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Bone cells elaborate a characteristic crystal structure around a framework of fibrous protein abundant in elastin and especially collagen.
Under experimental conditions, it is possible to determine the primary event or independent variable, be it genetic, endocrine, nutritional, or metabolic. Histologic changes more typical of osteodystrophy fibrosa, excessive resorption, have been observed in dogs and cats fed calcium-deficient diets. Secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism does occur in dogs or cats that are fed exclusively or almost exclusively meat or meat byproducts that include no bone. Nutritional intervention is achieved best by providing the affected animal with a complete and balanced diet. Nutritional intervention again consists of providing a diet balanced for the animal's situation: growth, maintenance, old age, or stress.
Similarly, overfeeding and rapid growth have been associated with HOD, but they are certainly not sufficient causes (or many more dogs would have HOD). Vitamin C is not required in the diet of dogs or cats.(30,31) Growth and reproduction have not been improved in these species by supplementing vitamin C free diets with vitamin C. Nutritional intervention in the management of HOD again involves feeding a balanced diet at a rate to achieve a desired rate of gain in body weight in a growing animal or a desired final body weight in one that has reached maturity. Hip dysplasia is a progressive instability of the hip joint that develops in cats and dogs that are born apparently normal. Nutritional intervention again consists of feeding an appropriately balanced diet at a rate that achieves the desired growth rate, usually a slower rate than heretofore.
Skeletal changes attributable to hypovitaminosis A have been observed both experimentally and clinically in dogs and cats.4 The animals are usually lame.
Orthopaedic surgeons often express interest in the influence of nutrition on bones, especially during growth or repair, which may be regarded as a form of growth associated with metabolic stress. Any further attempt to advise the orthopaedic surgeon about optimal feeding of growing, injured, or recovering dogs and cats encounters several difficulties. Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats have been proposed by the NRC.(59,60) Only one diet on a dry-matter basis has been recommended for each species (Table 58-4). Average food intakes are based on energy needs of healthy dogs and cats (Tables 58-7 and 58-8). Dogs that are never likely to be used for breeding or competition, such as neuters, may be relegated to dry dog food. A queen that is fed at least a 1:1 mixture of dry and canned food before mating needs no change in her diet during gestation, only a progressive increase in daily intake. The real metabolic challenge lies in lactation; thus, part of the feeding program during the last third of pregnancy is concerned with preparation for lactation. After she starts eating again, the animal may need two to three times her maintenance intake.
Protein mobilization and urinary loss of nitrogen are characteristic of stress.(49) The stress response is affected by tissue protein reserves. Little is known about extra demand for nutrients during stress in cats and dogs, except for the high protein requirement discussed above. Measurements of bone mineral density using photon densitometry have shown no difference among dogs fed 28%, 33%, and 39% metabolizable energy as protein.(44) These three levels are representative of those found in dry puppy foods, semimoist products, and canned meat dinners, respectively.


