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The objective of the training is to give all individuals going to sea the essential basic knowledge and experience of personal survival principals and techniques that can be applied to maximise their chances of survival in the event of a marine casualty.
The certificate issued on completion of training attests to the fact that the participant has been present at all theoretical and practical sessions and has been successful in the evaluation exercises, in particular his ability to execute correctly the practical aspects of training. Crocodiles and alligators are not amphibians, but you can meet one whether you are in land or water.
In the unlikely event you come across a charging elephant, it is possible to stop it in its tracks with nothing more than a wave of your hand.
The vast majority of snakes would rather retreat than fight, so if you encounter a dangerous snake, slowly back away, giving it room to escape.If the snake blocks your only escape route, hit it with a long branch or your belt.
Predatory animals instinctually chase their prey and unless youa€™re Usain Bolt, you wona€™t out run your four-legged foe. Odds are that if youa€™re out in the wilderness, youa€™re going to need to make a camp fire. Come prepared to be showered with invaluable information, introduced to some life saving skills, work hard and have a lot of fun at the same time. The course assembles Friday evening for an initial safety brief at 7pm and finishes at approximately 3pm on the Sunday. Contrary to what some people preach, the more of an ass you are, the less chance you have to seal the deal with that hottie in the club. Basic Survival skills are essential for any man, either to impress their wilderness date, or for real life emergencies. You don’t need to know how to rebuild a transmission (bonus points if you can), but every man needs to know how to change their oil, tires, brakes, and alternator should the need arise.
When you board a ship or aircraft, find out what survival equipment is on board, where it is stowed, and what it contains.
If you are responsible for other personnel on board, make sure you know where they are and they know where you are. If you are in an aircraft that goes down at sea, take the following actions once you clear the aircraft. Get clear and upwind of the aircraft as soon as possible, but stay in the vicinity until the aircraft sinks. A search for survivors usually takes place around the entire area of and near the crash site. The best technique for rescuing personnel from the water is to throw them a life preserver attached to a line. When the rescuer approaches a survivor in trouble from behind, there is little danger the survivor will kick, scratch, or grab him. Before surfacing to breathe and while still underwater, use your hands to push burning fluid away from the area where you wish to surface. If you are in oil-covered water that is free of fire, hold your head high to keep the oil out of your eyes. Throw out the sea anchor, or improvise a drag from the raft’s case, bailing bucket, or a roll of clothing. Calmly consider all aspects of your situation and determine what you and your companions must do to survive. Assign a duty position to each person: for example, water collector, food collector, lookout, radio operator, signaler, and water bailers.
Your best protection against the effects of cold water is to get into the life raft, stay dry, and insulate your body from the cold surface of the bottom of the raft. Note: Before boarding any raft, remove and tether (attach) your life preserver to yourself or the raft. You can travel more effectively by inflating or deflating the raft to take advantage of the wind or current.
If you have an arm injury, the best way to board is by turning your back to the small end of the raft, pushing the raft under your buttocks, and lying back. In rough seas, it may be easier for you to grasp the small end of the raft and, in a prone position, to kick and pull yourself into the raft.
Immediately tighten the equalizer clamp upon entering the raft to prevent deflating the entire raft in case of a puncture (Figure 16-18). In a multiplace (except 20- to 25-man) raft, erect a square sail in the bow using the oars and their extensions as the mast and crossbar (Figure 16-19). When you have a limited water supply and you can’t replace it by chemical or mechanical means, use the water efficiently. To reduce your loss of water through perspiration, soak your clothes in the sea and wring them out before putting them on again.
When desalting kits are available in addition to solar stills, use them only for immediate water needs or during long overcast periods when you cannot use solar stills.
When fishing, do not handle the fishing line with bare hands and never wrap it around your hands or tie it to a life raft. Never eat fish that have pale, shiny gills, sunken eyes, flabby skin and flesh, or an unpleasant odor. At sea, you may become seasick, get saltwater sores, or face some of the same medical problems that occur on land, such as dehydration or sunburn. Note: Some survivors have said that erecting a canopy or using the horizon as a focal point helped overcome seasickness. If flame, smoke, or other contaminants get in the eyes, flush them immediately with salt water, then with fresh water, if available. Whether you are in the water or in a boat or raft, you may see many types of sea life around you.
