John Guthrie, is generally credited with having migrated to New England about the year 1700. Seymour Guthrie, himself says in his book, “A Brief History of a Branch of the Guthrie Family.”-- “The earliest traditional knowledge of the family is in 1680 in Edinburgh. A comparison of these statements shows that all save the last one gives 1700 as the approximate date of emigration. This family has a tradition that there were seven Guthrie brothers in Scotland, that owing to religious persecutions they left there, some going to Ireland, others to America. We will now continue quoting this same source, but skip forward to page 169 and beyond, to follow the family of Robert Guthrie, one of the original immigrants from Scotland, who is believed to be a brother of the John Guthrie discussed above. We shall take Robert of Fallowfield and Nantmeal Townships, as the head of a hypothetical family, consisting of wife, _______ (Darlington) Guthrie, four sons--Adam, James, John, and William and perhaps as many daughters, names unknown.
Were not Adam and James grouped under Robert, they should be arranged under the seventeen forties and fifties; John and William at a decade or so later. He was the William Guthrie, we are quite sure, who married a daughter of Thomas Barnett, who was a neighbor to James and John Guthrie on Back Creek. Filed with these deeds is the following valuable family record, which gives the children of William, Sr.
The date of death of William Guthrie, Sr., is unknown, but it was of course prior to the first deed referred to above, which was dated Oct. Robert Guthrie, (above) second child and eldest son of William Guthrie and wife, Elizabeth, is mentioned as having lands adjoining those inherited by James, his brother, from their father William. After William Guthrie moved his family from Pennsylvania to South Carolina, they eventually settled in the Waxhaw Valley.
Land records were not well kept for the earliest settlers, but in the book: Scotch-Irish Migration to South Carolina, by Jean Stephenson, Shenandoah Publ. This reference notes that William Guthrie was already a land owner in the Waxhaw prior to 1773.
Several years after William settled in this valley, he was joined by another Scottish family that had just arrived from Pennsylvania, where they had stayed only long enough to fit out some wagons and move down the same trail to the Waxhaw, as did the Guthries. Eventually, as the Revolutionary War came to South Carolina, Robert joined on the side of the American Partiots, and so did the three Jackson boys.
While a transcript of the complete application for the widows pension of Mary Taylor Guthrie, can be read in the other part of this web-site, a brief recap of the basic information can be had in the Roster of South Carolina Patriots in the American Revolution, by Bobby Gilmer Moss, Genealogical Pub. The summary of his military history, given above, also includes the name of his wife and their marriage date.
Not only was Andrew Jackson a close neighbor and friend of the Guthries from their early childhood, but during the war, there was some excitement in the local community caused by another famous man. Robert and Mary (Taylor) Guthrie, were not quite ready to go with the main group, as they had plans to marry soon, but the rest of the caravan could not wait.
It was while living in the area of Madison County, KY that the first six children of Robert and Mary were born--names and date were given above (1783-1796).
By 1792, so many people had come into the Kentucky region that they were able to petition the US congress, and were granted statehood, as the 15th state of the Union.
Immediately following the Revolutionary War, literally thousands of Americans began flowing westward to claim new lands in the trans-Appalachian wilderness of Kentucky and Tennessee.
But by 1799, many of the very earliest residents had spent their fortune trying to defend their land titles, and had lost.
For whatever reason, in about 1799, Robert decided to make another move to the more fertile Cumberland River valley of Tennessee. In time, Robert and Mary made one last move, not far away, to a place near Paris, Henry Co., TN, where they lived out their remaining years. In about 1820, John and Elizabeth had heard of new lands opening up in a portion of what had previously been known as “Louisiana Territory” (from the purchase Thomas Jefferson made from Napoleon) but had just recently been made the newest state of the Union--Missouri. Stone was broken, lying flat on the ground in an overgrown area, about 200 feet SW of John Geery’s home. This reference notes that William Guthrie was already a land owner in the Waxhaw prior to 1773.  Actually, William had already been living somewhere in the northern section of South Carolina for about twenty years by this time, as all of his children were born there, starting in 1753. The summary of his military history, given above, also includes the name of his wife and their marriage date.  Since this information was provided by his wife, we can assume that it is correct. In the days prior to the American Revolution, Pennsylvania, which was not only a Quaker, but also a pacifist, colony restricted her residents from crossing over the Susquehanna River and taking up Indian lands. Marylanders had no such compulsion and were more inclined to travel up a river, than to worry about where a rather arbitrary political boundary might cross through the woods. Whether William participated in the Revolutionary War as a soldier, or not, is unknown, but it seems highly likely that he would have. In the first US census taken in 1790, William Geery is found with his family in Baltimore Co., Maryland.
