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12.03.2015

Depression effects on school, tinnitus treatment vitamin e - Test Out

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Depression is defined according to Goodman and Fuller as a morbid sadness, dejection, or a sense of melancholy distinguished from grief. It is important to note that as many as one third of people experiencing depression do not feel sad or blue. Patients with these disorders are at higher risk for developing depression due to the disease pathology or medications associated with treating these disorders.
Depression may be caused by medications a patient is taking to treat another medical problem. Depression is often under diagnosed by primary care physicians due to patients complaining of somatic pain rather than feelings of sadness.
Dysthymic Disorder is a mild chronic depression that is characterised by more cognitive issues like low self esteem and hopelessness rather than problems with sleep or appetite. Note: There may have been a previous Major Depressive Episode provided there was a full remission (no significant signs or symptoms for 2 months) before development of the Dysthymic Disorder.
In the DSM-IV there is another category listed for the diagnosis of depressive disorders that do not meet the criteria of the other mood disorders.
Minor depressive disorder: episodes of at least 2 weeks of depressive symptoms but with fewer than the five items required for Major Depressive Disorder. Recurrent brief depressive disorder: depressive episodes lasting from 2 days up to 2 weeks, occurring at least once a month for 12 months (not associated with the menstrual cycle). Post psychotic depressive disorder of Schizophrenia: a Major Depressive Episode that occurs during the residual phase of Schizophrenia. A Major Depressive Episode superimposed on Delusional Disorder, Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or the active phase of Schizophrenia. There are also several questionnaires that can be used to help determine if a patient is at risk for developing or has depression. The Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition: 21 item self-report form that is intended to assess the existence and severity of symptoms of depression in adults and adolescents 13 year and older. Geriatric Depression Scale (short form): 15 question self-report form that the patient answers based off how they have felt over the last week. Zung Depression Scale: 20 question self-report form that the patient answers based off how often the statement describes how they have felt in the last several days.
Sleep Abnormalities: sleep changes are consistently associated with depression but there is some debate on whether sleep disturbances cause depression or if depression causes sleep disturbances. Genetics: there does appear to be a genetic linkage of major depressive disorder in that it occurs up to three times more often in first degree biologic relatives of people with this disorder. When treating depression using pharmacotherapy, all of the antidepressants drugs work based off the theory that depression occurs because of an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain. This category of medications was originally designed as an antipsychotic drug but were found to be helpful only with reducing depression symptoms in those patients with schizophrenia, but did not reduce psychosis. One of the biggest things a physical therapist can do for their patients is to be aware of the signs and symptoms of depression and some of the common disorders associated with depression. Exercise has been shown benefit patients with mild to moderate mood disorders, especially anxiety and depression.
A National Institute of Mental Health study confirms that 20% of teenagers will suffer from depression before adulthood, and that 10% to 15% experience some form of depression symptoms at any time. For teenagers, this disorder can be crippling and affect the quality of their schoolwork, their relationship with peers, and the long-term effects of depression have lead to substance abuse problems for 30% of them. While occasional sadness and feelings of despair are normal, emotions of this nature that last more than a few days could be a glaring sign of depression.


