Testosterone therapeutic range,d-test testosterone booster,musclepharm cla core vs shred matrix 120 - Step 3

admin | Exercise For Abdomen | 02.11.2015
Pharmacology is the area of science concerned with drugs and their exerted effect on biological systems.
In this discussion, we will focus on the area of absorption, since this has the greatest impact on steroid cycle design.
Controlled release preparations are designed to provide a slow and sustained rate of absorption in order to minimise fluctuations in the plasma concentration versus time profile during the interval between doses.
From a kinetic viewpoint, the rate of appearance of steroid in the blood following an intramuscular depot injection is governed by several simultaneous processes. Thus, the overall behavior of a steroid in the blood (its rate of appearance and subsequent disappearance) is dependent upon several simultaneous processes, all of which display differing half?lives, making mathematical deconvolution of each individual process kinetically difficult.
It is therefore quite obvious that the rate of absorption of a steroid can be an important consideration for determining a dosage regimen.
The pink shaded area on the graph of Plasma Steroid Concentration vs Time represents the therapeutic window. Importantly, at steady?state with a dosing interval equal to the half?life, the plasma concentration fluctuates within a two?fold window over the dosing interval and the amount of steroid in the body shortly after each dose is equivalent to twice the maintenance dose. So now that we know how a steroid?s half?life can influence its behavior in the body, we apply this knowledge to design an effective steroid cycle. Let us consider two steroids differing in their half?life by a factor of two, each with a hypothetical fixed dosing schedule of 200 mg per dosage interval. A dosing schedule of 200mg every 4 days leads to a steady state in approximately 3 weeks (ie.
So how does the previous example compare with a steroid possessing a half?life of eight days instead of four? For steroids with a relatively short half?life, you can reach a steady?state within a reasonable time frame using a fixed dosing strategy.
In this example, two loading doses are given on day zero (350 mg) and day four (175 mg), followed by repetitive doses of 125 mg at four day intervals. Ramadan is considered a valuable opportunity to restore a balanced and healthy system that we can follow in our lives. Fasting helps to improve human health, but if you follow a diet that is not appropriate, it might hurt your health! Tomson D Thomas, MBBS, MS (General Surgery), MCh (Pediatric Surgery), is a Consultant Pediatric surgen in Universal Hospital. Pharmacokinetics, a sub-branch of pharmacology, is the study of the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of drugs within the body. Furthermore, since cycle design is predominantly influenced by the injectable components of a cycle, the bulk of this discussion will be concerned with intramuscular routes of steroid administration.
Both oral and intramuscular administration of free testosterone is relatively ineffective due to rapid elimination from the body via complete metabolism by the liver; both large and regular doses would therefore be required to be therapeutically useful. If one were to measure the levels of steroid in the blood as a function of time, what is typically observed is a rapid increase in concentration (characterized by an initial steep ascending phase of the concentration versus time curve) followed by a relatively slow decrease in concentration (characterized by a relatively shallow descending phase of the concentration versus time curve). In the context of steroids, a first?order kinetic process is one in which a constant proportion of steroid is eliminated during a finite period of time regardless of the drug amount or concentration.
By knowing a steroid?s disposition half?life, we can make predictions about how the concentration of steroid in our body changes with time by using a first?order kinetic model to calculate concentration versus time relationships.
If the concentration falls below the desired response level, we say the dosage is ?subtherapeutic?. Furthermore, the steady state plasma concentration averaged over the dosing interval is the same as the steady state plasma concentration for a continuous infusion at the same dose rate (red line on graph above). As mentioned above, dosing at intervals equivalent to a steroid?s half?life will achieve steady?state in 3?5 half?lives.
Multiplying the half?life by 0.714 will give you the number of weeks to reach steady?state. The loading dose strategy has a dramatic effect on the induction period, reducing the time to reach steady?state by a factor of four (10 days vs 40 days), and steroid levels oscillate within a tight concentration range within the therapeutic window. Through fasting, you learn how to manage your eating habits and have better control on your urges.
The main factor is not fasting in itself, it’s the food that you consume in the non-fasting hours.
In order to make testosterone more user?friendy, it is formulated into a controlled release (depot) preparation by chemical modification (esterification) of the C?17 hydroxyl group with a variety of fatty acid chemical subunits. The former process reflects the combined processes of hydrolysis of the ester and of its subsequent distribution and elimination whereas the latter process represents the process of ester release (absorption) from the injection depot into the bloodstream.
