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17 Apr. 1986

How to make wooden barrel staves,bed frame with storage designs,model railroad layout plans n scale - PDF Review

The wine barrel is made up of staves shaped into a bulging cylinder, with hoops around it, a flat circular head at both ends, and at least one hole, generally on the belly, for a bung. The wood selected for barrel staves must also be straight and free of knots and seasoned by drying naturally in the open air from eighteen months to two years. Now the barrel is placed on a small, metal fire pot of wood chips to receive its first toasting. To make the head of the barrel, five or six head staves are fitted together with either stainless steel headless nails or wooden dowels. After the heads of the barrels and the final galvanized hoops have been fitted, the barrel is planed and polished.
Cooperage is the ancient craft of barrel making; an artform, really, that results in a water-tight, wooden vessel held together by nothing more than the hoops that surround it. Wooden barrels have been used store and transport all manner of goods for more than 2000 years. As the crafting of the barrels must be absolutely precise, the value of the men creating them increased and the art, and trade, of cooperage was born.
Although a wooden barrel is, at its simplest, a collection of wooden staves held together by hoops, it is the culmination of talent and craft that produces the resulting work of art. It is the selection and preparation of the wood that goes into making a barrel that determines the quality of the barrel in the end. The best barrels are made from oak that is hand split to preserve the grain and keep the veins intact, but often saws are used today to reduce both time and cost. Staves are created in varying widths to accommodate the construction process of alternating stave widths to increase strength. Staves may be create by a junior cooper but are always inspected for quality and standards by a master cooper. The final construction of the barrel is an integrated process that includes piecing together the staves, using the hoops to pull them together, toasting the inside of the barrel, inserting the head(s), and drilling the bung hole. First off the chime hoop is used as a template while the staves are added one by one around the entire diameter. Once the barrel staves are all inserted in the primary chime hoop, a quarter hoop is placed to more firmly secure the staves. The barrel is now toasted over an open flame – although sometimes this process is completed at the same time as the stave shaping above. After all the staves are joined, forming the wooden barrel, it is roasted to seal it from leakage.
The craftsman Manuel Gomez last detail wooden barrels produced, usually wooden barrels for 20 for a day. The staves (Strips that form the barrels) are selected from different woods and sanded to make barrels, the wood is what gives the flavor, texture and aroma to the different liqueurs. The staves (Strips that form the barrels) are selected from different wood and sanded to make barrels, the wood is what gives the flavor, texture and aroma to tequila.

The craftsman Manuel Gomez joins several planks of wood to form a barrel that will stand for tequila.
The craftsman Manuel Gomez banding ensures good wooden staves in the barrel that is forming. The craftsman Manuel Gomez joins all staves to form a wooden barrel, after the toast to seal completely. After all united staves, formed the wooden barrel and is roasted to seal and have no leakage. The craftsman Manuel Gomez, who has more than seven years making wooden barrels, shows the process of hand making a wooden barrel.
Please note: the text contained in "Wooden barrel crafting practiced in Tequila" has not been corrected, edited or verified by Demotix and is the raw text submitted by the photojournalist. A wine barrel is a cylindrical container usually made from oak and historically used for the storage and transportation of goods. To make the staves more flexible and to keep them from getting toasted too quickly water is sprayed on the inside and outside.
Finally, the barrel is tested for leaks by putting water in it and pressurizing it with air.
There is evidence that the Romans first used barrels as early as the 3rd century AD, replacing the clay pots and other breakable vessels they had been using previously.
A barrel made today is made in very much the same manner it was back then; the selection and aging of the wood, the preparation of the staves, and the end construction are all still very similar.
Created from oak that must be straight, knot-free, and properly aged, they are shaped and fitted together in a precise pattern that will render the finished barrel water-tight. As each barrel is completely unique, each head must be measured and created specifically for the barrel it will fit. French and American oak dominate the world barrel market with American oak being used much more often than French these days. Once the wood is roughed into stave length it is stored in tiers, exposed to weather and elements, to age and mature. The wood is cut to stave length, tapered on every edge (both sides, top and bottom) to an exacting standard, hollowed slightly on the inside plane, and sanded to a smooth finish. Some coopers use staves of one equal width but many coopers now use a pattern of narrow, mid-width, and wide staves around the barrel. The partially built barrel is typically set over a steamer to soften the wood allowing it to bend. Coopers use gas flame, oak fires, or torches to char the inside of the barrel to whatever level of toasting the client has requested. Each barrel may have the same rough measurements, but the exact diameter and shape of each is quite varied.
The talent and skill of those who craft wooden barrels is unmatched today as a manual artform.

Today barrels are made almost exclusively for the production of fine wines and spirits and used to ferment, age and give a wine an oak flavor.
Staves are then trimmed into a double taper and set on their ends within an iron hoop where some cooperages may alternate narrow and wide staves around the hoop to build strength and structure. During this time the cooper will walk around the barrel knocking down temporary hoops to bend it into shape.
The head is then cut to size and placed in a groove in the inside of the top and bottom of the barrel.
Coopers have terms for every part of a barrel and specific ways that they should all go together to make the perfect wooden barrel. This is due to changing taste palettes (American oak imparts a stronger vanilla flavor than French oak, which is more popular today) and cost considerations as American oak is a much less expensive wood than French oak.
This makes the wood stronger and removes any unwanted odors and tannins that may impart a harsh flavor. This increases the strength of the barrel and allows the forces to be disipated more easily. These days a cable system is often used to bring the lower portion of the staves together so that the final hoops can be applied.
For this reason, each head is crafted individually based on the exact measurements of the barrel it is intended for. Barrels come in many sizes and qualities although the term barrel is conventionally used for a wooden container small enough to be moved. Next the cooper wraps cables around the bottom of the barrel to cinch up the base and then places another temporary hoop to bring the base together. Coopers will make sacrificial barrels at the beginning of the day, just in case parts of a new barrel need to be replaced.
They are the final decision makers as to what wood is used to craft their wine barrels, whiskey barrels, and bourbon barrels. The shape will be set once the barrel cools and dries resulting in a water-tight barrel without the use of any glue, nails, or screws.
At this stage there are approximately 33 staves per barrel and looks like a skirt splayed out from the hoop at the top. The cooper then applies his brand as proof that the barrel has fully met all standards of quality.

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