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This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-ShotgunA®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-ShotgunA® is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers.
IntroductionHeavy resistance training in humans enhances muscle protein synthesis [1a€“3] with concomitant increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy [4a€“6]. ResultsSubject demographicsTwenty participants began the study; however, two dropped out due to reasons unrelated to the study.
All participants appeared to have exhibited 100% compliance with the supplement protocol, and were able to complete the required dosing regimen and testing procedures.
Means, standard deviations, and percent changes for body composition and muscle strength variables in the study.
Serum and selected muscle variables for the Placebo and NO-Shotgun Groups at Days 0 and 29. Data presented as means and standard deviations and expressed as a percent change in absorbance units from Day 0 to Day 29. Whole Blood Clinical Chemistry Markers for the Placebo and NO-Shotgun Groups at Days 0 and 29. Rather, NO-ShotgunA® effectively increases muscle strength and mass, myofibrillar protein content, and increases the content of markers indicative of satellite cell activation. Over the course of the 28 days, four participants in PL and four in NO reported side effects. 75% Effective ingredients, but unknown dosesCellucor P6 Extreme contains a good mix of ingredients, but the proprietary blend means we don’t know for certain how effective they will be. This process is critical since skeletal myocytes are multi-nucleated and each myonucleus controls both mRNA and protein synthesis over a finite sarcoplasmic volume (aka. For PL, two participants reported feelings of nausea, one reported a rapid heart rate, and one reported shortness of breath. We like the product, and Cellucor has a good reputation, but it might not be the best testosterone booster out there.
During this process, mechanical overload activates satellite cells, which are located between the sarcolemma and basal lamina [9].
That combination is promising, but does Cellucor really make it happen with P6 Extreme?How much improvement could you see in the gym if your testosterone levels were higher? These cells then differentiate and proliferate, thereby donating their nuclei to pre-existing myocytes in order to maintain the myonuclear domain [10]. Initially, an estimated 50% (1-RM) measured from the previous testing 1-RM test, was utilized to complete 5 to 10 repetitions.
That’s the magical allure of testosterone boosters like Cellucor P6 Extreme.These boosters like Cellucor P6 Extreme are designed to increase performance during a workout as they elevate testosterone production.
Research in humans indicates that resistance training can increase the number of satellite cells and increase myonuclei in the myofibril [11, 12]. After a two min rest period, a load of 70% of estimated (1-RM) was utilized to perform 3 to 5 repetitions. As such, resistance training can increase the proportion of satellite cells and the number of myonuclei [12], which suggests that satellite cell activation is an important adaptive mechanism involved in hypertrophy. Weight was gradually increased until a 1-RM was reached with each following lift, with a two min rest period in between each successful lift.
The activation of satellite cells [13] which accompanies resistance training can be stimulated byvarious signals, including anabolic hormones such as insulin-likegrowth factor I (IGF-I) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), regulatory proteins such as the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), and nitric oxide.
A man will usually peak somewhere in his mid twenties.What these boosters attempt to do is stimulate or recreate this testosterone so the user can manipulate the affects of high testosterone levels past the point where the body naturally drops off.
Percent body fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass were determined using DEXA (Hologic Discovery Series W, Waltham, MA).

Effects could include growth, muscle building, fat burning, increased libido, and better heart conditions.Many herbal testosterone boosters, such as Cellucor P6 Extreme, use Ovine Placenta Powder (or a variety of other stimulants) to try and get the testes to produce more testosterone. IGF-I has been shown to play a role in myogenesis by stimulating satellite cell proliferation and differentiation [14]. It’s an effort that’s met with mixed results.Ingredients in Cellucor P6 ExtremeCellucor P6 Extreme has eight ingredients mixed into a proprietary blend. HGF is a heparin-binding growth factor that is localized in the extracellular domain of un-stimulated skeletal muscle fibers, and after stimulation by mechanical overload HGF quickly associates with satellite cells [15].
Furthermore, quiescent and activated satellite cells have been shown to express the c-met receptor, which mediates the intracellular signaling response of HGF.
