Personal protection puppy training
Some English Shepherd fanciers make the statement that theirs is a purely American breed created from the Scotch Collie, however history shows that this breed existed long before the American breed by this name and that it’s true origins are not the Scotch Collie at all but in the original sheep dogs of England.
Most of these descriptions were written before the Scotch Collie became widely popular as a pet in Britain and America and before the breeding of these dogs for show purposes (mid 1870s). The highest results of training are seen in the Scotch Collie, which by almost common consent is allowed to be the most intelligent of dogs.
The Scotch shepherd’s dog is no more like the English sheep-dog than Monmouth is to Macedon, and is as much its superior in value, intelligence, and beauty as a high-born Scottish lassie is to a Hottentot Venus. The Scotch Colley, or Highland sheep dog, is, in our opinion, a far more graceful animal, and in sense and intelligence equals any breed of dogs in the world. The English Sheep Dog, is, as a rule, a very different and inferior animal to his Scotch fellow-labourer, and can hardly be described as of any particular class, especially when his labours include, as they do in many of our village homesteads, the guardianship or conduct of cattle, as well as flocks, or they are kept by the numerous drovers who wait at markets and fairs, to take home the new purchases for all comers.
The drover generally selects a smooth, or short-coated dog, larger than the Colley, and with a turn of speed.
Under the old laws, a dog was exempt from tax when the tail was cut off, and many old herdsmen and shepherds persist in this practice still, but siuce the five-shilling tax has been levied the younger and more enlightened have allowed their dogs to retain this useful and ornamental appendage. I was frequently assured that a breed of the rough Sheep Dog existed born, like Manx cats, without tails, but I disbelieved the story; however, I had ocular proof of the fact not many years ago.
The English Sheep Dog, being required for an enclosed country, and for a slower and tamer breed of sheep than the Scotch flocks consist of, is a heavier, slower, and more sedate animal than the Colley.
Bewick’s engraving of the Sheep Dog represents a Colley, though his tail is not well carried; and I am strengthened in the opinion that he intended to represent this breed by the fact that he introduces in his back-ground a kilted Highland shepherd, followed by his dog with a tail well carried. His drawing of the “Cur Dog” gives a faithful portrait of the ordinary English cattle-dog, with his bobtail, as he is to be seen at the present time, of various colours, but generally black or brindled, with more or less white about his body, half-pricked ears, and a sharp muzzle. I think it likely that the Colley had been generally adopted by shepherds at Newcastle (the scene of the artist’s labours), and that he was to be seen at the heels of most of the shepherds Bewick encountered, purely or semi-purely bred, if such an expression may be permitted ; but farther south the Sheep Dog was a mixture of many breeds. And, although Sheep Dogs are to be found of all colours (excepting liver-colour, or liver in connection with other colours, which seems confined entirely to sporting dogs), and the arrival of a litter of all colours is a very common occurrence, and, it must be remembered, at once proclaims indiscriminate breeding, there is one class of Sheep Dog which I can recollect in Oxfordshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Hants, Dorset, and other counties, for many years, and which I always regard as the typical English Sheep Dog.
Amongst the useful and ornamental dogs, I must class the Scotch Colley; and occasionally the English Sheep Dog is a good looking animal, but this is of rare occurrence.
The most important aspect of this history is that it was the first breed to become globally popular. In the last quarter of the seventeenth century some Marblehead fishermen, who had spent a month or two about the Grand Bank [Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland], entered the Bay of St. From the two Marblehead dogs a very considerable family arose in various parts of the United States.
Newfoundland dogs could be found on the island from about the eighteenth century, so the date of these two dogs arriving from Newfoundland to found a colonial Newfoundland dynasty in what became the United States in the seventeenth century is a bit dubious. The question I always ask when I read historical accounts of Newfoundlands is what exactly were these dogs like. The answer to this question is more often not known, for there are very few depictions of particular dogs. The first place we should start is with what is probably the earliest depiction of a Newfoundland dog.
The dimensions of this dog are described in the Bewick text, and although difficult to analyze from how we normally measure dog size, it was a large dog.
Again, one should understand that Bewick’s view of what a Newfoundland dog was comes from that predominantly white individual that he met at Eslington.