For this reason, the situation is now simplified because the plasma concentration?time profile tends to closely parallel rate of absorption.
Because a constant fraction of steroid is removed per unit time, the absolute amount of steroid removed is proportional to the concentration of steroid.
Since short acting steroids are cleared from the body more rapidly, they need to be given in regular doses to build up and maintain a high enough concentration in the blood to be therapeutically effective.
In three half?lives, serum concentrations are at approximately 90% of their ultimate steady?state values.
But what effect would dosing at intervals smaller or larger than the half?life have on the overall concentration?time profile?
The concentration fluctuates within a 2?fold window, and the maximum concentration does not exceed 400 ?units? (ie. We are encouraged by the Prophet Muhammad [Peace Be Upon Him] to take advantage of our good health before we become sick.


Give your stomach a break in this month and you will be able to get rid of a lot of accumulated toxins in your body. To benefit the most from fasting, you must consider the quality and quantity of food you’ll consume in the non-fasting hours. Steroids can display differing pharmacokinetic characteristics depending on their structure, which in turn determines their behavior (and therefore concentration) in the blood. Testosterone esters are therefore considered to be "prodrugs" because they are metabolized to active steroid when the ester is hydrolyzed upon entering the general circulation. Put simply, this means that since the steroid has to make its way into the hydrophilic (?water loving?) environment of the blood in order to be metabolized to active steroid, its tendency to do so decreases as the fatty acid attached to testosterone becomes longer due to the greater hydrophobicity (?water fearing?) of the steroid ester. Put another way, the half?life of a steroid, when administered as a depot preparation, is a reflection of the rate and extent of absorption and not elimination or distribution.
In either case, the goal is to adjust the dosage regimen such that the blood plasma concentration of steroid is maintained within the therapeutic window.
At the other extreme, excessive dosing can lead to an adverse response, in which unwanted side?effects may be observed. For example, if you admininstered a set amount of steroid every 6 days, and its half?life was 6 days, then the plasma levels will reach a steady state within 18?30 days.
For drugs with a long half?life compared with the dosing interval, the drug will markedly accumulate.
We can reduce the induction period while still adopting a fixed dosing strategy by the use of a loading dose.
He also encouraged Muslims to do their best to maintain a healthy lifestyle through a balanced diet, exercise, mental activity, and maintain a balance between material and spiritual needs.
Eating a lot of food will not only affect your health but have also a negative impact on your spiritual commitment in Ramadan. Open rankings: Who shines at Oakmont?Anti-doping whistleblowers risk livelihoods, well-being3hBonnie D.
It therefore stands to reason that in order to design an effective steroid cycle, one must have a sound understanding of steroid pharmacokinetics. It therefore follows that by simply having some knowledge a steroid's disposition half?life, we can, to a very good approximation, predict how the concentration of steroid in our body changes with time.
Consequently, the decline in concentration approaches completion asymptotically, and theoretically the steroid concentration should decline indefinitely. The therapeutic window is the safe range between the minimum therapeutic concentration (that delivers the desired pharmacologic effects, ie. Large swings in steroid plasma level concentrations should therefore be avoided, and ideally the concentration should minimally fluctuate between the upper (peak) and lower (trough) boundaries of the therapeutic window (a 2?fold fluctuation is considered acceptable). For drugs with a short half?life compared with the dosing interval, most of the drug is eliminated between doses, with little accumulation. If we assume that the ideal therapeutic range falls within the pink shaded area, then this dosing strategy will be therapeutically effective. If we now halve the dosing interval to 200mg every 4 days, there is a significant accumulation of steroid simply because you are not allowing the body enough time to clear the previous dose before the next dose.
A loading dose is one dose or a series of doses given at the onset of a cycle with the aim of achieving the target concentration rapidly. The diet that contains less food, but is sufficiently balanced can keep you healthy and active during the holy month. Once absorped from the intramuscular depot, the testosterone ester is rapidly hydrolysed in plasma to the unesterified active metabolite.
For practical purposes, the decline is essentially complete (97%) after five half?lives, resulting in a negligible amount of steroid remaining in the body.
This is known as a steady state, and it occurs when the amount of steroid in the plasma has built up to a concentration level that is therapeutically effective and as long as regular doses are administered to balance the amount of steroid being cleared the steroid will continue to be active.
