Wood Joints Names And Uses,wooden outdoor crafts,Ebony Macassar Wood - PDF 2016

Saws slowly but well for its density, works fairly easily with hand and machine tools, planes to a good finish, must be heated before slicing unto veneers. Higher quality architectural woodwork and mass-produced furniture, paneling and parquet flooring. West Africa from Cameroon through Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and the Congo, lower tropical rain forest.
Sliced veneer used for door skins and inner surface veneers; rotary veneer used for plywood panels.
The heartwood is pink to red-brown and rather resistant to fungi, insect infestation and the weather. Blocks with a great deal of sap and less than 1 m in diameter are hardly suitable for veneer production. Furniture, cabinetwork, decorative flooring, turnery and carving, decorative veneers, joinery, store fittings. Joints using glue, screws and nails can be produced without any difficulties and are durable. Sliced veneer for faces, furniture, panelling, parquet flooring, doors, pianos and construction lumber. This is why drying must be carried out very slowly and carefully so that the lumber is not degraded.
The wood has an intensive lustrous surface which is why it is misleadingly called “African Satinwood”. There is no great problem in machining this wood but tools become quickly dull due to silicate deposits. Ultraviolet resistant varnishes prevent the brilliant red wood from darkening down too quickly.
For high quality architectural purposes, especially in the USA, Australia and Southeast Asia.
There is no great problem to working this wood but tools become quickly dull due to silicate deposits.
Drying is very slow and only when properly controlled is there little risk of dry checking.
Due to its coarse pore texture and parenchyma band deposits this wood is difficult to varnish. The wood must be very carefully dried at a controlled speed because it is very prone to checking and warping. Europe, Siberia, North Africa, Prefers loose, deep and moist clay soils, rich in nutrients. For veneer, lumber, musical instruments , fruit crates, at present used as solid wood for furniture. After felling the colour is first orange-red and subsequently darkens to a reddish –white or brownish-red. Drying is slow and must be carried out carefully and gently due to the tendency to check and warp. Known especially as suppliers of high quality veneer are the states of Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky and Virginia. Since there are over 80 different species of Oak in the USA there are many mixed genera and varieties. All surface treatments are is easy to apply and the wood is particularly suitable for rustic staining.
Therefore, only suitable for occasional and inlay furniture, seldom used for architectural woodwork. Cleanly planed surfaces on the other hand are very smooth and have a light lustrous finish. The Surface should be polished to highlight the magnificent marking and this operation is not difficult. The dark brown wood impresses with clearly set-off dark stripes, which give surfaces a highly decorative look. Wood joints can be produced without any difficulty with glue , screws and nails and are very durable. Woodworking presents difficulties due to the hardness of the wood (especially with irregular fiber course ).
Drying is quite complicated and must be carried our very slowly and carefully to prevent checking and warping.
Special forms of Hard Maple are the Curly Maple, Quilted Maple, Fiddleback Maple and the Bird’s Eye Maple. Hard Maple can easily be stained and can be surface-treated with any finish with no difficulty.
Ipe can be found all over the Central and South American continent as far as the Caribbean. It is very hard and durable and, therefore, has become known as “garden wood“ outside South America as well. It is mainly native in Northern Brazil – Amazon Basin – and in the countries of the Guyana shield. The trees are mostly consistently cylindrical and, therefore, very suitable for veneer production.
Ideal also for terrace wood due to its good resistance to fungal disease and insect infestation. Jatoba can easily be sawn, sanded, drilled and turned; only planning of the wood is difficult. Thanks to the predominantly straight fiber course , smooth, flat-shining surfaces and proper edges result. To avoid tension checking on the surface and at the ends it must be dried slowly and carefully.
The planed surfaces must be carefully treated, the pores should be brushed out and pretreated with a filler.
Very easy to work hand and machine tools, torn and chipped grain is Common with figured material. Architectural fittings and fixtures as well as furniture, however restricted to North America.
When Working up the sap and heart wood together , an extremely decorative result Is obtained.
The wood is highly prone to checking and warping and drying must be done Slowly and carefully. Even after fitting-in, strong distortion of the wood May occur in case of variations in temperature. Red Oak is also used fro facing in the furniture and door industries and as construction wood. The wood must be dried slowly and carefully because of the great tendency to check and warp. Screw and nail joints hold firmly but the holes should be pre-drilled to prevent splitting. Primarily in Brasil but also an the northern parts of South America, Venezuela and Guayana.