This last stay in Maryland was of a short duration and they were probably gone in the early 1790’s.
They must have lived fairly close to one of the original settlements in that state, as William’s oldest son, John Geery, soon met a young girl, by the name of Elizabeth Guthrie, who was about his same age, and who was born there in Madison Co. In the mean time, William Geery and the rest of his family remained, at least for the most part, in Madison Co., KY. William remained for the rest of his life in Madison County, KY, passing away there on 14 Jan 1838 outliving his second wife by two years, as Hannah died there on 26 Oct 1835. William Geery’s older brother, John Geery, served in the Pennsylvania Militia during the War. By the turn of the century (early 1800’s) the threat from the Shawnee Indians had subsided quite a bit in Kentucky, although the Creeks were still giving the settlers in Tennessee a lot of trouble. For several years they made their home next to his in-laws and seemed happy in this community.
Not too long after the death of little William, this family decided to pull up stakes and move to a new territory. They traveled down the Cumberland River to where it meets the Ohio, and then, just a short distance further, it merges with the Mississippi. In the mean time, after John’s move to Missouri, his younger brother, James Geery, who had still been living with their folks back in Kentucky, packed up his family and in the early 1830’s moved to Missouri too. Robert was born in Williamson County, TN on 1 Dec 1808, and was the second child in the family of John and Elizabeth Guthrie Geery.
Life was tough on the frontier for a young man, but his father needed him to help clear the land of most of the trees, and to plow and plant the crops.
In the community near where they lived was another family, who had been their friends in Williamson Co., TN, and who had moved to Missouri with them. Robert and Sally were married in Ralls County, on 29 Sep 1831 and began building up their own farm ground in Pike County, next to the farm and home of William W. Robert was not only a farmer, but also followed the trade of being the local tanner of hides. No out-right military conflict resulted, but more and more Mormons kept moving into the western counties of the state, north of Jackson County. In time, the Mormons were expelled from Missouri, and in the cold of winter, 1839, many of them migrated back across northern tier of counties, on their way to Illinois. In 1860, following the election of Abraham Lincoln, from the neighboring state of Illinois, the Civil War broke out and Missouri was referred to as a “split state” meaning that it was both a “slave” state, as well as a “free” state, and the people could chose which way they wanted to be.
Coming from Tennessee, the Geerys had southern inclinations, but not so much so that they wanted to kill anyone over it. After an appropriate sweetheart courtship of these teenagers, Reuben and Lucy were married on 25 Feb 1864 in Pike Co., MO.
Following the end of the Civil War, there was another huge explosion of the population moving west to occupy almost every piece of land that could be acquired.
With the discovery of rich veins of gold, then silver, and then copper in a little known place that soon became the boom town of Butte, Montana, thousands of people from all over the world flocked to the newest strike zone to make themselves wealthy over-night. Reuben and Fanny had a young family at this time, but they were coming to the conclusion that their Missouri farm was not going to provide them with the life they wanted to live. At least with the railroad, their trip west was much less of a hardship than it had been for earlier travelers. Additionally some of Reuben’s brothers and sisters came to Montana with him, or shortly thereafter.
Reuben’s mining efforts didn’t pay off too well, and his farm, although pretty, didn’t provide all that much either, but his freighting job supplied his family with their basic needs.
