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11.11.2014 admin
Aviation Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for aircraft pilots, mechanics, and enthusiasts.
What are the material types account for most of the empty weight of an airplane (Boeing 747), besides aluminum or its alloys used in fuselage? Steel is used in components where strength or part life is most important, like landing gear and other important structural elements, as well as many fasteners. New aircraft like the 787 and A350 use composites much more extensively, replacing much of the aluminum. Federico pointed out that the two graphics differ in the amount of aluminum on the 777 (70% on the first vs. A general breakdown by material type isn't really useful (or possible) because the heaviest components of most aircraft are composed of multiple materials, and not all aircraft are built of the same materials.
While the alloy (or composite) used for the fuselage is probably relatively light compared to say a car's frame & body it's usually the largest part of an aircraft, and thus the heaviest.
The number two component on an airplane is the engine (or engines) -- the engine may even be the heaviest component of some aircraft (Ultralights and some tube-and-fabric aircraft).
As with the fuselage an engine is often comprised of multiple metal alloy: crank shafts and cams tend to be steel, lifter faces are often cast iron, the crankcase tends to be aluminum, pistons are usually both (a steel barrel mated to an aluminum head), and various alloys are used in bearings and valve guides. As an example if we look at a Piper Cub the heaviest alloy is probably steel (the fuselage tubing, crankcase, and camshaft are all steel). Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged aircraft-design or ask your own question. What are the criteria that govern the choice between titanium, composites, and more common materials, like aluminum? Is it necessary to strengthen the airframe of an aircraft that is used for sustained low level flight? Why do C++ optimizers have problems with these temporary variables or rather why `&&` should be avoided in tight loops? Anyone who is involved in the product development process is familiar with some form of destructive testing. This demonstration does not, of course, simulate the stresses on a bike frame during normal use, but it does point to the toughness of titanium as a raw material.
The carbon tube was actually not cut at all, as that tube was created as it was used for a lugged frame. Not exactly copy you can put into VeloNews ad, but clearly the message you want to get out.
Personally, I own several bikes made from different materials, including an older titanium Litespeed. When you design a good composite bike then you design it to the expected forces on each of the sections of the frame.
The properties of a composite part are designed at the drawing table (computer) unlike metal tubing.
It’s nothing more than just some maketing guy trying to add a little new buzz word to the same old.
Also, I think it is worth pointing out that Brad in the video is an engineer, not a marketing guy and as I said in the post, this is a demonstration and not a test. I’m thinking about changing my aluminum bike for a lighter, more flexible, faster and absorbent Cross Country Mountain Bike. My racing experience goes back to the early nineties when you still heard stories about early carbon construction failures, aluminum top tubes that crushed when sat on during a crash, and first hand experience helping someone carry the pieces of a steel bike off the course when the frame broke from being run over by another rider.