Therefore it is important to ensure your dosing schedule (interval) is aligned with the half?life of your steroid.
If we now double the dosing interval to 200 mg every 8 days, the concentration now fluctuates within a 3?fold window, the maximum concentration is now less than twice the maintenance dose, and importantly, a significant portion of the concentration-time profile is spent outside of the therapeutic window. Time to reach steady?state is relatively unchanged, and the fluctuation window is narrower, but the concentration?time profile may exceed the therapeutic range, leading to undesirable side-effects. Your diet should stay simple, contain foods from all food groups, and not much different from your diet in the days outside the month of Ramadan. This observed variability can be attributed to the differences in tissue composition and blood flow between different injection sites, the location from which the steroid must diffuse between loose connective tissue and muscle fibers to reach the general circulation.
This poses an obvious question: what constitutes the optimum therapeutic window for anabolic steroid use?
This makes sense when you consider that the longer you wait between doses, the greater the clearance of steroid from your body, and thus the concentration never gets high enough to be therapeutically optimal.
For a given steroid, the therapeutic dose for a novice user may differ greatly from that of an advanced user. Therefore, steroid half?lives derived from the scientific literature should be taken only as a rough estimate.
Furthermore, not all steroids are created equal?some provide greater gains than others, but with the associated cost of increased toxicity (and thus narrower therapeutic window). What is important to note is that the data trends in the direction we would expect on the basis of hydrophobicity: as the logP increases, so does the half?life.
Age, race and sex will also play a role in how well you respond to anabolic steroids, and your tolerance to side?effects.


There is no set of rules that everybody has to follow."There is a set of rules for each [state athletic commission], but they are kind of Mickey Mouse rules.
Knowing this trend, one can reasonably interpolate the half?life of any oil-based steroid given its logP value (boldenone appears anomalous in this regard, but the study was performed in horses, so we can't make a direct comparison with human data).
The UFC also does some of its own testing, although officials declined comment and little is known about the program.
By comparison, major pro leagues such as the NFL and MLB -- in part as a result of urging from Congress -- engage in far more rigorous programs that include testing at the start of camp or spring training as well as year-round, random testing."Outside the Lines" found the average age of the MMA fighters when granted their first testosterone exemption was 32 -- the youngest 24.
The international standard for an exemption specifically states that "low-normal" levels of a hormone isn't justification for granting approval, also noting the same of isolated symptoms such as fatigue, slow recovery from exercise and decreased libido.Dr. That doesn't cut it."The issue, said Catlin, is that synthetic testosterone remains one of the favorite drugs to enhance performance.
Anti-doping leaders thus fear testosterone exemptions might be used by athletes to dope under the disguise of legitimate medical need."It's just a farce that is perpetuated in MMA," said Catlin, who developed the test used to differentiate an individual's natural testosterone from the synthetic version. And I am doing everything legal'Belfort, dubbed "The Phenom" from the early days of his pro career, says life has never been better, inside or outside the octagon. And I am doing everything legal."Yet Belfort, who is training for a late May title fight with middleweight champion Chris Weidman at UFC 173 in Las Vegas, looms ominously over a sport maneuvering through the TRT conundrum. Belfort is expected to appeal to the Nevada State Athletic Commission for an exemption to stay on testosterone therapy for the Weidman fight, which is complicated by the fact that the same commission suspended him in 2006 after a positive steroid test.Belfort has been a lightning rod, even with his past five fights staged outside the country -- including four in his native Brazil, where he's been allowed to fight under TRT by a Brazilian commission loosely aligned with his UFC promoter.
According to Belfort, the Brazilian doctor also has a role in an unrelated DNA study the fighter is participating in.Dr. Tannure and UFC officials refused multiple interview requests for this story, even after asking for and receiving written questions. When the fighters were receiving testosterone exemptions, 11 of 15 were promoted by Zuffa LLC, which encompasses UFC and Strikeforce. UFC President Dana White has been inconsistent in interviews about the exemptions, saying most recently that they should be banned. But that comment came only a few months after saying the opposite.White's latest change of heart followed the Association of Ringside Physicians' call last month for the elimination of testosterone exemptions in combat sports -- a motion pushed by Las Vegas-based board member Dr. Margaret Goodman, founder of the Voluntary Anti-Doping Association.In the wake of the recommendation as well as in anticipation of Belfort's application, the Nevada commission plans to review its TRT policy in a regularly scheduled meeting Thursday, raising the possibility it could decide to eliminate testosterone exemptions. UFC co-owner Lorenzo Fertitta responded, saying the promoter would continue to defer to the judgment of athletic commissions with regard to TRT.But, although the state athletic commissions and not the UFC ultimately grant exemptions, the MMA promotional giant has at times played a role in leading fighters down a path to TRT.