The second daughter, and third child of Reuben and Fanny Geery was Cora Bell, born 30 Mar 1869 in Pike County, MO. It wasn’t long before big, tall Jim Fitzpatrick noticed the pretty Cora Bell Geery, and he began to court her. The thoughts of a loving and kindly father, who could see the hand writing on the wall and knew he would soon be giving his daughter away to another man.
Jim Fitzpatrick’s and Cora Bell Geery’s wedding was recorded in the new county courthouse located in Butte.
The last two were twins, which were named after their mother, and her dear sister, who she sadly left behind near Butte. Cora Geery Fitzpatrick, and her family were very happy in their Montana home, even though she was separated from the rest of her Geery siblings. Soon the family doctor diagnosed her with colon cancer, and there was not much that could be done to help her.
Whether William participated in the Revolutionary War as a soldier, or not, is unknown, but it seems highly likely that he would have.  His older brother, John, was a soldier, and with the opposing British Army stationed in Philadelphia, a patriotic feeling filled the hearts of most able bodied Pennsylvanians, perhaps more so than from any other colony, outside of Massachusetts. Reuben’s mining efforts didn’t pay off too well, and his farm, although pretty, didn’t provide all that much either, but his freighting job supplied his family with their basic needs.  With that being the case, he moved their residence from their Browns Gulch farm to the town of Rocker, about four miles west of Butte, where it was more convenient for him to spend time with his family. Soon the family doctor diagnosed her with colon cancer, and there was not much that could be done to help her.  Cora passed away in Columbia Falls, MT on 8 Aug. Some Christians feel that in this story, Jesus was offering His hearers a glimpse of what existence in the afterlife is like.
The Jews had been blessed above measure by a knowledge of God and his plan of salvation for all mankind.
Instead, they considered them as “dogs” that would have to be satisfied with the spiritual crumbs falling from their masters’ tables. Only moments before relating this parable, Jesus had rebuked the Pharisees for their spiritual conceit. And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.

Based on this belief, some people teach that those who are consigned to the fiery torments of hell will never stop burning throughout all eternity.
Their bodies obviously came along, for we find the rich man lifting up his eyes, and desiring to have his tongue cooled by a drop of water from the finger of Lazarus who was resting, as we have seen, in Abraham’s bosom. Instead, He was referring to the unfaithfulness of the Jews regarding their assigned responsibility.
Notice that the Scriptures choose the strongest possible words to describe the complete annihilation of the wicked.
The apparition of Samuel told Saul, “Tomorrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me.” Saul committed suicide on the battlefield the next day. Put in the word “life” instead of “soul” and the text makes perfect sense in its consistency with the rest of the Bible.
Maggots that fed on the dead bodies were constantly destroying what might escape the flames. With the fires of Gehenna burning before their eyes, Jesus could not have spoken a more graphic word to the Pharisees to describe the final total destruction of sinners. But in this case, the word “carcasses” is used, revealing the fact that the fire consumes dead bodies, not disembodied souls. When the soldiers came just before sunset to take the bodies off the cross, Jesus was already dead (John 19:32-34).
It has been preached that Christ actually descended into the lower regions of the earth and preached to lost souls that were imprisoned in some purgatory or limbo. The answer is plainly given in verse 20, “When once the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing.” So, the preaching was actually done while the ark was being built—during the preaching of Noah to that antediluvian world. There is absolutely nothing here that indicates that Jesus departed from the body during the time He was dead to go to any subterranean place to minister to wicked spirits.
In Exodus 21:1-6 the Hebrew servant was to serve his master “for ever,” but it was obviously only as long as he lived. Scotland, where they were of the best middle class and interested in the manufacture of iron. Guthrie’s American Guthrie and Allied Families, and back track just a bit to add more information about the progress of this family, that was not contained in the above account, or that was quickly skimmed over.
Jackson already had two sisters who lived in the Waxhaw valley with their families and this had always been their family destination when sailing to America.  They found a place to claim as their own, but sadly, the father, Andrew, died shortly after their arrival, and just prior to the birth of his third son--Mar. James Adams during 1776 for a three-month tour against the Indians.  In 1778, he was under Capt. 1816 a tragedy struck the family when their oldest little boy, ten year old William, suddenly died.