Taplin would describe the Newfoundland as a sagacious animal—one that is very easily trained and intelligent. At the time, Newfoundland dogs were en vogue, and because they were in the place where these legendary dogs originated, the New Yorkers proceeded to clean out every dog dealer in St.
When we actually do read accounts of the dogs in Newfoundland, several issues need to be addressed when considering these dogs. The first of these is that Newfoundland dogs were a working dog that existed as a landrace on the island and in Labrador. The other issue is that the dogs often passed through dealers before they wound up in the hands of pet owners. The final problem is that as a globally popular breed, Newfoundlands that were exported and bred in other countries began to vary a lot over time. I have said nothing of the Newfoundland dog in the natural history section of this work, because a finer specimen of the breed is now to be had in England and in Canada—the dog here being of lower height, and less beautiful. The common dogs used in the catamarans are of every possible cross with these, and are of every variety of colour and fur. I have known the mahogany-coloured Labrador dog, an animal of immense size and power, to follow my sleigh during a long journey upon the crust of the snow, until his feet became so chafed and sore that he was unable to proceed. These dogs are all subject, when removed to a warmer climate, to a glandular swelling in the ear, which becomes very large and painful, and it should always be watched and lanced, or treated with care, although this class of dogs are very seldom visited with hydrophobia, and generally, when past cure, will, if allowed, retire to a woody or secret covert to die. Bonnycastle believed, as was accepted knowledge at that time, that hydrophobia was something that attacked dogs when the became too hot.
Bonnycastle says that all these dogs are crossed with whatever can be found– which is exactly what we would expect from dogs that were being bred for a purpose without regard to pedigree.
Bonnycastle’s Labrador was a very large dog, but because these dogs varied so much in appearance, Bonnycastle does not suggest that this huge size was a trait of the type. Bonnycastle’s delineation does not comport at all with what Newfoundlands in Europe were becoming. Because Newfoundland dogs were known to be inveterate sheep killers and because they readily went hunting on their own when they weren’t used as working dogs, there was a common assertion that they were very close to wolves.
I am compelled thus arbitrarily to give, perhaps, an undeserved name to the present group, but it is the only one by means of which I can accurately indicate the family of dogs to which I refer. Those who have grouped these dogs with the Spaniels, are in error, for they possess none of the characteristics of that group (pg 74-75).
It was very common to list Newfoundland dogs as spaniels in those days, but Richardson was among several dog experts who contended that Newfoundlands were actually wolf dogs. Now, no genetic evidence agrees with this assessment, but it does show that Newfoundland dogs were occasionally prick-eared. The large dogs, usually known as Newfoundlands in this country, are evidently the result of a cross with the mastiff. The origin of this dog is questionable, but I am disposed to trace him to a large European variety, still in use among the Norwegians, for the chase of the bear and wolf. The Newfoundland dog has long been famed for his aquatic powers, and many human lives have, from time to time, been saved by him. However, if we can ignore that bit of fanciful nonsense, we can see that Richardson though the Newfoundland was a large dog but that the giant representatives of that breed in Europe were clearly crosses with mastiffs.
This is a much larger animal than the preceding, standing from twenty-eight to thirty inches in height; his muzzle is shorter and more truncated, the upper lip more pendulous, the coat coarser, and the whole dog presenting far more marks of great strength than the Newfoundland. The finest specimen of the Labrador dog that I have ever seen, is Rollo, property of Lady Bellew, lady of Sir Patrick Bellew, of Barmeath, whose baronetcy is the oldest in Ireland. This dog presents an appearance intermediate between the Newfoundland dog and the Land Spaniel; he is generally called by the above name, but whether or not he is fully entitled to it, is in my judgment at least questionable. Newfoundland dogs are so expert and savage, when fighting, that they generally contrive to seize some vital part, and often do a serious injury to their antagonist. The real Newfoundland dog may be broken in to any kind of shooting; and without additional instruction, is generally under such command, that he may be safely kept in, if required to be taken out with pointers.
I think it is very likely that the giant dogs, either called Newfoundlands or Labradors, were creations of the pet market.