If a shark attack is imminent while you are in the water, splash and yell just enough to keep the shark at bay. When you are in a raft and a shark attack is imminent, hit the shark with anything you have, except your hands. A fixed cumulus cloud in a clear sky or in a sky where all other clouds are moving often hovers over or slightly downwind from an island. In the tropics, the reflection of sunlight from shallow lagoons or shelves of coral reefs often causes a greenish tint in the sky. In the arctic, light-colored reflections on clouds often indicate ice fields or snow-covered land. Mirages occur at any latitude, but they are more likely in the tropics, especially during the middle of the day.
You may be able to detect land by the pattern of the waves (refracted) as they approach land (Figure 16-20). The surf may be irregular and velocity may vary, so modify your procedure as conditions demand. Against a strong wind and heavy surf, the raft must have all possible speed to pass rapidly through the oncoming crest to avoid being turned broadside or thrown end over end.
If in a medium surf with no wind or offshore wind, keep the raft from passing over a wave so rapidly that it drops suddenly after topping the crest.
If rafting ashore is not possible and you have to swim, wear your shoes and at least one thickness of clothing. If you must land on a rocky shore, look for a place where the waves rush up onto the rocks. On sighting rescue craft approaching for pickup (boat, ship, conventional aircraft, or helicopter), quickly clear any lines (fishing lines, desalting kit lines) or other gear that could cause entanglement during rescue.
In a study by the Brigham Young University, bear spray was 25 percent more effective than guns for deterring bear attack.The downside to bear spray is that it is unreliable in high winds and it may actually incapacitate you as well. Cougars, like their namesake catamounts, mountain lions, pumas and panthers, are ambush predators and arena€™t contented with just a fair fight. While excellent for roasting formerly cuddly woodland mammals to culinary perfection, fire is also an effective predatory deterrent. They are often more sensitive to changes in the barometric pressure that precede a storm and will seek shelter. Organized by climate and terrain, The SAS Training Manual of Survival Techniques is packed with line drawings and step-by-step guidance on mastering all possible survival situations. He is author of The Encyclopedia of Survival Techniques, The Elite Forces Manual of Mental & Physical Endurance and Special Forces Today, and regularly contributes to the International Defence Review, He lives near London, England. Building a campfire is of course on the list, but a good fireplace fire can be tricky if not done properly as well.
Whether it’s for money or for fun, men’s night out usually involves drinking, strippers, or poker. Another is to send a swimmer (rescuer) from the raft with a line attached to a flotation device that will support the rescuer’s weight. The rescuer swims to a point directly behind the survivor and grasps the life preserver’s backstrap. Use all available visual or electronic signaling devices to signal and make contact with rescuers. Make sure the main buoyancy chambers are firm (well rounded) but not overly tight (Figure 16-4). A sea anchor helps you stay close to your ditching site, making it easier for searchers to find you if you have relayed your location. Record the navigator’s last fix, the time of ditching, the names and physical condition of personnel, and the ration schedule.
When you are immersed in cold water, hypothermia occurs rapidly due to the decreased insulating quality of wet clothing and the result of water displacing the layer of still air that normally surrounds the body.

If these actions are not possible, wearing an antiexposure suit will extend your life expectancy considerably.
Ensure there are no other metallic or sharp objects on your clothing or equipment that could damage the raft. If the CO2 bottle should malfunction or if the raft develops a leak, you can inflate it by mouth. You can use the spray shield as a sail white the ballast buckets serve to increase drag in the water.
Another way to board the raft is to push down on its small end until one knee is inside and lie forward (Figure 16-10). If you don’t have help, again work from the bottle side with the wind at your back to help hold down the raft. Approach the intersection of the raft and ramp, grasp the upper boarding handle, and swing one leg onto the center of the ramp, as in mounting a horse (Figure 16-17).
If your water ration is two liters or more per day, eat any part of your ration or any additional food that you may catch, such as birds, fish, shrimp.