1822 just a copule years after their arrival, much like Robert’s mother; and she was raised by her widowed mother, who died about a month after Sally was married. Waddle (sometimes spelled “Waddell” especially in the earlier generations), as well as his son, George R. Others, citing numerous passages of Scripture that seem to contradict the portrayal of heaven and hell contained in this passage, feel that Jesus was teaching an altogether different kind of lesson. The “dogs” and sinners, so despised by the self-righteous Pharisees, would enter heaven before they would.
Abraham replies, “If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.” Verse 31. As with the parable of the trees and the bramble (Judges 9:8-15), however, serious problems arise with a literal interpretation of the story elements.
Enough graves have been exhumed in recent years to know that the bodies of the deceased are carried neither to heaven or hell after burial.
As stewards of the special message of truth, they utterly failed to share it with the Gentiles, who were eager to hear it.
By the parable of another rich man, He graphically illustrated how they had proven just as unfaithful with spiritual riches as the steward had been unfaithful with physical wealth. Nowhere do the Scriptures teach that the wicked will continue to suffer in the fires of hell through the ceaseless ages of eternity.
In no way should these clear words be misunderstood by one who honestly desires to know truth. He received his information as second hand from the witch, and only concluded it was Samuel from her description. The contrast isbetween one who can take the physical life, and He who can take away eternal life. In other words, it is a destruction which never ends, because there will be no resurrection from that destruction.
Yet, he hastened to say in the same verse, “There shall not be a coal to warm at, nor a fire to sit before it.” So the unquenchable fire will go out after it has finished its work.
First, even though Jesus told the thief, “Verily I say unto thee, To day shaltthou be with me in paradise,” three days later He told Mary that He had not yet ascended to His Father. The thieves were very much alive, and their legs were broken to hasten death and to prevent them from escaping.
It says that Christ suffered once for sin that He might bring us to God by being put to death in the flesh. The three questions are clearly answered in the text itself, that He preached by the Holy Spirit, He did it while the ark was being prepared, and He did it to the spirits in prison or to those individuals whose sinful lives were bound in the prison house of sin. 16, 1767--who was also named Andrew Jackson, in honor of his deceased father, and who grew up to later become the President of the United States.
Geery, that to the best of their knowledge and belief, the names of the heirs of John Geery deceased, and their places of residence are as follows: Robert Geery and Catharine Shotwell formerly Catherine Geery of Pike County and John G. Geery, that to the best of their knowledge and belief, the names of the heirs of John Geery deceased, and their places of residence are as follows:  Robert Geery and Catharine Shotwell formerly Catherine Geery of Pike County and John G. Unfortunately, many modern religious teachers have isolated the story from its original context and used it as a device for scaring people.
Only a Jew would pray to “Father Abraham,” as we find the rich man doing later in the story. There is a fire reserved for the wicked, but a fire so hot it will utterly destroy all who are engulfed by it. Here is proof in the words of Jesus: “And I say unto you my friends, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do.
So whatever Christ did in preaching during this period of time, He did it through or by the Holy Spirit. The text says here “to the spirits in prison.” Throughout the Bible, we find this terminology used in describing those who are bound in the prison house of sin. Religious “conversions” resulting from a fear of hell as it is depicted in this passage have indeed occurred, but are based on a foundation sorely in need of the strength that comes only from a genuine appreciation of God’s character and a proper understanding of Scripture.
Jesus never would have compromised the integrity of the Holy Scriptures by teaching a doctrine contrary to its own overwhelming testimony on the subject.
Not only will their bodies be destroyed in that fire, but also their lives will be snuffed out for all eternity.
Hugh Coffee and Colonel Kershaw and was in the battles at Rocky Mount and Sumter’s Surprise. Eternally burning fire is not taught anywhere in the Bible—not even in the story of the rich man and Lazarus.