Aside from increasing testosterone production, the blend also aims to prevent the processes that break down key hormones into a useless form. In response to muscle injury, HGF associates with satellite cells and co-localizes with the c-met receptor [15]. Based on previous studies in our laboratory, the accuracy of the DEXA for body composition assessment is A± 2% as assessed by direct comparison with hydrodensitometry and scale weight.
This should make the product more effective.Another key ingredient in Cellucor P6 Extreme is Tribulus Terrestris. Therefore, as HGF becomes available for interaction with the c-met receptor, it up-regulates satellite cell activation.The MRFs (Myo-D, myogenin, MRF-4, myf5) are a family of muscle-specific transcription factors that play a role in muscle hypertrophy by binding to E-boxes in the promoter region of various sarcomeric genes such as myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain, tropomyosin, troponin-C, and creatine kinase [4] resulting in transactivation of transcription. Furthermore, the MRFs appear to play a role in myogenic activation by inducing myoblast differentiation, as MyoD and Myf5 are believed to be involved in satellite proliferation, and myogenin and MRF-4 are involved in satellite cell differentiation [16]. In contrast to myf5 and Myo-D, myogenin and MRF-4 apparently regulate genes specific to contractile protein [17, 18], including genes involved in fast and slow fiber differentiation [19], as myogenin has been found to accumulate in Type I fibers and Myo-D in Type II fibers [20].
The serum was removed and frozen at -80A°C for later analysis.Percutaneous muscle biopsies (50a€“70 mg) were obtained from the middle portion of the vastus lateralis muscle of the dominant leg at the midpoint between the patella and the greater trochanter of the femur at a depth between 1 and 2 cm. This may include a strong amount, but we can’t guarantee it.Also, a good way to determine the effectiveness of a product is to look at customer reviews.
A study involving 16 wk of resistance training resulted in increased MyoD, myogenin, MRF-4, and myf5 mRNA that were correlated with increased myofiber size [22].Muscle injury has been shown to increase nitric oxide synthesis which mediates muscle hypertrophy associated with satellite cell activation.
Shear forces generated by muscle contraction or retraction of damaged fibers within the basal lamina are thought to stimulate nitric oxide synthase to synthesize nitric oxide, which has been suggested to provide the initial signal for satellite cell activation [15]. NO-Shotgun contains a proprietary blend of a number of compounds, but those assumed to target muscle strength and mass are creatine monohydrate, beta-alanine, arginine, KIC, and leucine.
Whey protein and leucine ingested in conjunction with eight wk of resistance training was shown to increase muscle strength beyond that achieved with resistance training and a carbohydrate placebo [23]. For days where no exercise occurs, the full dosage of each supplement was ingested in the morning upon waking. Creatine supplemented during 12 wk of heavy resistance training has been shown to augment changes indicative of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, as creatine resulted in increases in MHC Type I, IIa, and IIx protein, respectively, as well as a 58% increase in myofibrillar protein content [24]. Participants completed supplementation compliance questionnaires and returned empty bottles during the post-study testing session.For dietary analysis, participants were required to record their dietary intake for four days prior to each of the two testing sessions at day 0 and day 29 blood and muscle samples were obtained. Furthermore, creatine was found to significantly increase the expression of myogenin and MRF-4 protein [25]. The participants' diets were not standardized and subjects were asked not to change their dietary habits during the course of the study. In a similar study, MRF-4 protein expression was increased after 10 wk of resistance training and creatine supplementation, with the increase in MRF-4 expression being significantly correlated with an increased mean fiber area [26].
The four-day dietary recalls will be evaluated with the Food Processor IV Nutrition Software (ESHA, Salem OR) to determine the average daily macronutrient consumption of fat, carbohydrate, and protein in the diet for the duration of the study.Resistance-training protocolParticipants completed a periodized 28-day resistance-training program split into two upper-extremity and two lower-extremity exercise sessions each wk for 28 days. After 16 wk of heavy resistance training, creatine supplementation increased satellite cell activation, myonuclear number, mean fiber area, and muscle strength compared to whey protein supplementation and control [27].Creatine supplementation has been shown to enhance myogenic differentiation by activating the p38 MAPK pathway, which is an intracellular signaling pathway responsible for up-regulating skeletal muscle gene expression in response to muscle contraction.