Use as many stills as possible, depending on the number of men in the raft and the amount of sunlight available. In any event, keep desalting kits and emergency water stores for periods when you cannot use solar stills or catch rainwater. There are some poisonous and dangerous ocean fish, but, in general, when out of sight of land, fish are safe to eat.
The salt that adheres to it can make it a sharp cutting edge, an edge dangerous both to the raft and your hands. Shark meat spoils very rapidly due to the high concentration of urea in the blood, therefore, bleed it immediately and soak it in several changes of water. No survivor at sea should be without fishing equipment but if you are, improvise hooks as shown in Chapter 8. This spear can help you catch larger fish, but you must get them into the raft quickly or they will slip off the blade.
Dry your fishing lines, clean and sharpen the hooks, and do not allow the hooks to stick into the fishing lines. If the birds do not land close enough or land on the other end of the raft, you may be able to catch them with a bird noose.
If the patient is unable to take the pills orally, insert them rectally for absorption by the body. Others have said that swimming alongside the raft for short periods helped, but extreme care must be taken if swimming. The most dangerous are the great white shark, the hammerhead, the mako, and the tiger shark. Their normal diet is live animals of any type, and they will strike at injured or helpless animals. The jaws of some of the larger sharks are so far forward that they can bite floating objects easily without twisting to the side.
Most reported shark contacts and attacks were during daylight, and many of these have been in the late afternoon.
The direction from which flocks fly at dawn and to which they fly at dusk may indicate the direction of land. A good method of getting through the surf is to have half the men sit on one side of the raft, half on the other, facing away from each other. If you have reason to believe that people live on the shore, lay away from the beach, signal, and wait for the inhabitants to come out and bring you in.
Face toward shore and take a sitting position with your feet in front, 60 to 90 centimeters (2 or 3 feet) lower than your head.
Keep your feet close together and your knees slightly bent in a relaxed sitting posture to cushion the blows against the coral. Studies show that these killer bees follow an intruder that is within 200 yards from their hive. If you have an open wound, stay out of the water; sharks can smell a drop of blood from miles away. There have even been reports of elephants being subdued by playing sounds of killer bee swarms, but little substantiation exists.
But if not, youa€™ve got a tasty snake dinner to look forward to.Strange Tip: Got a snake infestation? Since cooked food will draw hungry freeloaders to your camp, youa€™ll need a way to defend it. While youa€™re choosing one risk over another (storms of course come with their own set of dangers) you can use this opportunity to travel through areas inhabited by dangerous animals in order to get to safety. There are countless horror stories of entirely avoidable animal attacks, like that of a little boy who had his arm bitten off while trying to feed a bear in a Chinese zoo. While these are fine, tender cuts, real men know the best flavor is held by a good cut of ribeye (or Scotch fillet as it’s known around the world).
To keep these environmental hazards from becoming serious problems, take precautionary measures as soon as possible.
Satisfying these three basic needs will help prevent serious physical and psychological problems. Relax; a person who knows how to relax in ocean water is in very little danger of drowning. By controlling your breathing in and out, your face will always be out of the water and you may even sleep in this position for short periods. It is probably the best stroke for long-range swimming: it allows you to conserve your energy and maintain a reasonable speed.
For example, raise a flag or reflecting material on an oar as high as possible to attract attention. However, if your situation is desperate, you may have to signal the enemy for rescue if you are to survive. Without a sea anchor, your raft may drift over 160 kilometers in a day, making it much harder to find you.
Also record the winds, weather, direction of swells, times of sunrise and sunset, and other navigational data. The rate of heat exchange in water is about 25 times greater than it is in air of the same temperature.
Remember, keep your head and neck out of the water and well insulated from the cold water’s effects when the temperature is below 19 degrees C. Army and Air Force inventories can satisfy the needs for personal protection, mode of travel, and evasion and camouflage. The raft’s insulated bottom limits the conduction of cold thereby protecting you from hypothermia (Figure 16-8). You can further modify these rafts for evasion by partially deflating them to obtain a lower profile. Some may be automatically deployed from the cock-pit, while others may need manual deployment.