Perhaps then we will better understand what lessons there are for us in the story of the rich man and Lazarus.
1842; after which he married a 4th time, Jane Pittman, who was about 17 years younger than the aging John, and she outlived him. Louis Missouri children and heirs of Mary Copelin formerly Mary Geery, and Jane Geery widow of the deceased. Also, the expression “eternal fire” may be understood in terms of consequences rather than duration, as in the example of Sodom and Gomorrha in Jude 7). This is a common word play Paul uses, emphasizing that Messiah was revealed through his manifestation in the flesh.
Ela azelot l'aravya w'tob hipekeet l'drmesoq  And not did I go to Jerusalem towards the apostles who were there before me. Noting a very curious dialectical choice throughout the Aramaic NT, in the manner "Jerusalem is spelt .
Furthermore, not even these men were able to contribute to my knowledge. __________________ 8 At least, not compelled before entering maturity and a full under-standing of what his own return meant. As seen later, part of the Galatian heresy was circumcising people who didn`t even believe, or who had not grown in any understanding.
The proper order of things would be first to trust in Yahshua, and then seal that growth faith and faith in circumcision.
Rather, man used circumcision as an entry point into the Community, as did the Jerusalem group and the Qumran community at the Dead Sea. Most churches of Christendom teach that infant or adult baptism makes them a `member of the church`. The Jerusalem Circumcision group were attempting to make them exchange one kind of bondage for another (rabbinical man-made customs rather than Biblical Torah), but Paul immediately rejected their attempts, giving them no place. Rather, once the abiding has gone "towards you" it can also be said to be "with you". 13 In the Middle East, "to turn my face towards" is an Aramaic idiom that means to show favor. He, Yah`shua was deeply Torah-Observant, and coming from the House of Judah, in His quest to find and reclaim the `Lost Sheep of the House of Israel`, He showed Himself as upholding and adhering to Torah as an example to those `Lost Sheep of the House of Israel`, Galatians etc, who had centuries earlier fully rejected Torah Observance.
Now, understanding all this, we must also come to the conclusion that Peter, Paul, Barnabas, and all the other Disciples, would never deviate from the teachings of their Master. Thus we conclude that Peter, Paul, Barnabas and the others would not at all, or at any time, consume non-Kosher foods. In fact there is no hint at all in Galatians that Peter was consuming non-Kosher foods.
He, Shaul, considered Peter a hypocrite for `hiding` his actions from those of the `Circumcision`.
To illustrate a point; In my own ministry for over 27 years, I have ministered amongst the Asian Community. Now if I were to be seen by Moslems sitting at the same table as pork-eaters, (even though I did not myself eat the pork), that would make my ministry amongst the Strict-Moslems very difficult, as they would consider me an unclean abomination and I would not be allowed into their homes, sit at their table or even to shake hands with them.
As in the case of Kepha, I too would have to rise hurriedly from the table and make a hasty exit, lest the Moslems to whom I witness saw me.
Lamsa translates this passage as "cast lots" even though neither word for "lots", appears directly in the text. Both readings though are correct, since casting lots is a popular eastern image for making up one's mind. ______________________ 2:14 w'kad khazit d'la aileen teritzayt b'sharara d'Awngaleyon 17 eymereet l'Keefa l'ai-yen kulhon ein ainat 18 d'Yehodiya ainat Arma-ayt chaya ainat w'ela Yehoda-ayt aykanna aleetz ainat l'aimmeh d'Yehoda-ayt nekhwan when--behold--those who not followed righteously in his truth of the Gospel, said I to Peter, to the eyes of them all 19, "If you who are Judeans, you Arameans 20 live you as (Arameans) and not as Judeans, urge you to the Gentiles of Judeans to be as But behold!