Sucupira is not easy to work due to its extreme hardness and its frequently irregular or interlocked grain. It is an often used as furniture veneered as well as for flooring and for architectural wood work . Central America from Mexico to Columbia, here and there in the south of the USA ( Florida) and Brazil. Ziricote is the heaviest wood in the group comprising more than 250 different species of Cordia.

All surface treatments take well and the wood can be polished well to produce a good finish. It is useful in cough,' ophthalmitis, otitis and proctalgia and coxalgia due to diarrhoea and dysentery. Decoction of the whole plant is diuretic; it is efficacious in renal dropsies and in combination with that of Kakajanga (Leea aequata) useful in insomnia. Ashes of the plant with water and jaggery are effective in ascites and anasarca;sesamum oil medicated with ashes of the plant is applied as eardrops. The poultice of leaves has been beneficially used in facial paralysis and rheumatism when rubbed into the affected parts.
Fruits are deobstruent, tonic, leaves juice are used in earache,externally used as a cover on sores and ulcers ,bark is antidysentric,antipyretic, astringent, cardiotonic, lithotriptic, styptic and tonic.powder act as a diuretic in cirrhosis of liver and gives relief in hypertension.
In fractures and contusions, with excessive ecchymosis, powdered arjun bark is recommended to be take internally with milk. The bark is astringent and febrifuge, the fruit tonic and deobstruent, the juice of the fresh leaves is a remedy for earache.
The bark is useful in bilious affections, and as an antidote to poisons, the bark is used to sores, etc. The bark is bitter and acrid; refrigerant, astringent to the bowels, alexiterie, anthelmintic, demulcent, emollient; cure!
Powdered root mixed with honey is effective for children suffering from cough, coryza, fever and vomiting. Root is considered to be aphrodisiac, digestive, valuable febrifuge, bitter tonic and useful in throat infections, abdominal pain and gastralgia .
Fruits are tikta, katuvipaka, cathartic, snigdha, laghu, ushna; cures skin diseases, abdominal lump, piles, worms and polyuria. A Strong decoction of the fresh leaves is a slight antiseptic, and is useful like a weak carbolic lotion in washing wounds and ulcers, and syringing out the vaginain the after.
It appears to have been of service in some chronic and long-standing cases of leprosy and other skin diseases, consumption, atonic dyspepsia and general debility. OIL is a useful local remedy in some chronic forms of skin diseases and ulcers, by stimulating and exciting a healthy action.
Applied to foul and sloughing ulcers, it retards the sloughing process to some extent, prevents the production' of maggots, and dislodges them if already produced. The oil is a universal external appilcation for rheumatism, and is taken internally by women in pregnancy. The dry nuts possess almost the same medical properties as the oil, but they require to be bruised and mixed with water, .or some other liquid before they can be applied to the skin or ulcers.
Gum: astringent and styptic, useful in vitiated vata, pitta, cough, asthma, diarrhoea, dysentery, seminal weakness, leprosy, uriogenital discharges, burns haemorrhoids, colic.
Milky juice and seeds are beneficial as local application to pains, sores and ulcers, soles of the feet when crocked or inflamed and in rheumatism. Leaves are heated and applied as a poultice to abscesses; tender leaves with honey beneficial in ,raktapitta. The leaves are applied, heated as a poultice- to abscesses, and after they have turned yellow are given with roasted rice in decoction as a diaphoretic. An infusion of the' bark is supposed to be a powerful tonic and is considered to have specific properties in' the treatment of . A brown gum exudes from the bark which regard as a valuable medicine in scrofulous, venereal and leprous affections .
The nut is used internally in asthm, after having been steeped in butter-milk, and is also given as vermifuge., debility and in leprous, scrofulous and venereal affections. Leaves are bitter, astringent, tonic, aphrodisiac, anti diarrhoeic, intoxicating, stomachic, analgesic and abortifacient.
The fruit is bitter, pungent, acrid; digestible, laxative, anthelmintic, useful in bronchitis, sore throat, biliousness, inflammations, strangury, asthma, and in diseases of the eye, the nose, the heart, and the bladder.
In the Punjab, it is chiefly employed in dropsy, piles, diarrhrea and leprosy; also occasionally in fever. Like other kinds of Terminalia, the Beleric myrobalans afford a yellow fixed oil which is prepared by the poorer classes in the Central Provinces and used as a substitute for ghee and as an application for rheumatism. The 'unripe fruit is cut up and sun-dried, and in this form is sold in the bazaars in dried whole or broken slices.It is regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic, and is prescribed in diarrhoea and dysentery, often proving effectual in chronic cases, after all other medicines have failed. The ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic and cooling; and, made into a morning sherbet, cooled with ice, is pleasantly laxative and a good simple cure for dyspepsia. The root bark is sometimes made into a decoction and used in the cure of intermittent fever. The leaves are made into poultice, used in the treatment of ophthalmia, and the fresh juice diluted is praised in catarrhs and feverishness.