However, the rate of ascorbic acid synthesis in dogs and cats may be less than in most species, and the possibility exists that it may be marginal in rare animals.
Causes of these excess deaths are, in descending order of frequency, diabetes mellitus, gallstones, appendicitis, liver cirrhosis, essential hypertension, and atheromatous heart disease; these diseases are rare or not found at all in cats and dogs. The general objective of the program should be to change the life style so that weight reduction will persist. One diet is claimed to provide "adequate nutrition of both growing puppies and adult dogs,"(60) the other is "presumed adequate to support maintenance and growth of the cat."(59) The ration or daily intake is varied by changing the quantity of the diet rather than its quality (composition).
Individual variation in dogs and cats probably is more like that of humans (coefficient of variation about 15%) than that of farm animals (about 5%).
I recommend, however, that dogs that retain potential for breeding or competition should be fed mixtures of dry food and canned meat dinner. Campbell JR, Douglas TA: The effect of low calcium intake and vitamin D supplements on bone structure in young growing dogs.
Resnick S: Effect of an all-meat diet and a high carbohydrate diet on hip formation in dogs. Sheffy BE, Caramichael LC, Appel M: Canine nutrition with special emphasis on the role of vitamin C.
Adkins TO, Kronfeld DS: Diet of racing sled dogs affects erythrocyte depression during stress. Kronfeld DS, Hammel EP, Ranberg CF et al: Hematologic and metabolic responses to training in racing sled dogs fed diets containing medium, low or zero carbohydrate. Uile CL, Lucas FV, Jones CK et al: Inflammation and protein metabolism studies of C-14 labelled proteins in dogs with sterile abscesses. Wannemacher RW, McCoy JR: Determination of optimal dietary protein requirements of young and old dogs. Elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase activity and urinary acid mucopolysaccharide concentration suggest defective bone maturation.(5) Affected dogs have mild normochromic, hemolytic anemia and delayed sexual maturity.
The 65Zn absorption studies indicate a need for four times the normal zinc intake, giving 17.6 mg zinc in this case. It does not permit identification of specific nutrients in the only diet fed to both groups of dogs. Many dogs are subject to chronic stress that is overt, such as showing and racing, or insidious but nevertheless cumulative, such as deprivation anxieties or exposures to infection.
The condition in cats is characterized by extensive, confluent exostoses of cervicothoracic vertebrae and has been named "deforming cervical spondylosis."(41) It also affects long bones, particularly the forelimbs.
The manufacture of foods for pups and dogs in the other stages of the life cycle shows that industry disagrees with the NRC.(48) This is a distinct step away from "adequate" nutrition toward optimal nutrition (Fig. The upper figure is redrawn from Mertz,(47)with added indications of the minimum nutrient requirements and the indeterminate "adequate"(48,50) The lower graph shows the protein requirements of dogs, comparing optimal ranges for maintenance of adults, growth of pups, and stress.
If the average 25-lb dog requires 8 oz of dry dog food, then one of 20 such dogs will need 6 oz and another one of the same 20 will need 11 oz. This much meat is needed to provide minimal to adequate contents of protein for maintenance (basic formula in Table 58-10). Or mix dry pet food with canned meat dinner for dogs or canned meat, chicken, or fish for cats.


Ciark ST, Schnelle GB et al: Hypertrophic osteodystrophy associated with disturbance of vitamin C synthesis in dogs. Its really difficult to decide which is better than the other but its really simple on choosing what suits you and your dog better.All you should be concerned about is that your dog is getting a balanced diet fulfilling all his nutritional requirements.
Starvation induces calciuria in most species, especially humans, but to an almost negligible extent in dogs and, presumably, cats. About twice this amount, 35 mg zinc, is needed if the diet contains abundant phytin or calcium, as in most dry dog foods based on corn grain and soybean meal, since phytin binds zinc, and calcium impairs its absorption.
Over a dozen instances of "skeletal scurvy" or HOD associated perhaps with vitamin C deficiency are recorded.(4,31) The NRC(31) disposes of these clinical observations as "equivocal reports" and concludes "that there is no adequate evidence to justify recommendation of routine vitamin C additions to the diet of the normal dogs .
The range is broad for the undemanding situation but becomes more narrow as nutritional demands increase and constrain homeostasis. This divergence illustrates the need for individual attention to daily food intake and body weight. Its correction by lowering the contents of animal fat and protein to reduce palatability leads surely to suboptimal nutrition; two wrongs do not make a right. Bone meal may supply the calcium that is lacking in corn and meat, and liver may supply the needed vitamins and trace minerals.
The orthopaedic surgeon, like the competitive breeder, is interested in optimal nutrition, but the establishment recommends only "adequate" nutrient requirements that are likely to be suboptimal (Fig. Creep-feeding reduces nutritional demands on the mother and helps the digestive system of the pup or kitten gradually adapt from the composition of milk (Table 58-13) to the postweaning diet. The argument that these features conferred excessive palatability, which evoked overfeeding, brings into question the need to distinguish between feeding management and diet formulation when addressing practical problems in nutrition. If it is changed, then the change should be a reduction in "empty calories" but not essential nutrients. Canned products that have protein contents high relative to fat tend to induce diarrhea in dogs. These diets are claimed to reduce begging, the chief complaint about dogs on weightreduction programs. I recommend products with minimums no less than 11% protein and 6% fat for dogs, and 14% protein and 8% fat for cats.
Animals do have a requirement for a small amount of fat, do know dietary needs of your dog and other human food that are harmful for dogs before cooking food for your furry companion.You should also remember that dogs in different life stages or with medical disorders may have very different dietary needs than a normal, healthy adult dog. You can also seek out a reputable veterinary nutritionist to help you create a balanced diet. Once a can is opened, it must be refrigerated to retain freshness, and many dogs will not eat their food very cold. Feed your dog with foods which fulfill his dietary needs, if you are changing his food do it gradually over the weeks time so that he is adaptable.



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