This constituted a total of 16 exercise sessions, with eight upper-body and eight lower-body exercise sessions.

Prior to each exercise session, participants performed a standardized series of stretching exercises. The participants then performed an upper-extremity resistance-training program consisting of nine exercises (bench press, lat pull, shoulder press, seated rows, shoulder shrugs, chest flies, biceps curl, triceps press down, and abdominal curls) twice per week and a program consisting of seven lower-extremity exercises (leg press, back extension, step ups, leg curls, leg extension, heel raises, and abdominal crunches). Consequently, leucine supplementation increased the levels of I±-ketoisocaproate (KIC) [30]. KIC blunts the activity of the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) enzyme complex, which decreases skeletal muscle BCAA oxidation that has been shown to occur during exercise [31].
The instrument's flow system was primed and the background counts checked daily to ensure appropriate RBC and WBC linearity. However, there is a paucity of data demonstrating the effectiveness of such a nutritional product on muscle strength and mass and satellite cell activation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-ShotgunA®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, myofibrillar protein content, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. This clinical chemistry analyzer was calibrated daily using liquid assay multiqual (BIO-RAD, Hercules, CA).
I don’t recommend it for first-time users, but men looking for something more advanced might find what they need with P6 Extreme.
Based on previous research with individual compounds contained in NO-ShotgunA® [15, 25a€“27], we hypothesized that 28 days of heavy resistance training combined with this supplement would preferentially increase muscle strength and mass and stimulate the expression of markers indicative of satellite cell activation, without having any adverse effects on blood clinical chemistry markers. He specializes in technical ingredient research and company information and stays up to date on competitions and show information. For both IGF-1 and HGF, the subsequent absorbances, which were directly proportional to the concentration of analyte in the sample, were measured at a wavelength of 450 nm using a microplate reader (Wallac Victor 1420, Perkin Elmer, Boston MA). A set of standards of known concentrations for IGF-1 and HGF were utilized to construct standard curves by plotting the net absorbance values of the standards against their respective protein concentrations. By applying a four part parameter curve using MikroWin microplate data reduction software (Microtek Lab Systems, Germany), the free IGF-1 and HGF concentrations in the serum samples were calculated.
The cell extraction buffer was supplemented with 1 mM phenylmethanesulphonylfluoride (PMSF) and a protease inhibitor cocktail (Sigma Chemical Company, St.
The absorbances, which are directly proportional to the concentration of c-met in the samples, were measured at 450 nm with a microplate reader (Wallac Victor 1420, Perkin Elmer, Boston MA).
A set of standards of known concentrations for c-met were utilized to construct standard curves by plotting the net absorbance values of the standards against their respective protein concentrations. By applying a four part parameter curve using MikroWin microplate data reduction software (Microtek Lab Systems, Germany), the c-met concentrations in the muscle samples were appropriately calculated.
The overall intra-assay percent coefficient of variation was 6.89%The muscle protein expression of the MRFs was assessed through the use of ELISAs. Polyclonal antibodies specific for Myo-D, myogenin, MRF-4, and myf5 (where their target specificities had been verified by Western blotting) were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotech (Santa Cruz, CA).
After washing, a stabilized TMB chromogen was added and the plates were covered and placed in the dark for the last 30-min prior to being stopped with 0.2 M sulphuric acid.
The subsequent absorbances, which are directly proportional to the concentration of the MRFs in the samples, were measured at a wavelength of 450 nm.
Therefore, the absorbances relative to muscle weight were assessed and compared as percent changes. Myofibrillar (soluble) protein was further isolated with repeated incubations in 0.1% SDS at 50A°C and separated by centrifugation. Total and myofibrillar protein content were determined spectrophotometrically based on the Bradford method at a wavelength of 595 nm [33].

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