However, the "New Covenant Aramaic Peshitta Text with Hebrew Translation" editor writes on page iv, "Concerning the word 'gospel', only the pure Aramaic word sevartha is used in this edition, rather than the Greek word where the Peshitta uses it in 27 places." While the issue of loan words is complex and beyond the scope of a simple word-for-word translation, suffice to say that we should expect the Peshitta to have some of these, as it reflects the harsh reality of first century Israel under Roman domination. In fact, if the Aramaic were "pure", that would tend to invalidate the Peshitta's claim to originality. Finally, there are far more signs of Aramaic influence in the Greek New Testament than there are the other way around.
It is for these reasons also that every line is scrupulously checked in multiple sources. 18 Later pointed Aramaic texts put a linea occultis, or a silencing mark, over the letter noon- n. Even we who believed in him, know that it is from the faith in Messiah that we will be justified and not from the works of the Torah. 24; 25 _______________ 22 This is the only time in the entire Aramaic New Testament where the phrase "Jewish nature" appears. The word anyk refers to a classific-ation without a physical occurrence, kind of like having an image of a bird in one's mind but not seeing a bird directly. In this lone exception however, Rav Shaul bifurcates human nature further, into Jewish and (by implication) non- Jewish varieties. 23 Rabbi Moshe Koniuchowsky in his translation `Restoration Scriptures True Name Edition` writes regarding the phrase `works of the Torah, (quote) "This phrase `works of law` will appear throughout Galations, and does not refer to Torah-keeping. The very fact that this term is so isolated and limited in scope to the `circumcision-first club` in one particular community (Gal. 2:4), should lead any individual to the under-standing that the phrase `works of law` does not speak of YHWH`s Torah, but rather of man`s perverted permutations" (end of quote). The Written-Torah on the other hand teaches salvation through the unmerit-ed Favour and Grace of Yah`weh (Genesis to Deuteronomy). The conflict that Christians have regarding the Observance of Torah is that most of them are unaware that Rabbi Shaul speaks of 2 Torahs in his Epistles; One being the Written Yahweh-GivenTorah and the other being the Oral-Torah (which are the works of the law and command-ments of men).
Even Jewish people today are more knowledgable of the 2 Torahs than many of the `brilliant` Christian Bible-teachers who are unaware of them. It woud be wrong to apply this (verse 16) to the Torah of Moses as that does give us the method of Salvation by Grace long before Messiah turned up in a human form, and also the (written) Torah reveals it`s Goal, which is Messiah.
Once again we find Gentiles have made a mess of this one verse applying it to the Torah of Moses which is `Life`.
The Torah of Moses is the Master Yahushua`s manuel, so without it we have no light or lamp to walk in the darkness.
30 ____________________ 30 If people had to attain salvation through human customs and laws such as the rabbinic customs (Ma`aseh Ha Torah) or any other societal customs then the Messiah`s death would be in vain as everyone would be able to get to Heaven through their own human set of standards. 31 Who has put bewitchment in you that has as he that portrayed turn before your eyes Y'shua the Messiah when crucified. Oh! 34; 35 _______________  31 There is a clear wordplay between galatya, those who live in Galatia, and galoot, those who are exiles, the dispersed or captives. While we could not directly translate the passage as "you foolish exiles", it is very obvious that Rav Shaul is writing to both groups. Finally, even though the spelling between galatya and galoot is not exactly the same in araimac, the wordplay exists at a sonic level.
Such homophonic layers of cleverness are extremely common throughout the Aramaic New Testament and are one of the strongest pieces of evidence we have for declaring its originality and primacy 32 Torah of Moses (Rabbi Simon Altaf) 33 Rabbi Moshe Koniuchowsky in his translation `Restoration Scriptures True Name Edition` writes regarding the phrase `works of the Torah,` (quote) "This phrase `works of law` will appear throughout Galations, and does not refer to Torah-keeping.
What we see is that there is a definite juxtaposition between spirit and flesh, and that the Galatians' error leads to the latter. The word Nymlsm (meshelmin) that I have translated as "end" can also mean "complete", and to "complete in flesh" means to terminate after life with no redemption afterwards. A variation of Nymlsm is said actually by Y'shua on the cross as meshalam, or "it is accomplished!" 37 Or "miracles", since the word khaila is used as "power" in the Prayer of Our Master (kingdom, power, glory) and the power of the kingdom is to literally do miracles. 38 The word shema means "hear" but also "to obey". Probably the latter meaning is better, but both can equally and simultaneously apply to the point Rav Shaul is making.