You can successfully sail multiplace (except 20- to 25-man) rafts 10 degrees off from the direction of the wind. If the raft has no regular mast socket and step, erect the mast by tying it securely to the front cross seat using braces. Have the passengers sit low in the raft, with their weight distributed to hold the upwind side down.
Keep your body well shaded, both from overhead sun and from reflection off the sea surface. If you are so short of water that you need to do this, then do not drink any of the other body fluids. If the sea is rough, tie yourself to the raft, close any cover, and ride out the storm as best you can. Wear gloves, if they are available, or use a cloth to handle fish and to avoid injury from sharp fins and gill covers. Unravel the threads and tie them together in short lengths in groups of three or more threads.
Other sharks known to attack man include the gray, blue, lemon, sand, nurse, bull, and oceanic white tip sharks.
If you hit the shark on the nose, you may injure your hand if it glances off and hits its teeth. During the day, birds are searching for food and the direction of flight has no significance. A mirage disappears or its appearance and elevation change when viewed from slightly different heights.
When a heavy sea bears down, half should row (pull) toward the sea until the crest passes; then the other half should row (pull) toward the shore until the next heavy sea comes along. This position will let your feet absorb the shock when you land or strike sub-merged boulders or reefs. Do not swim through the seaweed; crawl over the top by grasping the vegetation with overhand movements.
If you want to avoid being the next victim, you need to learn some unusual and even dangerous survival techniques.Surviving an animal attack has less to do with luck than being well-prepared.
The swarming effect usually ends after 200 yards, so keep running as far and as fast as you can.Resist the temptation of swatting.

When swimming, dona€™t splash or thrash around; sharks associate this behavior with an injured animal and are attracted to the prospect of an easy meal. Yelling at the dog will typically give it the extra push to retreat.More aggressive dog attacks can be prevented by charging the animal. Keeping one end of a baseball bat-sized log in the fire not only offers a handy club for swatting away a hungry puma, you can also burn the animal with it, providing two weapons in one. Use the available resources to protect yourself from the elements and from heat or extreme cold and humidity. The least acceptable technique is to send an attached swimmer without flotation devices to retrieve a survivor. The body’s natural buoyancy will keep at least the top of the head above water, but some movement is needed to keep the face above water. Air expands with heat; therefore, on hot days, release some air and add air when the weather cools. You can adjust the sea anchor to act as a drag to slow down the rate of travel with the current, or as a means to travel with the current. Wearing life preservers increases the predicted survival time as body position in the water increases the chance of survival. The raft may hit the water upside down, but you can right it by approaching the side to which the bottle is attached and flipping the raft over. Then grasp an oarlock and boarding handle, kick your legs to get your body prone on the water, and then kick and pull yourself into the raft. Pad the bottom of the mast to prevent it from chafing or punching a hole through the floor, whether or not there is a socket.
To prevent falling out, they should also avoid sitting on the sides of the raft or standing up. Normally, a small amount of seawater mixed with rain will hardly be noticeable and will not cause any physical reaction.
These other fluids are rich in protein and fat and will use up more of your reserve water in digestion than they supply.
There are some fish, such as the red snapper and barracuda, that are normally edible but poisonous when taken from the waters of atolls and reefs.
Do not confuse eels with sea snakes that have an obviously scaly body and strongly compressed, paddle-shaped tail. Consider them all edible except the Greenland shark whose flesh contains high quantities of vitamin A. If the glare from the sky and water causes your eyes to become bloodshot and inflamed, bandage them lightly. Other animals such as whales, porpoises, and stingrays may look dangerous, but really pose little threat in the open sea. If you must defecate, do so in small amounts and throw it as far away from you as possible.
The continued cries of seabirds coming from one direction indicate their roosting place on nearby land. If caught in the undertow of a large wave, push off the bottom or swim to the surface and proceed toward shore as above. Study the area youa€™re traveling in and the animals that live there, before venturing out . If caught, youa€™ll be plunged beneath the surface and thrown into a death roll in seconds.
Above all, if you see a shark, leave it alone.If preventing an attack isna€™t possible, defend yourself. He took out the LED bulbs of old flashlights and placed multiple arrays around his familya€™s livestock enclosure in Kenya.
