There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].
These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indies”] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also. This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography.
In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map. In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc. Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Chang-huang, the compiler of the T’u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that “although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitely”. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book.
This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies.
From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa]. Chang-huang, the compiler of the T’u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that “although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitely”.  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality.
Tagged as 1924 British Everest Expedition, Andrew Irvine, books, Ellis Nelson, George Mallory, Himalayas, mountain climbing, Mt. Since the release of INTO THE LAND OF SNOWS, there have been some questions concerning what’s real and not real in the book. This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India. They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture.


Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent.
From the perspective of this being a book whose main theme concerns defining that very line, it’s a somewhat amusing question. Locations- The map at the beginning of the book accurately depicts the placement of real locations Blake would visit along his route, had Blake actually gone there.
Listening to Geshe Sonam Rinchen’s patient lectures aided my understanding of Tibetan Buddhism.
The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha).
Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map.
Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-p’an and Jen- ch’ao’s book contains another map entitled Tun-chen-tan-kuo-t’u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-p’an’s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners. But the careful reader will notice that about half way through the book, Blake continues his journey, but the map stops.
I know the majority of readers will read the book as an adventure in a foreign land, but I hope the book finds a few fellow spiritual travelers. I know the majority of readers will read the book as an adventure in a foreign land, but I hope the book finds a few fellow travelers. With the Sherpas, Blake found a safe haven to explore Tibetan Buddhism without the heritage of Chinese repression ongoing in Tibet. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India.
Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch.


In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death. The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility. Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent.
In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602–664). This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotan’s world map. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do. The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita. The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography.
The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.  The T’u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan. At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is “A-ME-RI-KA”. It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yu-ki or the Fo-tsou-t’ong-ki.



Great small gifts for christmas
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Meditation lifestyle cd
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