There is a mention of a giant dog on Newfoundland from roughly the same time that  Hawker was writing that the true breed was pointer-sized. He managed to procure a Newfoundland from Harbour Grace, which he erroneously believed was in the north of the island. The last quadruped that we shall mention under this head, though very far from being the least in worth, is the Newfoundland dog, a valuable and faithful friend to man, and an implacable enemy to sheep.
The natural colour of this dog was a perfect black, with the exception of very few white spots. All of these pressures work against Newfoundland dogs being giant from a practical perspective. William Nelson Hutchinson, the noted gun dog trainer, provides the best evidence for the notion that giant Newfoundlands were crossed with something else to make them more palatable than to the British buyer.
From education there are good retrievers of many breeds, but it is usually allowed that, as a general rule, the best land retrievers are bred from a cross between the setter and the Newfoundland, or the strong spaniel and the Newfoundland. Hutchinson agrees with Richardson and Hawker that there were three breeds of Newfoundland dog, and like those authors, he thinks that the true breed of Newfoundland isn’t a giant dog. Unlike any of the authors mentioned before, Hutchinson had traveled to Newfoundland and parts of Canada, where he had seen the dogs. I still don’t understand why these authors think that the giant size in Newfoundlands came about as the result of a cross but that there actually were giant dogs hauling wood in Labrador.
Lambert de Boilieu was a merchant and trader in Newfoundland and also in Labrador in the 1850’s.
During winter, for want of horses, dogs are used for the purpose of conveying all sorts of produce to and from the bays, as well as for pleasure. This dog is known by his smooth, though slightly wavy and glossy coat, being the foundation of the wavy-coated retriever already alluded to (page 89). Stonehenge, of course, bought into the large Labrador actually being the giant hauling dog of Labrador, but he was likely unfamiliar with de Boilieu’s text, which clearly shows that the Labrador dog was more like a retriever, even if it was occasionally used for hauling. As Newfoundlands that derived dealers’ dogs became more and more popular in England, there was a move for some well-to-do people to go to Newfoundland and find some more of the original stock. Sir,—A few years ago (I don’t name the year, not wishing to be in any sense personal) I addressed to you a letter on the subject of the judging at a certain dog show, which I may now say took place at Birmingham.
This correspondent, however, does want it known that his smaller Newfoundlands are more correct that the giant ones being exhibited in England at the time. A Newfoundland fancier responds to the initial claim that Newfoundland dogs were not giant animals with some typical dog show cultist histrionics, including a great extolling of the virtues of a 28.5 inch dog named Cato.
But the complaint I made, and make, is that, whilo a pure Newfoundland must be black, except generally a mark of white upon the breast, the first prize dog at a former Birmingham show (my pure black dog being second) was a dog who was more white than black, and who therefore could not have been of the genuine breed. Obviously, this correspondent didn’t know that the settlers of Newfoundland and Labrador preferred to keep short-haired dogs, as per the commentary of Lamber de Boilieu. And never mind that the great dog obsession of the late nineteenth century England was the Tibetan mastiff, which was well-known to grow quite large, even though they didn’t have access to all the fancy European diets. There is no doubt that the Newfoundland, if reared in the island, is comparatively small (say 25in.
And the fact is the dogs in Newfoundland did have access to better quality protein than virtually any dog in England at the time. So it seems that this argument is just a convenient dodge to the simple fact that the British dog fancy was fundamentally changing a working breed.

The fact that they might have been scammed by the dealers and dog breeding fishermen on Newfoundland never crossed their minds. The former dog would have been readily exported, where it became basis of the retrievers, while the latter was the preferred working dog of Newfoundland. But the people who actually relied upon the dogs in Newfoundland preferred retriever-sized dogs. I am not the first person to make the claim that Newfoundland dogs were initially retriever-sized. Popular belief would no doubt lead to the opinion that the Newfoundland dog would have a very straight history, but such is not the case by any means.
We must recognise that we are not now speaking of a country where dogs were bred for points but a very undeveloped territory, where the dogs were obliged to earn their own living, bred as they liked, and were grievously neglected according to all accounts. Both of these dogs had smooth coats, which matches de Boilieu’s description perfectly. It is a common thing to see them grizzle, black, red, brindled, or (for the most part) white; and we have also observed a dull rust colour, patched with black, in the smooth dog.