Bipolar disorder is a more serious form of depression that is considered a manic-depressive illness.
The causes for non-event-related depression are not completely clear, and scientists attribute depression to a variety of factors, including genetics, psychology, and the environment. Any of these forms of depression are not to be taken lightly, according to NIMH, and require professional help from therapist, and possibly, medication. Depression falls under the broader category of Major Depressive Disorders which are characterized by a single isolated episode lasting weeks to months. They found that approximately 15.7% of people reported being told by a health care provider that they had depression at some point in their lifetime. Sedatives, hypnotics, cardiac drugs, anti-hypertensives, anticonvulsants, hormones and steroids are some drug categories that can cause depression. The Major Depressive Episode is not better accounted for by Schizoaffective Disorder and is not superimposed on Schizophrenia, Schizophreniform Disorder, Delusional Disorder, or Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.
In addition, after the initial 2 years (1 year in children or adolescents) of Dysthymic Disorder, there may be superimposed episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, in which case both diagnoses may be given when the criteria are met for a Major Depressive Episode. It is important to note that the psychosocial distress or dysfunction experienced must not be due to the physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. These symptoms must be severe enough to markedly interfere with work, school, or usual activities and be entirely absent for at least 1 week post menses.
Each question is worth one point and scores higher than 5 suggest depression and scores above 10 almost always indicate depression.
Each question is scored on a scale of 1 to 4 with higher scores indicating more feelings of depression. Depression is caused when norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin are produced in inadequate amounts or the receptor sites for these transmitters are not functioning properly. Those prone to depression will have decreased REM latency (the time between falling asleep and the first REM period), longer first REM period, less continuous sleep, and early morning awakenings. While it is not clear if these things cause depression or are just a factor in determining those who are likely to develop depression. If the therapist is sensitive to the signs and symptoms of depression they can document it in the plan of care and then notify the physician so the patient can get the appropriate medical treatment, if necessary. The chart presented above, in the associated co-morbities section, lists numerous diseases that are associated with depression. In addition, as compared to about 5% of the general public, 8.3% of teens experience depression in at least one year intervals. Often called depressive disorder, this condition includes several different forms, including major depression, persistent depressive disorder, psychotic depression, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder.
In MRI scans, the brains of patients with depression often appear different that ones that do not have the disorder, but the reasons for these distinctions are not certain, and cannot be used as the sole diagnosis of the disorder. Anti-depressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s) have lead the charge in effective medication treatments by helping to increase serotonin levels in the brain to combat depressive feelings. While neither medication nor drug rehab for teens is a cure for depression, they can ease the symptoms and help teens return some normalcy to their lives. We offer two gender-specific residential facilities, a private high school and an outpatient center for continued care.
Major depressive disorders are viewed as an adjustment disorder which occurs due to external circumstances such as stress, trauma or loss. In Goodman and Synder, they report that 80 to 90% of the most common gastrointestinal disorders are associated with depressive or anxiety disorders.


Also recreational drugs such as alcohol and illegal drugs can cause signs and symptoms of depression. Also the criterion in the DSM-IV makes diagnosing depression difficult because many patients don't fit the diagnostic criteria. There is a version of this test that can be used for medical patients that is a seven item self-report measure of depression in adolescents and adults that reflects the cognitive and affective symptoms of depression while excluding somatic and performance symptoms that might be attributable to other conditions. There are also associations to some forms of depression when testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels are low. Often an episode of depression will follow a severe psychosocial stressor such as the death of a loved one. This category of drugs do not bind to other neuroreceptors which then limits their side effects, especially cardio toxic events. These endorphins can also lower cortisol levels which have been shown to be elevated in patients with depression.
Family members can confuse the signs and symptoms of depression with those of dementia. Persistent depressive disorder also affects overall functioning, but typically occurs in two year intervals. People with depression commonly have trouble sleeping, including early morning and frequent nocturnal awakenings. Knowing this information may result in a clinical lab test that can diagnose depression based off of low or high serum levels found in a blood test. The most common treatment utilized first when treating patients with depression is through pharmacotherapy. Picking a TCA for treatment is based off how much sedatation is desired and the subsequent side effects. Also, because depression tends to present with somatic pain, rather than emotional responses, physical therapists should be aware of red flags that could signal their complaints are of non-musculoskeletal origin. When comparing depression and dementia, you tend to see faster declines in mental function, difficulty concentrating and memory loss in patients with depression. In the elderly population, sleep disturbances are the first symptom of depression especially when linked with acute confusion, falling, bowel and bladder problems, or syncope. Administration of TCAs to treat depression is 60% effective in relieving the symptoms of depression. SSRIs are indicated for use in patients with major depression but can also be used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, premenstrual syndrome, and eating disorders. At this point SSRIs have been an effective way to treat depression in children as long as they are closely monitored. Anyone with depression can participate in an exercise program no matter how old or young they are, as long as proper supervision is provided.
Children experience similar side effects as adults with the exception of the suppression of growth hormone. Exercise is an excellent option for treatment when taking anti-depressants is not an option due to their side effects.
Depression symptoms can be decreased significantly after just one session but the effects are temporary.



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