Belfort volunteered that it was a "UFC doctor" who started his testosterone regimen in 2011 -- similar to a 2012 claim by Quinton "Rampage" Jackson, who said a UFC doctor referred him to an age-management specialist. Sources also told "Outside the Lines" that the UFC encouraged heavyweight Roy "Big Country" Nelson to see a doctor about TRT, although he eventually opted not to after having lab work done in 2010.
Nelson declined multiple interview requests for this story."Outside the Lines" also obtained a 2010 letter to Dr. Jeff Davidson, a UFC medical consultant and former Nevada commission ringside doctor, from a Las Vegas physician thanking him for his referral of MMA fighter Todd Duffee. The doctor prescribed Testosterone Cypionate for the then 24-year-old, whose "extreme fatigue" was diagnosed as caused by "secondary hypogonadism."Also, a doctor for Chael Sonnen wrote Davidson regarding the middleweight's TRT regime in 2010 -- a year before there is a record of his having formally applied with a state regulator for an exemption.
John Pierce wrote in 2012 advising Davidson and Greg Hendrick, then director of event operations for UFC, that fighter Frank Mir had been diagnosed with hypogonadism and had already started on a regimen of Testosterone Cypionate.
That was 10 weeks before Pierce wrote the Nevada commission about the diagnosis and start of care, according to commission records obtained by "Outside the Lines."Belfort revealed that he also has been under the care of Pierce, although Belfort said Pierce is not the "UFC doctor" who offered his initial diagnosis. Records also identify Pierce as the doctor who referred and evaluated the lab work for Nelson in 2010.Asked when he began testosterone-replacement therapy, Belfort initially told "Outside the Lines" it was before a loss in early 2011 to then middleweight champion Anderson Silva, then corrected himself and said it was after the fight. Patient has had at least one loss of consciousness from head trauma."Pierce said the most reasonable cause of low testosterone in a combat athlete, as well as a football player, is repetitive head injury resulting in damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary in the brain, which affects the release of natural testosterone. But "Outside the Lines" found no boxers having been granted a testosterone exemption -- in fact, Nevada officials said they had never received a request.
The only definitive way to make such an observation is to autopsy brains after death, and an expert in the study of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes indicated research to date had recorded no such hormone deficiencies."There doesn't appear to be any direct evidence from what I can see that that would be an answer for why they would have hypogonadism," said Dr.
Ronald Hamilton, a Pittsburgh-based neuropathologist who has reviewed brain autopsies of former NFL players. You also have to understand that, as your body gets older, certain parts slow down a little. On the flip side of it, you also got more ring experience."These older guys have had 30 or 40 professional fights, so they have more experience, plus they got the scientific supplementation.
His suspicions about Belfort perked up after their 2013 fight in Sao Paulo."With Vitor Belfort, there was a whole cloud of secrecy regarding his drug test," Bisping said.
So I was obviously very intrigued and I contacted the UFC and they said, 'No, he hasn't failed it, but he did have a TRT exemption certificate."'Only a month after the fight, amid a firestorm of rumors, the UFC issued a statement revealing Belfort had been on a medically approved TRT regimen under the supervision of a Nevada physician. Coming two years after Belfort now acknowledges having begun TRT, the release said the regimen had been initiated after a diagnosis of "hypogonadism, or low testosterone."Despite his current hardened stance, Bisping said he likely would not have balked at challenging Belfort even had he known of his testosterone supplementation. He said, though, that friends told him after the fight of having feared for his well-being because of the "sheer size" of Belfort."The guy was so heavily muscled," Bisping said.
Looking back, you can clearly see he was on something stronger than a frosty shake."Nor is the fiery Brit the lone voice of suspicion in a sport in which doping has evolved through the years -- as in many others -- from hard-core steroids to growth hormone and designer drugs.



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Comments »

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