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admin | Diet Pills | 01.02.2016
I was seriously shocked at some of these mistakes in thinking that I subconsciously make all the time. Especially since we strive for self-improvement at Buffer, if we look at our values, being aware of the mistakes we naturally have in our thinking can make a big difference in avoiding them.
It’s similar to how improving our body language can also actually change who we are as people. Not only do we do this with the information we take in, but we approach our memories this way, as well. In 2009, a study at Ohio State University showed that we will spend 36% more time reading an essay if it aligns with our opinions.
Whenever your opinions or beliefs are so intertwined with your self-image that you couldn’t pull them away without damaging your core concepts of self, you avoid situations that may cause harm to those beliefs.
This is similar to the skill of learning to say no, or how our creativity actually works: Both diverge strongly from what we think is true, versus what actions will actually help us get the result we want.
No matter how much I pay attention to the sunk-cost fallacy, I still naturally gravitate towards it. The term sunk cost refers to any cost (not just monetary, but also time and effort) that has been paid already and cannot be recovered. Organisms that placed more urgency on avoiding threats than they did on maximizing opportunities were more likely to pass on their genes.
Hal Arkes and Catehrine Blumer created an experiment in 1985 that demonstrated your tendency to go fuzzy when sunk costs come along. The fallacy prevents you from realizing the best choice is to do whatever promises the better experience in the future, not which one negates the feeling of loss in the past. Unfortunately, gambling addictions in particular are also affected by a similar mistakes in thinking—the positive expectation bias. Regardless, we’re pretty good at convincing ourselves that those flashy, useless, badly thought-out purchases are necessary after all. Social psychologists say it stems from the principle of commitment, our psychological desire to stay consistent and avoid a state of cognitive dissonance.
Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort we get when we’re trying to hold onto two competing ideas or theories. So in the case of our impulse shopping trip, we would need to rationalize the purchases until we truly believe we needed to buy those things so that our thoughts about ourselves line up with our actions (making the purchases). The tricky thing in avoiding this mistake is that we generally act before we think (which can be one of the most important elements that successful people have as traits!), leaving us to rationalize our actions afterwards.
Dan Ariely is a behavioral economist who gave one of my favorite TED talks ever about the irrationality of the human brain when it comes to making decisions. For the next stage of his experiment, Dan offered the same two choices, but lowered the prices by one cent each. Your loss-aversion system is always vigilant, waiting on standby to keep you from giving up more than you can afford to spare, so you calculate the balance between cost and reward whenever possible. Another example Dan offers in his TED talk is when consumers are given holiday options to choose between.
When a third option is added, however, such as the same Rome trip, but without coffee included in the morning, things change.

Dan found this real ad for subscriptions to The Economist and used it to see how a seemingly useless choice (like Rome without coffee) affects our decisions. To begin with, there were three choices: subscribe to The Economist web version for $59, the print version for $125, or subscribe to both the print and web versions for $125.
This mistake is called the anchoring effect, because we tend to focus on a particular value and compare it to our other options, seeing the difference between values rather than the value of each option itself. While we know that our decision-making skills as people are often poor, (more on this topic here), it’s fascinating how the term free can affect us.
More than 400 types of medications can cause dry mouth, including over-the-counter drugs for allergies and cold symptoms, and many prescription drugs for high blood pressure, overactive bladder, and mental health problems. Check with your doctor to see whether medication would help relieve your dry mouth symptoms. Obviously, none of them are huge, life-threatening mistakes, but they are really surprising and avoiding them could help us make more rational, sensible decisions. Unfortunately, most of these occur subconsciously, so it will also take time and effort to avoid them—if you want to. In an experiment in 1979 at the University of Minnesota, participants read a story about a women called Jane who acted extroverted in some situations and introverted in others. Another good example is top-performing universities: Are they actually the best schools, or do they choose the best students, who do well regardless of the school’s influence? So over time, the prospect of losses has become a more powerful motivator on your behavior than the promise of gains.
They asked subjects to assume they had spent $100 on a ticket for a ski trip in Michigan, but soon after found a better ski trip in Wisconsin for $50 and bought a ticket for this trip, too.
Our best bet is to try to separate the current facts we have from anything that happened in the past. The problem occurs when we place too much weight on past events and confuse our memory with how the world actually works, believing that they will have an effect on future outcomes (or, in the case of Heads or Tails, any weight, since past events make absolutely no difference to the odds). How many times have you gotten home after a shopping trip only to be less than satisfied with your purchase decisions and started rationalizing them to yourself? When given a choice of a trip to Rome, all expenses paid, or a similar trip to Paris, the decision is quite hard.
When the consumer sees that they have to pay 2,50 euros for coffee in the third trip option, not only does the original Rome trip suddenly seem superior out of these two, it also seems superior to the Paris trip. This time, the majority chose the cheaper, web-only version, and the minority chose the combo deal. On the other hand, Dan says, a big part of the problem comes from simply not knowing our own preferences very well, so perhaps that’s the area we should focus on more, instead. In fact free has been mentioned before as one of the most powerful ways that can affect our decision making.
Because saliva isn't flushing your mouth of food particles and debris regularly, it's common to develop persistent bad breath. It can also be a result of medical treatments such as radiation for certain cancers, which can damage salivary glands. Sjogren's is an autoimmune disorder in which white blood cells called lymphocytes attack the body's tear and salivary glands.

If you're not currently taking medications that may be causing the problem, your symptoms might point to an underlying and undiagnosed medical condition like Sjogren's syndrome or diabetes. While this makes sense, it means that we subconsciously begin to ignore or dismiss anything that threatens our world views, since we surround ourselves with people and information that confirm what we already think.
The frequency illusion occurs when you buy a new car, and suddenly you see the same car everywhere. How their bodies are designed is a factor for selection and not the result of their activities. They then asked the people in the study to imagine they learned the two trips overlapped and the tickets couldn’t be refunded or resold. Somehow, we find it impossible to accept bad results and give up—we often insist on keeping at it until we get positive results, regardless of what the odds of that actually happening are.
Maybe you didn’t really want it after all, or in hindsight you thought it was too expensive. Considering the quality differences between the two kinds of chocolates and the normal prices of both items, the Truffles were a great deal, and the majority of visitors to the booth chose the Truffles. Of course, the Truffles were even more of a bargain now, but since the Kisses were free, most people chose those, instead. Each city comes with its own food, culture, and travel experiences that the consumer must choose between. Even though they probably hadn’t even considered whether coffee was included or not before the third option was added.
When Dan gave this form to 100 MIT students and asked them which option they would choose, 84% chose the combo deal for $125. If you wear lipstick, you might find that it sticks to your teeth because no saliva is there to rinse it off.
If these nerves are damaged, they might be unable to tell the salivary glands to make saliva.
But smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes or using other tobacco products, even smokeless ones, can aggravate dry mouth.
One group was asked if Jane would be suited to a job as a librarian, the other group was asked about her having a job as a real-estate agent.
And you might have trouble swallowing or difficulty speaking without the lubrication that saliva provides.
Without saliva, it's also hard to taste food because saliva carries the flavors in food to nerve cells in the mouth and throat. The librarian group remembered Jane as being introverted and later said that she would not be suited to a real-estate job.
It flushes food particles away from your teeth and neutralizes acids to help prevent tooth decay.
The real-estate group did exactly the opposite: They remembered Jane as extroverted, said she would be suited to a real-estate job, and when they were later asked if she would make a good librarian, they said no.

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