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27.07.2015 admin
Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) have concave faces, a distinctive hump on their shoulders, and long claws about two to four inches long. Grizzly bears have a better sense of smell than a hound dog and can detect food from miles away. Grizzly bears are found many different habitats, from dense forests to subalpine meadows, open plains and arctic tundra.
Grizzly bears use “rub trees.” These are trees where they scratch their backs, leaving scent and hair.
Grizzly bears need to eat a lot in the summer and fall in order to build up sufficient fat reserves to survive the winter denning period.
Bears die when they get into trouble with people’s garbage, livestock, when they are hit by cars and trains or illegally killed. Grizzly bear is a loose term used to describe a subspecies of brown bears found in inland North America. The Grizzly Bear is specific to North America, being one of the biggest animals that can be found in this area of the world. When the food can be found in abundance, the Grizzly bear likes to gather with other bears, living in packs of 5-10.
The grizzly bear has an important role in the ecosystem, especially for the plants that he eats. Perhaps no other animal better symbolizes true wilderness than Ursus arctos -the grizzly bear. The grizzly population today is but a ghost of its former self, hold­ing on to small isolated islands of land in the lower 48.
Historically, the Mexican griz­zly was slightly smaller in stature than the Yellowstone or Alaskan brown bear. In one of her first acts as Inte­rior Secretary, Gail Norton chose to ignore strong local support for the reintroduction of the grizzly in the Selway-Bitteroot section of Idaho and Montana. Ironically, the debate over griz­zly bears seems far more limited to the United States than the rest of the world. In 1997, as wolves were being prepared for release in the Gila, conservationists were also opening the door to grizzly reintroduction. But from the standpoint of having a healthy, sustainable environment and from the position of truly loving wild country, wild lands that do not have grizzlies are frankly missing some of the spirit that makes them truly great. Both the hump and the claws are traits associated with a grizzly bear’s exceptional digging ability. Today, there are an estimated 1,800 grizzly bears remaining in five populations in the lower 48 states.
In North America, grizzly bears are found in western Canada, Alaska, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho and a potentially a small population in Washington. It is a subspecies of the brown bear, which came from Europe in North America more than 50 000 years ago. Usually, those encounters happen during the autumn, when people and bears hunt the same fish: salmon.

From the time of Lewis and Clark, man has used muskets, rifles, roads, axes, traps, chain saws, fences and the bulldozer to tame the wilderness that was the bear’s home. When we think of the grizzly ranging wild and free, images of Alaska and Yellowstone quickly come to mind. In the late summer and early fall, grizzlies enter hyperphagia, a period of 2-4 months when they intensify their calorie intake to put on weight for winter denning. Most of these bears are located in the Northern Continental Divide Population (including Glacier National Park) and the Yellowstone Population. Grizzly bears mate between May and July, but the female’s body delays implantation of their eggs in the uterus until October or November. In fact, males can be a danger to the cubs, so females often avoid male grizzly bears while rearing their cubs.
Grizzly bears have a brown coat with silver-tipped hairs, which gives them a "grizzled" coloration. The salmon and the roots of special plants, which are more common in Alaska and Canada allows the Grizzly Bears living there to grow stronger and bigger.
In the late 1970’s many people still held out hope that the Mexican grizzly, the spe­cies that once called the Gila home, was still holding on in remote parts of the Sierra Madre and the Bar­rancas (on the west slope where the Rio Yaqui flows in Mexico).
Also, in that same time period, while not endorsing any specific proposal, both the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Forest Service seemed far more open to the con­cept of grizzly reintroduction. This, combined with the sparsely roaded areas that surround or con­nect these wild areas, creates more than 4 million acres with very low human population and tremendous habitat for grizzlies. But no animal has been as revered in Native American or Western Ameri­can folklore as the grizzly. Grizzly bears can also help ecosystems by distributing seeds and nutrients through their scat, and occasionally regulating ungulate populations. The long guard hairs on their backs and shoulders frequently have white tips and give the bears a "grizzled" appearance, hence the name "grizzly." The correct scientific name for the species is “brown bear,” but only coastal bears in Alaska and Canada are referred to as such, while inland bears and those found in the lower 48 states are called grizzly bears. When a female grizzly bear leaves her mother, they often set up their home range quite close to their mother’s home range.
Grizzlies vary in weight, usually between four hundred and eight hundred pounds, but are generally smaller than brown bears found on the North American coast. If they have babies, it is better not to provoke the bear, and to leave the area as soon as possible!
But any talk today of grizzly reintroduction in New Mexico is generally perceived as a radical pipe dream. The thought that a small remnant pop­ulation might exist, lead some to believe there might still be a chance to reintroduce the Mexican grizzly to New Mexico.
But, realis­tically any reintroduction of grizzlies in New Mexico would require bears from Yellowstone National Park. Today small numbers of the bears can be found in the Italian Alps, Scandina­via, Siberia, Canada, Iran, the Atlas Mountains of Morocco, in parts of Western Europe and Palestine.
A grizzly’s ability to garner enough quality calories through the summer is not just crucial for her survival, but also for her reproductive ability.

Recently the Bush Administration has even pushed for the grizzly to be delisted from the Endangered Species Act in the Yellowstone region. By doing so the protec­tion for critical habitat would be removed and hunting of this great bear would once again begin in a limited manner. So it was no surprise that the New Mexico Farm and Livestock Bureau came out opposed to grizzly reintroduc­tion. All brown bears have small, round ears, and large, round, dish-shaped faces with a large brow.
Interestingly, since the reintroduction of wolves in Yel­lowstone, populations of grizzly in the greater Yellowstone Ecosys­tem have increased to over 600 animals. Biologists believe that the wolf kills of elk and deer have left more carcasses on the ground allowing more food for the bears. Such a diversity of land­scapes and human environments speaks to the bear’s ability to co-exist and thrive in many different environments.
House Budget hear­ing that the agency had no plans for reintroduction of the grizzly in the southwest. Unlike dogs and cats, which walk on their toes (digitigrade), bears walk flat on their whole foot (plantigrade), as humans do. In Siberia, the bears tend to stay in the forests, while in Europe they are more commonly found in mountain woodlands, and in the US the same bears tend to stay in areas of high alpine tundra.
Denning One of the most amazing characteristics of brown bears is their ability to den through the winter.
In order to survive such a long period without eating and drinking, bears break down their fat stores. In order to build up the fat needed to make it through the winter, brown bears must eat around ninety pounds of food per day during the fall.
The denning period allows bears to survive winter, a time of food shortage, by using theirown stores.
Some scientists believe that understanding bears' denning abilities could aid human medicine. Reproduction and Distribution Brown bears mate in the late spring or early summer each year. However, brown bears have disappeared from about 50 percent of their original range due to human activities.
Most of the world's brown bears live in Russia (around thirty thousand), Alaska (around thirty-five thousand) and Canada (around fifteen thousand).
In the lower fortyeight states, brown bears have disappeared from 99 percent of their original habitat and are estimated to number around one thousand.

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