The rough or shaggy-coated colley is the most choice description; for his impenetrable warm thick coat is a good protection to him when his duty calls him to face the storms and mists and snows of the wild mountains, especially when the stragglers of his flock have been covered by the snowdrifts, and he goes in search of them with his master. He also requires a dog full of activity and courage, which shall stand his friend in case of danger from the strange cattle which he is always encountering, and not unfreqttently has to fetch from their pastures, or to separate from herds.
Even on the wide-spread Wiltshire Downs the same description of dog prevails—bought or exchanged at the first fair for a few shillings, ready broken by the shepherd, who seldom seems to have a cordial understanding with, or affection for, his dog. His parentage was the result of accident nine times out of ten, unless some intelligent shepherd, possessed of a superior dog, carefully mated it with some neighbour’s which rivalled it in sagacity.
I mean the blue, grizzled, roughhaired, large-limbed, surly, small-eared and small-eyed, leggy, bob-tailed dog, which, to all appearance, would obey no lighter instrument of punishment than an iron-shod crook, listen to no voice unless seasoned with a strong provincial twang, and coil himself upon none other than that inevitable drab blanket-coat into whose sleeves no shepherd was ever known to put his arms.
The dog belonged to a shepherd whom all our large agriculturists coveted, but never could keep after his year’s service had expired, because of his drunken habits, or, rather, his fits of drunkenness.
However, these dogs were around during the colonial period and during the early days of the republic.
In addition to Aaron Burr mentioned above, a Newfoundland accompanied Lewis and Clark on their journey to the Pacific Ocean. Most of the depictions of Newfoundland dogs we see are from English artists, and as we shall see, nineteenth century English Newfoundlands were probably not the best examples of their breed at the time.
It was a great diver, and Bewick describes the dog bringing up anything from the bottom of rivers and having an appetite for fish.
One cannot make too many generalizations at all about these dogs from that one sample, of course.
He also never saw the dogs in their homeland, and his understanding of the animals came from animals he saw in Britain. Landraces vary from generation to generation, and because the working dogs were derived from a large number of different dog stocks that came to the island at different times, the dogs would vary quite a bit over time. Dealers knew what people wanted, for whatever reason, there was an expectation that a Newfoundland would be a giant dog.
In this way, the water dogs of Newfoundland were likely as mixed as Alaskan huskies are today, and thus, one would have a hard time figuring out what the original dog even was.
Landseers are black and white, but mahogany and white could easily be turned into black and white through a very simple outcross to a black dog. The fact that a lot of Newfoundland dogs at the time had semi-prick or prick ears (like Lord Byron’s Boatswain) further added to their lupine reputation.
And the fact that these dogs did occasionally hunt on their own when they weren’t being worked on the ships or hauling loads might be suggestive of something lupine. There is another breed of dog peculiar to Newfoundland; short-coated, and sharp-nosed—an excellent water dog, by some mistaken for the true Newfoundland breed. It is now well known that the original discovery of Newfoundland is to be attributed to the Norwegians, who, before the year 1000, sailed from Greenland on a voyage of discovery, and that the same people discovered North America some time between the tenth and eleventh centuries…. The dog was admired, and a gentleman in the police establishment was asked to whom it belonged.
The original dogs of Newfoundland were not necessarily giant dogs, but if crossed with a mastiff on either Newfoundland or the import country, one could easily produce a giant dog. Peter Hawker  in his Instructions to Young Sportsmen (1814) made a very similar analysis of Newfoundland dogs that one could find in both Bonnycastle and Richardson. Every canine brute that is nearly as big as a jackass, and as hairy as a bear, is denominated a fine Newfoundland dog.
It very clearly describes the true Newfoundland dog of 1814 as being very similar to retriever– particular that which we know as the modern Labrador retriever. This dog grew quite large, was an inveterate sheep-killer (as nearly all Newfoundlands were said to be), and was a very intelligent animal. When born or reared from an early age under the roof of man, this dog is the most useful animal in the island as a domestic. Anspach, being a foreigner and not well-versed in the island’s ways, may have assumed that his dog was particularly amazing for its large size. A large dog, for a hunting and gathering society like Newfoundland at this time period, would have been a bit of a hindrance. I do not mean the heavy Labrador, whose weight and bulk is valued because it adds to his power of draught, nor the Newfoundland, increased in size at Halifax and St.