Salvation both in the First and Renewed Covenant is only by the Faith in Yahweh and the outworking of His unmerited favour and Grace upon the believing one. Followers of Moshiach Yah`sua are the same, Faith must come before Water-Baptism and Brit-Malah.
Therefore, it can also be translated as "all these instructions". 43 The `curse` referred to here is not the Torah itself as many christian pastors falsely teach, rather it is the penalty and consequences of disobeying the Torah. Many christians stop reading at this point and try to make out that the Torah is a curse, but Paul immediately refutes that foolish accusation and goes on to say that the `curse` is the penalty for rejecting Torah. This double meaning line up is a way of ratcheting up intensity, much in the way we might say in English, "he was a man's man". There is also another wordplay in that both words also contain the root for "king" in them. 47 Rabbi Shaul states unequivocally that the Commandments in the Torah of Yahweh do not annul the Covenant which Yahweh had made with Abraham.
In fact the Torah which was confirmed to Moshe 430 years after the Abrahamic Covenant actually confirms that Abrahamic Covenant. That would have to mean that just as Torah never negated the Abrahamic Covenant, neither does the Renewed Covenant (New Testament) annul the Torah. One of those frequent choices, molkana is spelled exactly the same as another word that means "angels"!
11 clearly states that all the First Covenant saints from Abel to Yoch-anan the Immerser exercised this Heart-felt Faith in Yahweh as the route to Salvation just as do the Renewed Covenant believers. The keeping and outworking of Torah in the lives of all these saints, both in the First and Renewed Covenant proved that Faith and Grace was already at work in their lives. None of the First Covenant saints relied on their ability to keep the Torah as a means of Salvation. Faith in Yahweh and His unmerited Grace towards them was their Key to `Righousness`, and keeping of Torah was the outworking of that Grace in their lives. The Ruach HaKodesh of Yahweh still teaches us the Torah of Yahweh.(Pastor Denis) 55 That is, as a garment wraps a person in.
Rav Shaul uses it elsewhere in Ephesians when talking about putting on the armor of Elohim and the breastplate of righteousness. 63___________________57 `When we were young` is a clear reference to both Israel as a `child` in bondage to Egypt (out of Egypt have I called my son) as well as the Ten `Lost` Tribes of Israel in bondage to the nations by whom they were carried away into captivity. Rabbi Shaul, in his own case reminds the Galatians and himself that he was once subject to the `elements of the world` ie the misinterpretation of the Torah by the School of Shammai.
If we refuse to be a part of that Abrahamic Covenant of our father Abraham we have no right to expect the Blessing of Yahweh, especially those ennumbered in Deuteronomy ch.
28 then you must shomer Torah for these blessings are founded on Torah-Observance, (Deuteronomy 28:13-15).
It has long been understood that the 360 mss that make up the Peshitta family are for all intents and purposes identical but for a few minor-spelling variants. Therefore, the most likely scenario is that this word is simply one of those minor variants within the Peshitta family. 67 These Galatian believers, for whatever reason, were turning back again to be enslaved by the weak and beggarly elements (traditions, false gods, idolatory, etc of Galatia) from which Yah`weh had delivered them. Like the Children of Israel after their deliverance out of Egypt and Lot`s wife after her deliverance from Sodom, they `looked back` treasuring the `old sinful ways` rather than the things of Yah`weh. Unfortunately , many Christians are much like the Galatians on this score too, rather than observing The Moeds of Passover, Shavuot, Tabernacles, Yom Kippur, Sabbath-Keeping, etc, they follow the pagan customs of Easter with it`s bunnies, chocolate eggs, fluffy chickens, Halloween, Christ-mass, `Sun`-day worship, Horror-scopes, etc. They had fallen under the spell of those of the `Circumcision-first Club` who had influenced them into believing that Brit-Malah was a prior requirement to Salvation by Faith in Yah`shua. Rabbi Shaul is saying here that if they desire to be under a law, then make sure that it is Yahweh`s Law they hear and shomer and not the laws, regulations and works of man. 85____________________ 79 Two Covenants (Pastor Denis) 80 The first covenant was the `works of the flesh,`Yah`shma-El: The second was the Covenant of Promise, Yah-sac. However, in this context "surrender" is the better reading, in the sense that Mount Sinai, where the covenant was codified into divine writing, must be forced into peace (surrender) to Jerusalem, which is the place YHWH has chosen for His name. The irony of course is that this "forced peace" is in stark contrast to today's relationship between Saudi Arabia and the modern state of Israel. 82 Hagar is representative of the mountain in Arabia (The arab peoples) who are in now slavery (to Allah) and who ever seek to bring the Promised Seed also, under slavery to Allah or to death.
