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Medical history, your current and past these abnormalities include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hyperlipidemia because of the multifactorial nature.

16.07.2014

Tinnitus--classification causes diagnosis treatment and prognosis, how to overcome insomnia essay - Reviews

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own central nervous system (CNS), which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.
The exact cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown, but it is believed to be any combination of immunologic, environmental, infectious, or genetic factors.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder where the body perceives its own myelin (the sheath around the nerves) as an intruder and attacks it, as it would a virus or other foreign infectious agent. There are four different types of multiple sclerosis that have been identified and each type can have symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis may be single or multiple and may range from mild to severe in intensity and short to long in duration. Multiple sclerosis is often difficult to diagnose as symptoms are so varied and can resemble other diseases. One of the main ways to diagnose multiple sclerosis is an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). Corticosteroids are drugs that reduce inflammation in the body and affect the function of the immune system. Continued from the last slide, this table lists common multiple sclerosis symptoms, and the treatments often used, along with possible complications.
There has been a lot of progress over the years in managing multiple sclerosis, and research is ongoing into new therapies. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that progressively damages the nerves of the brain and spinal cord. There are four different types of multiple sclerosis and symptoms range from mild to severe. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference.
With MS, the immune system attacks and damages or destroys the myelin, a substance that surrounds and insulates the nerves, causing a distortion or interruption in nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain.
Most people are diagnosed between the ages of 20 to 50, though it can also occur in young children and the elderly. Researchers are examining the possible role of viruses in the cause of MS, but this is still unproven. This causes inflammation and degeneration of the myelin and can lead to demyelination, or stripping of the myelin covering of the nerves. The different types of MS can help predict the course of the disease and the patient's response to treatment.
RR-MS is defined by inflammatory attacks on the myelin and nerve fibers causing a worsening of neurologic function.
People with PR-MS experience steady disease progression and worsening neurological function as seen in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS), along with occasional relapses like people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS).
Many medications carry the risk of some side effects so patients need to manage their treatment with their doctors.
This table (continued on the next slide) lists common multiple sclerosis symptoms, and the treatments often used, along with possible complications.


It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Otologic problems, especially hearing loss, are the most common causes of subjective tinnitus. It is three times more common in women than in men, and is more prevalent among Caucasians than other ethnicities. Symptoms vary from patient to patient, and symptoms can flare up (called relapses or exacerbations) unexpectedly, and then disappear (remission). This form of MS occurs equally in men and women, and the age of onset is about 10 years later than in relapsing-remitting MS. After a period of relapses (also called attacks, or exacerbations) and remissions the disease will start to progress steadily. A physician will do a complete history and neurological exam, along with tests to evaluate mental, emotional and language functions, strength, coordination, balance, reflexes, gait, and vision. On the left is a brain MRI of a 35-year-old man with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis that reveals multiple lesions with high T2 signal intensity and one large white matter lesion. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. The customers feedback can engage you a great of the value and uppercase satisfaction of the product. Common causes of conductive hearing loss include external ear infection, cerumen impaction, and middle ear effusion. This causes electrical impulses to travel more slowly along the nerves resulting in deterioration of function in body processes such as vision, speech, walking, writing, and memory. An identical twin of someone with MS has a 25% chance of being diagnosed with the disorder. The most common symptoms of RR-MS include fatigue, numbness, problems with vision, muscle spasms or stiffness, bowel and bladder function problems, and cognitive difficulties.
The right image shows the cervical spinal cord of a 27-year-old woman representing a multiple sclerosis demyelination and plaque (see arrow). Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the MedicineNet Site. Sensorineural hearing loss may be caused by exposure to excessive loud noise, presbycusis, ototoxic medications, or Meniere's disease. It is thought there is an outside trigger and genetics only makes certain people susceptible to getting MS which is why the disease is not considered hereditary – genes may make a person more likely to develop the disease but it is believed there still is an additional outside trigger that makes it happen. In addition the effects of diet and the environment on multiple sclerosis are being investigated.
Objective tinnitus usually is caused by vascular abnormalities of the carotid artery or jugular venous systems.
Initial evaluation of tinnitus should include a thorough history, head and neck examination, and audiometric testing to identify an underlying etiology.
Unilateral or pulsatile tinnitus may be caused by more serious pathology and typically merits specialized audiometric testing and radiologic studies.


In patients who are discomforted by tinnitus and have no remediable cause, auditory masking may provide some relief.
Epidemiologic data reveal that approximately one fourth of persons with tinnitus are discomforted by it, whereas the remaining three fourths experience the condition without significant symptoms.3Tinnitus takes different forms and has different classification proposals. One classification system stresses distinctions between vibratory and nonvibratory types, while another system groups the different forms of tinnitus into subjective or objective classes.Vibratory tinnitus is caused by transmission to the cochlea of vibrations from adjacent tissues or organs. Objective tinnitus can be heard through a stethoscope placed over head and neck structures near the patient's ear.The mechanism that produces tinnitus remains poorly understood. Some leading theories include injured cochlear hair cells that discharge repetitively and stimulate auditory nerve fibers in a continuous cycle, spontaneous activity in individual auditory nerve fibers, hyperactivity of the auditory nuclei in the brain stem, or a reduction in the usual suppressive activity of the central auditory cortex on peripheral auditory nerve activity.4This article discusses the causes of subjective and objective tinnitus, and techniques used for evaluating tinnitus. A thorough history and physical examination should be directed at ruling out serious disorders. Conductive hearing loss is caused by the inhibition of sound transmission to the inner ear.
Patients should be encouraged to avoid long-term exposure to hazardous noises and to use hearing protection when necessary.
It is continuous and less disturbing than the tinnitus of Meniere's disease.14Ototoxic medications or substances are another common cause of bilateral tinnitus.
Temporomandibular joint disorder has been associated with vertigo and tinnitus, although the exact mechanism is unclear.Various metabolic abnormalities may be associated with tinnitus.
These abnormalities include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hyperlipidemia, anemia, and vitamin B12 or zinc deficiency.Many patients with tinnitus exhibit signs of psychologic disorders. Although tinnitus may be a contributing factor to the development of depression, the common association of tinnitus and depression may be the result when depressed patients, particularly those with sleep disturbances, focus and dwell on their tinnitus more than patients who are without an underlying psychologic disorder.OBJECTIVE TINNITUSObjective tinnitus is rare. The petrous carotid system is the most common source.2 Patients experience worsening of symptoms at night and usually do not have other otologic complaints. Precipitous onset can be linked to excessive or loud noise exposure or head trauma.LocationUnilateral tinnitus can be caused by cerumen impaction, otitis externa, and otitis media. The external canal and tympanic membrane should be inspected for signs of cerumen impaction, perforation, or infection. The cranial nerves should be examined for evidence of brain-stem damage or hearing loss.9 Auscultation over the neck, periauricular area, orbits, and mastoid should be performed. In the Weber test, the tuning fork is struck and placed on the midline of the forehead, the nasal bridge, or the chin. A formal audiogram establishes a base from which to pursue more advanced diagnostic testing. Further investigation should be dictated by the index of suspicion created by the history, physical examination, and audiometric profile (Figure 1).
Patients with unilateral or pulsatile tinnitus are more likely to have serious underlying disease and typically merit referral to an otolaryngologist.2,5 A full clinical evaluation should precede radiologic studies.



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