Like Richardson, he thinks the dogs are all crossed to make them larger, but unlike Richardson, he thinks that the giant dogs were crossed before they made it to the dog dealers in Halifax and St.
I can’t find any evidence that he ever traveled to Labrador, so his descriptions of a giant Labrador dog might not be accurate. They are found some miles up the bays, and when discovered the dog uses a simple artifice to decoy them. One smooth dog, two flat-coated or small Labrador, two curly-coated dogs and one bitch, all belonging to personal friends, we have never seen excelled; and a dog by a Clumber spaniel out of a Labrador bitch is one of the very best dogs to find and bring game or wildfowl that we have ever seen (pg. One well-traveled sportsman wrote to The Field magazine in 1869 to show that the Newfoundland dogs of their actual island homeland weren’t that large. In the Newfoundland class (eighteen entries) a dog of mine, which I had brought with others from St. In his second commentary, this writer states something that actually started to happen on Newfoundland as time went on. In other words, the principle I lay down is that the true Newfoundland can be no more white, or any other colour than black, than a black-and-tan terrier can be fawn-and-white.
I am aware, and it is well known in Newfoundland, that dogs bred and reared on the island do not as a rule, with only a very few exceptions, grow as big as dogs bred and reared in England. His suggestion that the dogs in Newfoundland don’t grow as large in Newfoundland as they do in England is also reflective of a common meme that one comes across in some of this literature. Nutrition can have a marginal effect on dog size at maturity, but if the dogs in Newfoundland were that much smaller than those in England as the result of nutrition, then they would have so many other problems. Some of the exports were crossed with mastiffs and other giant breeds to increase their appeal to the gullible British dog buyer. Any very large dogs, as we have seen, would have been aberrations– the result of breeding from diverse working dog stock.
In the first place, the early illustrations by Bewick and Reinagle show a long, Hat-headed white and black dog. John’s water dog, the Newfoundland, the true Newfoundland, the Newfoundland water dog, the Lesser Labrador, the Lesser Newfoundland, the wavy-coated retriever, the old flat-coated retriever,  or the Labrador are all names that refer to this sort of dog that was widely distributed on Newfoundland.
Yes, the dogs that would so readily kill a sheep in Newfoundland could be used to increase both predatory responses and trainability.
As our time at the dog-show is limited, we will drop the others and confine ourselves to the collie, or Scotch variety. For this purpose his dog serves him well; and a drover of my acquaintance tell me that his favourite helpmate—a black, short-tailed one of the breed—has more than a dozen times drawn off the attack of a bull or ox which meant to do him a mischief. At the large sheep-fairs it is the usual thing to see these dogs bartered or bought, the deal being completed in a few words; and after some hasty ejaculations, and an uncouth gesticulation or two, the new purchase is handed over to the purchaser, with a collar twisted out of a green hazel and a few feet of old cord.
He partakes (as do all the dogs, especially pastoral dogs) more or less of the character of his teacher. Two fine specimens of the Newfoundland dog were carried off by these Puritan fishermen, and from them sprang a very numerous race in the continental Colonies.
John James Audubon had a Newfoundland named Plato with him Florida that he used for retrieving shot birds, including a great white heron that Plato brought to Audubon alive even as the bird attacked him with its beak. In A Dog’s History of America, Derr discusses a 1855 voyage of a ship named the John Adger.
It seems to me possible that dog dealers and even settlers on the island wanting to make an easy buck would breed their water dogs to mastiffs and other very large dogs to produce an animal that would sell well. The very large black and white Newfoundlands that Sir Edwin Landseer painted were quite popular in England during the middle part of the nineteenth century. They are of two kinds; the short, wiry-haired Labrador dog, and the long, curly-haired Newfoundland species, generally black, with a white cross upon the breast.
I think, from having kept both kinds, and also the spotted, mahogany-coloured, and shorthaired Labrador dog, that the short-haired kind are the most faithful friends of man, and the best guardians of a house, and that the other variety, with his bushy and curling tail, is the best water-dog, although both are able to endure the most severe cold in that element, and would, if left alone, sleep in the snow, in preference to having a more sheltered bed. Ear infection issues, though, are something that we see in both modern retrievers and Newfoundland dogs.