The fresh juice of the leaves is given, with the addition of b1ack pepper, in anasarca, with costiveness and jaundice. Useful in vitiated kapha, vata, biliousness, beuralgia, inflammations, epilepsy, insanity, tumours, asthma, bronchitis, splenomegaly, ascitis, dyspepsia, skin diseses, leucoderma,syphilis, elephantiasis, dysmenorrhoea, sterility and general debility. It is principally used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and splenic enlargements, and in various chronic skin diseases. The fresh plant is applied with sesamum oil in elephantiasis, and the expressed juice in affections of the liver and dropsy.
The heart wood is bitter, sweet, aromatic, deodorant, intellect promoting, cardio tonic, diaphoretic, aphrodisiac, haemostatic, antipyretic, restorative and tonic.it is useful in in vitiated conditions of pitta, burning sensation, cephalalgia, foul odour due to hyperhidrosis, skin diseases, leprosy, cardiac debility, hyper acidity, jaundice, haemoptysis, cough, bronchitis, onflammations, cystitis, dysentery, gastric irritability, menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, spermatorrhoea, intermittent fever and general debility. The wood, ground up with water into a paste, is commonly applied to local inflammations, to the temples in fevers, and to skin diseases to allay heat and pruritus. For external administration, it is made into a past" with milk, vinegar or salt and water. Extract prepared from root-bark is used as a local application in affected parts of the eyelids and in chronic ophthalmia. The tincture of the root is used against intermittent fever and considered to be advantageous over quinine and cinchona since it does not produce deafness or cardiac depression.
The decoction is particularly useful in the enlargement of liver and spleen associated with malarial fever. Root combined with opium, rocksalt and alum is considered to be an useful anti-inflammatory agent.
A poultice made out of the leaves is used for ophthalmodynia, otalgia, lumbago, sciatica, neuralgia, mumps and painful swellings.
The mixed leaves with wine or powdered rice and saffron, and apply them externally for various pains and swellings.
The flowers are dried and roughly powdered with or without the leaves and rolled into cigarettes for the relief of asthma.
Some apply a warmed pad of the leaf to painful and swollen parts, and a similar poultice to ingrowing tow-nails and to burns.
An ointment containing the juice of the leaf and young shoots for application to running sores. The leaves are bitter, acrid and thermogenic, and are useful in inflammations and tubercular glands. The heartwood 'is bitter, acrid, thermogenic, emolient, anodyne, anthelmintic, digestive, carminative, cardiotonic, galacto-puriller, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant, diaphoretic, antiseptic, laxative and febrifuge, and is useful in inflammation dyspepsia, cephalalgia, haemorrhoids, insomnia, epilepsy, hiccough, bronchitis, tubercular glands, diabetes, urethrorrhea, renal and vesical calculi, elephantiasis, fever, cardiac disorders, leucoderma, skin diseases, proctoptosis and vitiated conditions of villa and kapha.
The oil is antiseptic, diaphoretic, depurative and diuretic, and is useful in leprosy, syphilis, skin diseases, wounds and ulcers, fever and strangury. It is katu, ushna, beneficial in deranged vata, kapha ,fever, cough and used in the purification of mercury.
The leaf is applied to the head to relieve headache, and is common1y used as a poultice for boils. The oil is expressed and used medicinally; and a fomentation is made with the leaves to cure wounds.

The bark is used by natives for stitching up wounds, and as a dressing for wounds and sores..
The foliage is considered emmenagogue, the root-bark purgative, and the leaf useful as a local application in rheumatism.
The bruised leaves are used for caries of the teeth and given with water for colic , the leaves are considered lactagogue and are given in infusion or applied to the breasts. The fruits are regarded as cooling, diuretic, tonic and aphrodisiac, and are used in painful micturition, calculous affections, urinary, disorders and impotence.
The stem is bitter, astringent, sweet, thermogenic, antispasmodic, anti inflammatory , antipyretic, digestive, carminative, appetizer, stomachic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, galacto-purifier, useful in vitiated, vata, burning sensation, dyspepsia, flatulence, intermittent fever, inflammations, gout, vomiting, cardiac debility, jaundice, anaemia, seminal weakness, asthma, cough, uropathy, splenopathy, skin diseases and general debility.
