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admin | Natural Weight Loss Supplement | 15.04.2014
Assault Black is MusclePharm’s Black Series iteration on the flagship pre-workout, Assault. Citrulline is an amino acid which serves as a precursor to Arginine, and therefore is directly involved in the production of Nitric Oxide.  Unlike supplemental Arginine, however, Citrulline is quite reliable at increasing plasma Arginine and ultimately enhancing performance. Citrulline has been shown to increase muscular contraction efficiency, meaning less ATP is required for a given workload.  This mechanism explains why subjects who consumed Citrulline were able to perform more reps later on in the workout compared to subjects who consumed a placebo.
Additionally, Citrulline has been shown to reduce muscle soreness effectively making it both a performance enhancing ingredient as well a recovery agent. Assault Black contains 3g of L-Citrulline DL-Malate per serving, not a clinical dose but not an insignificant dose either. In the past few years, Agmatine has gone from a rare ingredient to a pre-workout staple, though it remains seriously under-researched relative to other popular pre-workout ingredients. Still, anecdotal reports of Agmatine improving the “pump” are as pervasive as the ingredient itself at this point, so there is something to it.
Assault Black contains 750mg of Agmatine Sulfate, a slightly above average dose as far as most pre-workouts are concerned. Beetroot Extract is the most common Nitrate source we see in pre-workout supplements, as Beets (in whatever form) have been the most extensively studied Nitrate source with regards to exercise performance.  We discuss Nitrates further in this article, but basically the effective range is 300-600mg. Assault Black contains just 200mg of Beet Root Extract which most likely provides a pretty insignificant amount of Nitrate, if any at all. Crataegus pinnatifida, also known as Chinese Hawthorn, is a berry which has traditionally (but not clinically) been used as a heart health agent. BioPerine is a patented form of Black Pepper Extract.  Several studies have found that black pepper extract, when combined with other supplements, has increased the absorption of those supplements (as measured by plasma levels). Piperine’s ability to increase absorption of other compounds is due to the inhibition of certain enzymes which breakdown most compounds, as well as the slowing of intestinal transit (increasing the amount of time these compounds are exposed to the possibility of uptake).
Assault Black contains an unusually high 10mg dose of Black Pepper Extract, double what we generally see. Creatine is the most extensively studied ergogenic aid currently available, and by far one of the most effective at increasing both strength and muscle mass.
Additionally, during high intensity exercise, Creatine is used for energy which tends to spare the glycogen that would normally be used.
Assault Black contains 1.5g of total BCAAs which, like Creatine HCL, is an insignificant dose.
Beta-Alanine is the rate limiting amino acid in the synthesis of the dipeptide, Carnosine, which acts as a lactic acid buffer in muscle tissue.  Reducing the build-up of lactic acid can directly enhance muscular endurance, and this has been demonstrated throughout multiple studies in both athletes and non-athletes alike. A 2002 study from the “Japanese Journal of Physiology” which measured the Carnosine levels of sprinters found that individuals with higher muscular Carnosine levels exhibited higher power outputin the latter half of a 30m sprint (due to less lactic acid build-up). Multiple studies have confirmed that Beta Alanine supplementation increases muscular Carnosine in a dose dependent manner.
ElevATP is a patented combination of “ancient peat” and Apple extract which the manufacturer, FutureCeuticals, claims increases the body’s production of ATP.
Currently there are studies funded by FutureCeuticals, but we’ll have to wait for some more research before drawing our conclusions about this ingredient.  Ultimately, it may make for a fine addition to the Assault Black formula. Caffeine is a well-established ergogenic aid, oral consumption of which triggers the release of Catcholamines (Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Adrenaline, etc.), generally inducing a state of increased alertness, focus, and perceived energy. Additionally, Caffeine can enhance calcium-ion release in muscle tissue, which directly increases muscle contraction force.
Assault Black contains a whopping 300mg of Caffeine per serving, more than enough for the average person to feel noticeably more alert and focused. Huperzine A is an Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor which means it blocks the enzyme that breaks down Acetylcholine, indirectly increasing levels in the brain. Assault Black contains 100mcg of Huperzine-A a moderately effective dose as far as anecdotal reports are concerned.
Liu, Jia-Sen, Yuan-Long Zhu, Chao-Mei Yu, You-Zuo Zhou, Yan-Yi Han, Feng-Wu Wu, and Bao-Feng Qi.
Agmatine has been demonstrated to up-regulate Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS), sometimes referred to as the “good” NOS, while inhibiting the other NOS enzymes (the “bad” NOS) in vitro, but human studies are non-existent. Unfortunately, most of these claims are without merit and unsubstantiated by what little research there is.
Its primary mechanism of action is its ability to rapidly produce Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) to support cellular energy, thereby directly increasing strength and power output. Since lactic acid is a by-product created when glucose is burned for energy, Creatine may also indirectly reduce lactic acid build-up which poses a secondary mechanism by which Creatine can potentially enhance performance. Rather than discuss dozens of studies, we’ll leave it at this: Caffeine is an extremely effective ergogenic aid, though tolerance build-up is certainly an issue to keep in mind. Acetylcholine controls skeletal muscle and is largely responsible for the ‘mind-muscle connection’. Extracts from Chinese Hawthorn have demonstrated some slight-moderate anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, and these properties have been noted in rats as well (though with less potency than the reference drug used). In addition to controlling the muscles, Acetylcholine is also involved in learning, memory, decision making, and various other cognitive functions.
In all honesty, we’re not exactly clear on why MusclePharm chose to include Chinese Hawthorne in the Assault Black blend.



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