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Composting can be categorized into different categories depending on the nature of decomposition process. Aerobic composting is the process by which organic wastes are converted into compost or manure in presence of air.
There are a variety of methods for aerobic composting, the most common being the Heap Method, where organic matter needs to be divided into three different types and to be placed in a heap one over the other, covered by a thin layer of soil or dry leaves.
Vermicomposting is a type of composting in which certain species of earthworms are used to enhance the process of organic waste conversion and produce a better end-product. The level of nutrients in compost depends upon the source of the raw material and the species of earthworm.
A wide range of agricultural residues, such as straw, husk, leaves, stalks, weeds etc can be converted into vermicompost. There are nearly 3600 types of earthworms which are divided into burrowing and non-burrowing types.
The types of vermicomposting depend upon the amount of producton and composting structures. The worm castings contain higher percentage of both macro and micronutrients than the garden compost.
A relatively new product from vermicomposting is vermicompost tea which is a liquid produced by extracting organic matter, microorganisms, and nutrients from vermicompost.
Central solutions are exemplified by low-cost composting without forced aeration, and technologically more advanced systems with forced aeration and temperature feedback. The methodology of composting can be categorized into three major segments—anaerobic composting, aerobic composting, and vermicomposting. Aerobic composting is the process by which organic wastes are converted into compost or manure in presence of air and can be of different types.
Berkley Method uses a labor-intensive technique and has precise requirements of the material to be composted. Vermicomposting involves use of earthworms as natural and versatile bioreactors for the process of conversion. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Vermicompost is known to be the world's best fertiliser and it is known to change the look of your garden.
Vermicompost never burns your plants like overuse of fresh manure or conventional fertilizers do.
Vermicompost can quickly build up your soil, and strong plants in rich soil have strong resistance to disease. Many of you that have jumped into the exciting world of worm farming and now have a bin full of rich and gorgeous vermicompost (garden gold) or worm castings. Commercial companies somehow manage to separate "pure worm castings" from the rest of the compost -- how they manage to pull that off is a mystery to me. Rather than just spreading it randomly throughout your garden and flower beds (as you might do with shovelfuls of compost) you'll want to reserve your vermicompost for plants that need the nutrition the most at that time. Vermicompost is a terrific amendment for starting seeds, as it's nutrient-rich and helps support the young plants' growth. My favorite time to add soil amendments that are high in nutritional value is while plants are actively growing.


Houseplants are an ideal vermicompost recipient because you can amend these guys year-round.
The three major segments of composting are anaerobic composting, aerobic composting, and vermicomposting.
In this process, aerobic microorganisms break down organic matter and produce carbon dioxide, ammonia, water, heat and humus, the relatively stable organic end-product. This heap needs to be mixed every week, and it takes about three weeks for conversion to take place.
Apart from other nutrients, a fine worm cast is rich in NPK which are in readily available form and are released within a month of application. Other potential feedstock for vermicompost production are livestock wastes, poultry litter, dairy wastes, food processing wastes, organic fraction of MSW, bagasse, digestate from biogas plants etc. Unlike vermicompost and compost, this tea may be applied directly to plant foliage, reportedly to enhance disease suppression. Markets include home improvement centers, nurseries, landscape contractors, greenhouses, garden supply stores, grocery chains, flower shops, discount houses, and the general public. Central composting plants are capable of handling more than 100,000 tons of biodegradable waste per year, but typically the plant size is about 10,000 to 30,000 tons per year.
The composting process occurs when biodegradable waste is piled together with a structure allowing for oxygen diffusion and with a dry matter content suiting microbial growth. The most common is the Heap Method, where organic matter needs to be divided into three different types and to be placed in a heap one over the other, covered by a thin layer of soil or dry leaves. It is carried out in specially designed pits where earthworm culture also needs to be done. Lately, I've been sticking with the term "vermicompost" as opposed to castings, because technically worm castings are just part of what you'll harvest from your worm bin. What I do know that when you and I raise worms to compost our kitchen scraps, we don't end up with pure castings. The good news is that you don't need wheelbarrows full in order for plants to reap the benefits -- a little vermicompost goes a long way. Not that I would stop you from adding it to the garden bed at any time, but that's when it makes the most sense to the plants.
The drip line is around the circumference of the plant that starts at the longest outward branches.
Remove a small amount of potting soil from the plant's pot and replace it with some vermicompost. Although aerobic composting may produce intermediate compounds such as organic acids, aerobic microorganisms decompose them further. Earthworms feeds the organic waste materials and passes it through their digestive system and gives out in a granular form (cocoons) which is known as vermicompost. Vermicompost enhances plant growth, suppresses disease in plants, increases porosity and microbial activity in soil, and improves water retention and aeration.
The non-burrowing earthworms eat 10 percent soil and 90 percent organic waste materials; these convert the organic waste into vermicompost faster than the burrowing earthworms. On the other hand, large-scale vermicomposting is done at commercial scale by recycling large quantities of organic waste in modern facilities with the production of more than hundreds of tons annually. Vermicompost tea also may be applied to the soil as a supplement between compost applications to increase biological activity.


The first stage of the biological activity is the consumption of easily available sugars by bacteria, which causes a fast rise in temperature.
Biodegradable wastes must be separated prior to composting: Only pure foodwaste, garden waste, wood chips, and to some extent paper are suitable for producing good-quality compost. Organic matter may be collected in pits and covered with a thick layer of soil and left undisturbed six to eight months.
We end up with vermicompost; which is castings, bedding, worms, cocoons, partially decomposed organic matter, and whatever else is hanging around inside there. You may have noticed long before today that you have much less vermicompost to work with as compared to the amount of compost you reap from an outdoor compost pile. For outdoor seed planting, just sprinkle it along the trench or into the holes that you dug for your seeds. During the spring, summer, and fall both vegetable and ornamental plants can also take advantage of the excellent water-holding properties of vermicompost. Picture it as if someone was at the top of a plant or tree and was spraying water onto the branches -- the drip line is the area where the water would "drip off" and land onto the ground around the plant (or tree). The resultant compost, with its relatively unstable form of organic matter, has little risk of phytotoxicity. Mixing has to be done every 15 days, and there is no fixed time in which the compost may be ready. Simply speaking, vermicompost is earthworm excrement, called castings, which can improve biological, chemical, and physical properties of the soil. They can tolerate temperatures ranging from 0 to 40°C but the regeneration capacity is more at 25 to 30°C and 40–45 percent moisture level in the pile.
Vermicompost also benefits the environment by reducing the need for chemical fertilizers and decreasing the amount of waste going to landfills. That is as it should be; it just means that you'll want to be a little more selective about how you spread the goods around.
Offer this little treat every other month and you'll have your houseplants eating out of your hands (and they probably didn't do that before).
Anaerobic microorganisms dominate and develop intermediate compounds including methane, organic acids, hydrogen sulphide and other substances. The heat generated accelerates the breakdown of proteins, fats and complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemicellulose.
The chemical secretions in the earthworm’s digestive tract help break down soil and organic matter, so the castings contain more nutrients that are immediately available to plants.
Vermicompost production is trending up worldwide and it is finding increasing use especially in Western countries, Asia-Pacific and Southeast Asia.
The process is low-temperature, slow and the compost formed may not be completely converted and may include aggregated masses and phytotoxic compounds. Moreover, this process destroys many micro-organisms that are human or plant pathogens, as well as weed seeds, provided it undergoes sufficiently high temperature. Although more nutrients are lost from the materials by aerobic composting, it is considered more efficient and useful than anaerobic composting for agricultural production.



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