Stem-juice is valued in high fever and also given in jaundice either alone or mixed with honey.
Decoction of the stem is used for rheumatic fever and vomiting due to excessive bile secretion; slow fever associated with cough is arrested by the administration of its decoction mixed with Piper longum (fruits) and honey. A kind of starch, called 'Palo', prepared from the aqueous extract of dried stem, is considered to have antacid, antidiarrhoeal and antidysenteric properties. Leaves of the plant are rich in protein, calcium and phosphorus with no toxic effect and as such prescribed in fever. Inhalation of the fumes of burnt guggul beneficial in chronic bronchitis, acute and chronic nasal catarrh, laryngitis and tuberculosis. Internally, the seeds are described as poisonous and useful in affections of the nervous system, and, externally, in skin diseases, ulcers, affections of the hair, etc.
The seeds reduced to a paste are recommended to be applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of the shoulder joint, paralysis, and other nervous diseases.
In white leprosy, a paste composed or the seed and plumbago root is applied as a stimulant dressing.
Taken internally by women, the seed - disturbs the uterine functions and prevents conception. Highly decorative elements for filling or fronts in architectural woodwork and furniture production. Since Maple Burl frequently has bark pockets, sound large burls are seldom and very expensive. High quality architectural woodwork, as solid wood for gearshift knobs and high quality gunstocks. Very decorative veneer wood, high quality architectural wood-work and high class furniture making. The burly texture calls for high care in drying to avoid degrading through surface checking and warping.
For external use open pore varnishes are used, for the interior , varnishes and mat finishes are applied. Joints using screws, nails and glue are easy to produce and are of normal tensile strength. Here again , drying sould be carried our very slowly and carefully to avoid surface checking and inner tension. Architectural woodwork, not suitable for mass-produced furniture because of the scarcity of this wood.
The somewhat difficult drying is made even more problematic by the burly texture of the wood.
The wood splits very easily at the edges and when planing fibre pick-up occurs on the surface. This, together with the ever changing direction in growth and continuous over-growing, results in the final burl. Especially popular as accentuating wood for fillings in combination with other high quality ones. The wood is durable and resistant to insect attack, moderately hard, of medium weight and elastic. The Burl is only used in Europe for high quality architectural woodwork because of its rareness. The wood must be dried very slowly and extremely carefully because Imbuya is strongly prone to warping. Joints with Madrona Burl are restricted to glues and screws but those can be produced without any problems. The burl texture calls for extremely careful drying to avoid higher losses through surface checking and warping.
It is rather bushy in growth and is often found in woods growing in the valleys of hilly country. Despite the burly texture it is very easy to work and smooth surfaces are produced by all methods.
Due to the burly texture and very smooth surfaces Myrtle is excellently suited for polishing. The burl texture calls for extremely slow and careful drying to keep tension in the wood as low as possible. Since the wood neither tends to check or warp it can be dried without any great difficulties. High quality architectural woodwork, furniture production possible but only produced in Southern Europe so far. Used are Oaks which have developed many pin knots, however, those should be sound and closed.
The risk of producing degraded wood is increased through checking in the knot zones when drying. The opium obtained from the fruits is constipating, bitter, astringent, sweet, aphrodisiac, sedative, narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, sudorific and nervineonic. It is considered as a valuable application to the soles of the feet when cracked or inflamed, and is also applied to the teeth and gums as a remedy for toothache.
They are used in convulsions, otalgia, abdominal disorders, diarrhoea, somatalgia and haematorrhoea. Ripe fruit is madhura, palatable, guru, katu-tikta ushna, astringent and used in the treatment of deranged tridosha. It seems especially usefull in chronic diarrhoea; 'a simple change of the hours of meals and an. There is a popular opinion that the herb taken internally and applied externally will turn the hair black. They are heated over a torch until smoked, and then apply them as a poultice over the spleen in intermittent fever. In former times the fresh warmed leaf or the vapour of an infusion of the leaf was applied particularly to relieve the pain of rheumatism and gout. They possess cooling, diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties and are used in dysuria, urinary disorders, calculus affections, and impotency.
After surface finishing Amboyna burl reveals a depth and liveliness in colour like found in no other burl. That is why this wood cannot be used for mass production but only for architectural woodwork. A pinch of root powder, in combination with pepper powder and honey, is a good remedy for cough; seeds,rubbed with rice-water, are prescribed to patients suffering from bleeding piles.
In cases of morbid thirst, the powder of the wood is recommended to be taken in cocoanut water. However, it is contraindicated for people suffering from asthma, cardiac diseases and urinary disorder.

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