This claim that short-haired dogs were better water dogs does have some merit as we follow the trajectory of Newfoundland dogs through the nineteenth century. John’s water dog is the one that is supposed to be smooth-coated, but Bonnycastle makes it clear that the traits of a Labrador dog are spotted mahogany color and short hair. The Newfoundland dog is fully entitled to be placed at the head of the group ; from his being better known than the others, from his greater beauty, his sagacity, nobility of nature and disposition, his utility to mankind, and the high degree of estimation in which he is held in every part of the world where he is known.
When summer approaches, and the occupation of the natives changes to fishing, the poor dogs are turned adrift, to shift for themselves. I recollect a noble dog of this breed, the property of Professor Dunbar, of Edinburgh, which was accustomed to go out with the young people, in the capacity of a protector, and a most efficient one he proved himself, suffering neither man nor brute to approach his charge.
At the time Richardson was writing this piece, it had not been confirmed that the Norse had ever come to Newfoundland.
Richardson had also not been to Newfoundland, so it is very possible that this giant Labrador was nothing more than a mastiff crossed with the Newfoundland. Labrador is a much wilder place than Newfoundland, and the main dogs that were used for hauling anything in Labrador were a type of indigenous hauling spitz, which has the unfortunate name of Labrador husky.
Anspach was a Swiss-born Anglican clergyman who worked in Newfoundland around the vicinity of Conception Bay.
The sagacity of this animal was astonishing; on many occasions he appeared to want only the faculty of speech to make himself fully understood. Very large dogs take a long time to mature, and anyone who has ever been around giant breed puppies will know one must be careful with them until they are about two years old.

The only consistent thing is that prior to about 1860, the word Labrador referred to a giant dog.
In his Recollections of Labrador Life (1861), de Boilieu compared these dogs with the retrievers of England, which definitely did descend and were being bred from St.
If myself or steward was not at home, and a visitor called, the dog would allow him to walk in, sit down, light and smoke his pipe, as if unconscious of his presence; but if the visitor attempted to leave the house the dog was up in an instant, and, placing himself in the doorway, showed a set of teeth of dazzling but appalling whiteness. Stonehenge included these comments, as well as some rather hysterical commentaries from a Newfoundland fancier who denounced the smaller dogs as mongrels. John’s, was adjudged second, he being beaten by a dog which was no Newfoundland at all. If there are three of these dogs in the whole of Newfoundland higher than he, I will forfeit 20? . Conscious of this responsibility, I affirm, first, that I have invariably found these large black-and-white dogs to be direct importations from England or the Continent—often from Spain, where they frequently reach an enormous size; secondly, that they are utterly and unanimously repudiated as the true breed by the inhabitants, who recognise no dog as genuine but the dog described by you, accepted by A.
It is indeed possible, though I don’t say the fact is so, that to my having earnestly called attention to this principle in 1866 Mr.
The Newfoundlanders just were too ignorant and poor to take care of their dogs, the reasoning goes, so they could never produce as large a Newfoundland as we British upper class gentlemen. I have mentioned that this book does have some serious weaknesses, but using the Hawker and Hutchinson texts,  Wolters came to the conclusion that the dog called the St.
Captain Brown in 1829 gives us a similar dog but seemingly solid black, but he does not specify any colour. Black water dogs can still be found there, but they have heavily interbred with Labrador retriever stock that has been brought over from both the United Kingdom and the North American mainland. But there are countless breeds of dog out there, and each one is a unique animal with its own history. The last is said to be the most manageable and trusty, as it is the strongest, being nearly as large as a Newfoundland; but the instinct of the Scotch animal cannot be readily surpassed. One of these happened to be a rough, short-tailed Sheep Dog, which, the old man, an itinerant dog-dealer, assured me, was born -with the stump of a tail she then retained. He had that natural gift of attracting animals to him, and attaching them to him also, which can neither be imparted nor acquired, and his dogs were the best for miles around. President  Grant had a Newfoundland for his children at the White House, and even Samuel Adams had a Newfoundland  that was said to harry British troops that were occupying Boston. He never traveled to Newfoundland, and the only dogs of this breed he ever knew were those belonging to people who lived in that region. Their exact origins are not known, but it is sometimes said they were the result of crossing Newfoundlands with the white estate guard dogs of France, which might be a reference to Great Pyrenees or the ancestor of that modern breed. Richardson laid out the following description of three types of Newfoundland dogs in his Dogs: Their Origin and Varieties (1847).
