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Author: admin, 17.08.2015

Host defence against invasive and mucosal infections relies on the proper accumulation and function of neutrophils.
This is followed by activation of intracellular signalling pathways and stimulation of inflammatory mediators [6xInnate immune recognition.
However, an important difference appears to be present in terms of Th cell population responsible for activation of neutrophils in invasive candidiasis or mucosal candidiasis. Subsequently, effector immune mechanisms are triggered, such as neutrophil and macrophage activation, as well as initiation of adaptive immunity through T helper cell (Th) 1 or Th17 responses.
The fourth major family of PRRs, the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) receptors (RLRs), are believed to mediate the immune responses to viruses [7xRecognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response.

During infection of the mucosa, the release of IL-17 and IL-22 from specific Th17 lymphocytes recruits and activates neutrophils for the elimination of infection. Both TLR4 and TLR2 can induce proinflammatory signals in monocytic cell types (monocytes, macrophages and DCs) through the MyD88 and Mal-mediated pathways, as well as the TRIF pathway to initiate Th1 responses. Although the immunocompetent host usually offers effective immune surveillance against invasion by Candida, any imbalance or defect in the normal immune response to pathogens can lead to infection and manifest in disease [4xLocal and systemic host defense mechanisms against Candida: immunopathology of candidal infections. Variability of the activation of the immune pathways can lead to an increased susceptibility to infection. Special emphasis is given to the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) responsible for recognition of Candida components, and their relative importance in initiating inflammation.

TLR4 is an important PPR driving Th1 responses, and an increased susceptibility to invasive candidiasis is seen in patients with functional TLR4 polymorphisms. However, through an Erk and c-Fos-dependent pathway, TLR2 is also able to inhibit IL-12 synthesis and Th1 responses. The classical lectin-like receptor MR induces proinflammatory effects in monocytes and macrophages, whereas chitin-dependent stimulation induces mainly Th2 responses, although this effect still has to be demonstrated for C.

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