Cast out the bondwoman and her son, for he who is of the bondwoman will not inherit along with the son of the freewoman. The second part of his prophecy falls in our time when he shows that the son of the bondwoman, that is Ishmael, his sons the Arabs and the Muslims who take on that (Islamic) faith that puts people under bondage will fight and persecute those of the FREE woman namely Jerusalem born of above." 87 This is more than another exhortation. It is a biblical command, we are to do as did our Father Abraham, namely, throw out from among the people those who are arriving to change obedience to the true Torah, and turn it instead into obedience to their own `teacher of righteousness` and his `works of nomos.` Based on this precedent in Yisrael, Paul appeals to the Galut-Yah to take immediate action and send these legalists back on their way to Jerusalem. Free to enjoy the Biblical 7th Day Sabbath and all the Moeds of Israel and to walk in all His ways. Rabbi Paulos is not saying `do not circumcise`; But what circumcision had come to be meant in the 1st. Rabbi Shaul would say to such today, "Water Baptism is of no benefit, is meaning-less to you" We know that both Mikvah and Brit-Malah are beneficial to the Believer as Rabbi Shaul taught but in their proper, biblical order, as Rabbi Shaul clearly points out in this verse.
An evil person then has become lost or taken a crooked path, but if he repents he is said to have "turned back". In this case though, Rav Shaul is literally "returning" to his main point. 94 This is exactly true, for when you have come to an understanding of Brit-Malah, after having learned and been taught the very basics of Yah`weh`s Eternal Torah and then enter Brit-Malah, you are declaring to all that you are now ready, joyous and willing by the Ruach to uphold all the teachings of Torah.
Christendom teaches that we should follow the Ten Commandments as it is `God`s Word`, then they go on to say that you don`t need to follow the 4th.
They say, erringly, that the 7th Day Sabbath was done away with, that we no longer need to keep it.
We can be circumcised but if we do not love our brethren we are `fallen from grace`, likewise if the uncircumcised do not love their brethren, they too are `fallen from grace`. The Cicumcision-First Club preached `Circumcision` ie salvation through the `works of the law.` Unlike Rabbi Shaul, they put the `cart before the horse`, so to speak. This shows (that) Rabbi Paulos was proclaiming the Torah of Moses that revealed the Messiah to come. The Pharisees that were against him were from the School of Shammai as they were the majority at the time. He wants them `circumcised` or `cut-off` from the presence of the congregations of the Galut-Yah.
Rokha raga medem d'naka l'besra w'terihon seqoboleh anton khad d'khad d'la medem d'tzevin anton tehowon aivdin. Flesh for desires a thing that is against to the Spirit. 117,  If then by the Spirit you are led, not you are under the Torah. If then you are led by the Spirit, you are not under the Torah.
Those who and these of things done like, those of his kingdom of Elohim not inherit. Envy, murder, drunkenness, revelry and all like things. Reason being, if such were not done, then Rav Shaul could be construed as saying that these positive fruits of the Spirit are not covered in the Torah, when the fact is they are (love your neighbor, et.

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