This dog, also, was accustomed to apply to the bell at his master’s gate, when it happened to be shut, and he desired admittance.
Much of the description of the dog seems to point to having some mastiff blood, and as regular readers of this blog know, the dogs that were used to haul loads in Newfoundland weren’t necessarily giant animals. It is not a cross between a Labrador or Newfoundland and the Siberian husky, but it is a very similar dog to the Canadian Inuit dog or Qimmq. That’s around two years that a dog is going to be eating meat and fish and not contributing a damn thing to its upkeep. The frightened fellow again returns and takes his seat, the dog once more lies down, and thus the pair are seen on the return of one of the household. He makes mention that these dogs had smooth or long coats, but those with long-coats were regularly exported, which explains why the long-haired wavy-coated retriever was much more common than the smooth retriever. The initial correspondent then comes back and clearly states that the giant dogs that were ever found on Newfoundland were invariably imports back to the island. But, supposing it to be true, it only proves that bad treatment has somewhat reduced these dogs in size; while to conclude that no dog which measures more than his standard can be a pure Newfoundland is simply illogical. The Newfoundland is not known or valued as he deserves to be; but I am glad to find the authorities of the different important shows throughout the country are establishing classes for Newfoundland bitches, which must tend to improve the breed, and establish it in popular favour.
These dogs would have been derived from this root stock, but they would come back to their homelands as very different animals from the ones that had continued to exist on the island.
There is a jet black and very rare curly-coated breed in Newfoundland, of which I have a superb specimen, and for ideal beauty perhaps the curly-coated breed is unequalled in the world of dogs.
And of two genuine black Newfoundlands, equal in all other respects, the larger dog is obviously the superior. Never mind that the Newfoundlanders were actually better equipped to find particularly good quality protein from the land and sea than virtually anyone in Britain, and never mind that the Newfoundlanders were indeed concerned about the health and welfare of their dogs. Lieutenant-Colonel Hamilton who had visited Newfoundland stands alone in describing the true Newfoundland as a black-and-tan dog. The portrayal made Newfoundlanders look like barbaric hicks, and he was forced to leave the island in disgrace. It would be crossed with many things, and it would have a major impact upon several very different dog breeds. Hunting and coursing dogs are merely useful for pleasure, but of these the pointer is an animal of rare instinct, and can be taught to equal the best sheepdogs in caring for flocks. He does not, as the Staffordshire collier is reported, “‘eave arf a brick ” at an unknown face or figure—which, by the way, is rather a libel, for a better set of rough diamonds I never lived amongst—but he will scarcely give you a civil answer, whilst his dog growls in concert as he walks round your leg, with all his hackles up, and an ominous display of lip and fang. At last, having lost the confidence of the leading farmers, he might have got a place with some little two or three hundred acre farmer, but such preferment he despised; so he turned drover, and he and his dog, ” Quick,” a blue grizzle, bought as a puppy at Salisbury Market, for a pint of beer and the promise of a shilling, as he informed me, set off together. His model for a Newfoundland was a large black and white dog with smooth hair and a curled tail that was living in Eslington, Northumberland.
The true Newfoundland dog has been frequently used as a retriever, and is remarkable for his fearless manner of penetrating the thickest cover (pg. However, Hawker’s true Newfoundland is smooth-coated, and his giant Labrador is long-haired.
He  tutored French Calvinist children in London before being offered a job at an Anglican school in Newfoundland.
It also explains why the giant Newfoundland dogs that became popular in England were almost always shaggy coated. But it is an absolute fact that every true Newfoundland is entirely black, except a small streak of white, which is upon the breast of about ninety-nine out of every hundred genuine dogs. But I quite agree with The Field, as I said in 1866, that the purest specimen is the dog whose rich glossy black coat is long and shaggy. John’s, and up and down and into the country (including an immense number of close smooth-haired black dogs, from 18in. Hence Sir Edwin Landseer was led by bad, but the then currently accepted, authority to misrepresent the colouring of the Newfoundland dog—a mistake which in no way affects the grandeur of the conception, and the splendour and minute beauty of the execution of his picture.