Most dogs will respond passively and retreat when confronted with a larger, aggressive (charging) threat.Use pepper spray. If you cannot float on your back or if the sea is too rough, float facedown in the water as shown in Figure 16-2.
Be sure a passing ship or aircraft is friendly or neutral be-fore trying to attract its attention.
There are two variations of the one-man raft; the improved model incorporates an inflatable spray shield and floor that provide additional insulation. If you are weak or injured, you may partially deflate the raft to make boarding easier (Figure 16-14).
If you decide to sail and the wind is blowing toward a desired destination, fully inflate the raft, sit high, take in the sea anchor, rig a sail, and use an oar as a rudder. Both eels and sea snakes are edible, but you must handle the latter with care because of their poisonous bites. Sharks in the tropical and subtropical seas are far more aggressive than those in temperate waters. Use the oars or paddles and constantly adjust the sea anchor to keep a strain on the anchor line. If youa€™re wandering off the woods, having a detailed knowledge of the potentially harmful animals around first can make the difference between survival and death. When a shark is about to attack, back up against a rock wall or a reef to prevent the shark from attacking from behind. He made them flash in succession to make it look like someone was patrolling the area, which lions have learned to avoid. With their heighted senses of smell, dogs are especially sensitive to irritants, particularly when sprayed in their nose and, of course, eyes.For a dog that is attacking and latched on to you, punch and kick its face. Apparently, the acetaminophen in Tylenol can kill a brown tree snake, the likes of which have been plaguing Guam for years. If the enemy detects you and you are close to capture, destroy the log book, radio, navigation equipment, maps, signaling equipment, and firearms. Follow the steps outlined in the note under raft procedures above when boarding the raft (Figure 16-9). The spray shield helps keep you dry and warm in cold oceans and protects you from the sun in the hot climates (Figure 16-11).
When the sea anchor is not in use, tie it to the raft and stow it in such a manner that it will hold immediately if the raft capsizes. The struggles of a wounded animal or swimmer, underwater explosions, or even a fish struggling on a fishline will attract a shark. These actions will keep the raft pointed toward shore and prevent the sea from throwing the stern around and capsizing you.
Remain in the raft, unless otherwise instructed, and remove all equipment except the preservers. If you do encounter a dangerous animal, keeping your cool is crucial to surviving an attack. You can use this as a makeshift slungshot (not to be confused with a slingshot) allowing you to attack the animal at a distance. Use your fingers, assuming you still have any, to gouge its eyes, nostrils or even ears (they have ears, who knew?). If possible, aim for the sensitive nose area.To remove a dog from someone else, straddle the dog, and pull up on the collar until it releases. When closed, it forms a pocket for the current to strike and propels the raft in the current’s direction. Hold the lines attached to the comers with your hands so that a gust of wind will not rip the sail, break the mast, or capsize the raft. Fix your daily water ration after considering the amount of water you have, the output of solar stills and desalting kit, and the number and physical condition of your party.
Use a heavy piece of wood as the main shaft, and lash three smaller pieces to the shaft as grapples. When using bait, try to keep it moving in the water to give it the appearance of being alive.
The best thing that you can do is to stand your ground and look as menacing as possible; if the bear finds that you are not easy or typical prey, it may be frightened away.
A crocodile may release their prey when attacked in these parts.Remember that alligator or crocodile jaws are only strong when they bite down. This technique is not only unreliable, it is actually very risky because if you miss your mark, your arm may go straight into the shark's mouth.
Also edible are the partly digested smaller fish that you may find in the stomachs of large fish. A last-ditch survival technique is to subdue the reptile by clamping its jaws shut, then securing them by winding tape, rope, a vine or a belt around them. Instead, attempt to ward off a shark by jabbing your fist into its eyes or its gills - these parts are more sensitive and are easier to hit than the nose. Mix it up with some people food and make sure that the rats (your neighborhood snakea€™s favorite meal) eat it. This of course is only possible if the alligator or crocodile is relatively small in size or if you have a dozen judgement-impaired friends to help you.
Either signal ashore for help or sail around and look for a sloping beach where the surf is gentle.

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