Did you guys see that the truck’s front wheel (in the case of the Ti tube) started from behind a lowered crack in the cement? Breaking of tubes has a lot to do with brittleness of the material rather than absolute strength, i.e.
So we have just seen a demonstration of what happens with materials when a huge force is applied to them. From a safety point of view steel or titanium bike is safer to ride esp after the crash (I have bent my steel forks back into position after crashes many times). However, if you never crash the bike carbon fiber bike is perfectly safe and good ones are made rigid where they need to be rigid to transfer power efficiently and flex y on the other hand to absorb road chatter (which is extremely hard to do with other materials). I would prefer to see a demo of someone given titanium, steel, aluminum and carbon bikes and asked to wreck them by hand (e.g. I agree with you that the test wasn’t true with respect to what all 3 materials endured. As a Florida triathlete, I’ve been told that the salt water will corrode an aluminum bike and I should go carbon.
The overwhelming choice of frame material at the 2010 Tour De France was and will continue to be Carbon Fiber.
When it comes to stresses, two of the most basic types are compression and tension (bending, shear, torsion are others).
Now if the video demonstrated a truck attempting to pull these tubes apart, the carbon fiber tube would have performed more admirably. Titanium is used where weight and high temperature are important, such as around the engines.
Titanium is also used more in these aircraft because it does not tend to corrode in contact with carbon fiber composite like aluminum does. 50% on the second), because the first chart shows only structural weight, while the second is overall. This is predominantly aluminum, but possibly composite in newer aircraft (Cirrus SR-22, Boeing 787), and some aircraft have multiple materials used (e.g. Number two is probably aluminum (the engine crankcase, pistons, and cylinder heads are aluminum, as are the wing ribs and possibly the spars). I enjoyed watching it and I did come away with a very valuable lesson; stay away from big F250 trucks while you are riding regardless of your frame material. Micro-cracks in the end could have propagated more due to the fact that they rode over the tube at the end that it was cut at, as opposed to the center. So there were actually no micro cracks.As for the demonstration itself, it was actually meant to simulate a traumatic stress on a frame in the category of crashing hard, or the bike falling of the roof rack or the bike being driven into the garage on top of the roof rack.
Since you mentioned Seth Godin, I assume you don’t have a problem with the whole idea of viral marketing.
We had a European TV Network visiting who was doing a story on our fabrication process and they wanted a visual demonstration of ti versus carbon versus aluminum in terms of strength.Initially we ran over complete bike frames, but the reporter thought that conspiracy theory fans might think that we may have filled the ti frame or manipulated the wall thickness. I’m guessing that the smaller diameter would fare better in athe truck tire test too. Still, if you have a criticism, you should be willing to back it up with a name and an email or profile link like Dirk and 54 did. Herbert, I will look forward to seeing some of the real tests on the Litespeed website soon. Composites are traditionally used for many less-structural applications such as panels and fairings, but may also be used in the empennage (tail surfaces) or on the interior as floor beams.


That survived a fall of a roof rack at 60mph(raced it that night, damage was only ripped tape and scratches to derailer).
Shouldn’t a brand so proud in their engineering and production methods communicate with greater accuracy? So they asked us to use plain tubes so everyone could see what was inside and how thick the walls were.The result of that demonstration just ended up being funny and we all had a laugh about it. Carbon fiber, glass, concrete are brittle and do not have a yield point, they simply crack.
Other materials will include alloys like nickel, as well as specialty materials like rubber, plastic, and fabric, which are used mostly in the cabin.
Still, if you are interested in seeing a few bicycle tubes being crushed (and I know you are), check out this Google video from the folks at Litespeed.
Of course Litespeed wants to spread the message that titanium is the best material for bikes and that it “won’t let you down”. I certainly do not think they are going to last forever if I ride them hard (I have cracked one in the past), but I knew that when I bought them. As for true frame testing we do that with machines that simulate pedal strokes and torque on the frame, that unfortunately was actually visually just not that exciting for the tv crew. Why did bar ends crimp my titanium handlebars, yey not leave a mark on the steel and carbon ones? I have continued to allow anonymous comments on my blog and I will probably continue to do so, but they seem to carry less and less weight as the readership grows.
Brad, the company’s chief engineer, narrates the video as Scott drives a big crew cab pickup truck over a carbon tube, an aluminum tube, and finally a titanium tube.
If I did not already know that and was in the market for a bike that I planned to keep forever, this video might convince me to consider a Litespeed.
Bent the replaceable derailer attachment after getting caught in tram lines busting 2 wheels until finally being wiped out by a car 7 years later. I know that some people comment anonymously because it is an easily available option so I will continue to give those people the benefit of the doubt, but I would prefer if commenters would at least type in a name.
I won’t spoil the ending for you, but I am pretty sure you can guess which tube emerges intact.
You may or may not agree, but it is certainly understandable to me that they are believers in the material and want to spread the word. At the same time, Trek wants to make potential customers suspicious of inexpensive carbon frames so they will buy OCLV frames. Brad seems to be pretty happy with the results as he laughs devilishly while the video closes. In both cases, I don’t think the companies are presenting anything that is at all deceptive. Would Litespeed have posted the video to the web if the ti tube had flattened like a pancake?



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