If the dogs got sick or injured or were malnourished in anyway, they wouldn’t have been of much use at all. Up to 1870 the height of dogs on Newfoundland Island ran to 26 inches, anything larger being an exception; and the dog presented to the Prince of Wales when he visited this continent was a monstrosity, a perfect giant, and not considered by any means typical of the breed. His legs (especially the hind legs, from the hocks) are bare, that is, not feathered; and for many years authorities on the dog have described the colley as having one, or even two, dew claws on each hind leg—which is, indeed, generally the case. His manner of speaking to his dog, wife, or child partakes of the same sullen manner and reserve—but, as a rule, except in his cups, he seldom strikes a dog, and then only under great provocation.
The term family is indeed, of higher application than can be looked for among dogs, although the reasons are such as often expose human familism to precarious chances.
The purpose of the trip was to witness the completion of the Submarine Telegraph Cable, which would link North America and Europe via telecommunications for the first time in history. Bernard, or Newfoundland dog, and was in peril of being swallowed up by him for a luncheon, when a policeman interposed, and with a blow of his baton, levelled the assailant, and rescued the assailed. Hawker is of interest because he was among the first people to write about using a Newfoundland dog as a retriever. The patience with which he waits for a shot on the top of a high cliff (until the numerous flock sail leisurely underneath) would be fruitless, did not his noble dog fearlessly plunge in from the greatest height, and successfully bring the slain to shore ( pg. The dogs sent to England, with rough shaggy coats, are useless on the coast; the true-bred and serviceable dog having smooth, short hair, very close and compact to the body. Hedley, Barrow, and Monsey, or any of those three gentlemen who officiated in the non-sporting classes at that show, to state for our information and assistance—I refer especially to owners of Newfoundlands, real or supposed— the standard which they, or any of them, have adopted. When he was in Newfoundland we cannot state, but he was an experienced investigator and possessed an extensive knowledge of dogs in all parts of the world, so that his conclusions and assertions are entitled to great consideration, even if he stands alone on the black-and-tan statement.
Still while the appearances are unfavorable in tracing a line of dogs, the tradition or history remains clear enough to us.
The owner of that dog had, at one time, some domesticated wild geese, one of which would frequently follow him in his morning walks, side by side with Jowler: they seemed to live together on the best terms.
Should you be over-eager, and fire at too great a distance, and miss your birds, the dog looks towards them for a moment, as if reflecting!—” It’s no use going into the water, he has not killed any,”—and stands still. A dog professing to be a Newfoundland which has any white or any other colour about him except a little on the breast, cannot be a pure Newfoundland. John’s with the broeder of the dog presented by the inhabitants to the Prince of Wales. He will, though such dogs are rare, run over the back of the flock to head them in a lane, jump the hedge to present his grim features at a gap ahead, or drive them as his master walks, in front. If the breed had never been taken to England we should have no such dog as is now called the Newfoundland, which is purely an English development from a very common-sized black dog [the St. They declared I shouldn’t go on, nor the dog either; but I did, and old ‘Quick’ hopped after me.
He was altogether an abnormal specimen, not handsome, and not remarkable for anything but his size; so I believe that on a comparison of points he would have had to be adjudged second to Cato or some of my own dogs. These last are the ordinary duties of the Sheep Dog; the first may be looked upon as an exceptional refinement, which would raise a dog five shillings or so in the estimation of his master.
He told me he heard the dog barking, and that when he came to within fifty yards there was the dog lying on my breast, calling for help like a Christian. It is a remarkable circumstance, that the Newfoundland dog, when pursuing a flock of sheep, will single out one of them, and, if not prevented, which is a matter of considerable difficulty, will never leave off the pursuit until he has mastered his intended victim, always aiming at the throat; and, after having sucked the blood, has never been known to touch the carcase [sic].
The dog brings a duck at a time under the rock; you place the crook round its neck, and draw it up or land it.
The last bird the dog retains in his mouth, and allows himself to be drawn up in a somewhat scientific manner; that is to say, having seized the. Of a fine day I have seen these dogs near the landwash amusing themselves fishing, diving six or seven feet, and bringing up a fish every time.

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