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Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Art can be an effective healing tool and resource for survivors of Violence Against Women (VAW) who suffer from post traumatic stress disorder and other disorders due to the impact to one’s mental and emotional health from the violence.
Art as a voice for activism is a natural progression because art as a healing tool is integrally linked to advocacy.
These 16 artists and art groups from all over the world work singularly or join forces to create and use art as an activism tool to end the silence about VAW and raise awareness. Stand Up for Women’s Rights Now: Stop Violence Against Women is an international touring exhibition which challenges conventional attitudes towards violence against women. Candi Castleberry Singleton has recruited more than 90 volunteers to design and create a ceramic quilt to increase awareness of violence against women, called the Dignity and Respect Campaign. Charlotte Farhan has always been artistic and spent her childhood being encouraged to pursue her artistic nature, with dual nationality between France and Britain and growing up between Paris and within an hour of London.
Brazilian street artists used the spotlight of the World Cup to highlight a problem close to home. Graffiti artists, cartoonists, dancers and actors are fighting back against rising levels of violence and sexism in the streets of Cairo.
Nizhegorodsky Women’s Crisis Centre is a Russian nonprofit devoted to serving domestic violence victims by incorporating art as a healing and advocacy tool for survivors of domestic violence and children who survive violent homes.
Artist Saint Hoax created a series of Disney Princess posters that encouraged young sexual assault survivors to report their attacks. This entry was posted in 16 Days of Activism, Activism 101, Education and Advocacy, Latest and tagged 16 Days of Activism, Activism 101, art to end domestic violence, artistes against vaw, freedomw4eaw, Shout Art Loud by Carol Olson. Click here to download the free label template — just add the name and a simple illustration. How about custom book plates with the teachers name for their classroom library with a disk including the design so they can print more as needed? I hope you don’t mind me telling you about a new product I just created but I was using it the other day at a coffee shop and a teacher was there and told me how much she loved it and how great it would be for teachers because they all drink so much coffee and tea to get through their exhausting days. I made stationery for teachers since that’s second nature for me, but I love this idea. I guess I’m a little confused…how does the transparency stick to the soap bottle? Am I the only one that had the ink come right off the transparency sheet once I put it in the soap????? As a teacher, my favorite gift of all time was a cookbook in a basket with the ingredients to make one of the soup recipes. I’m wondering if you use an ink jet printer would it smear once you put it in the soap? It warms my heart to know there are people who actually think of their child’s teacher(s).
Our school PTA really does a big deal for Teachers Appreciation Week (gifts all week long, events every day like potluck lunch, waffle bar, etc.).
Since I don’t have Photoshop I opened up the pdf file and did a print screen of the PDF and pasted it into word. I tried getting the instructions on how to get the labels printed for the soap or sanitizer bottles but neither instructions or contact number are available.
The link is broken I am unable to print and I love this idea:( Of the soap template… Can anyone help? Secrets to Living WellOur Living Well column is full of posts that will help you up the quality factor in your every day life. I will recommend this book to people who just want to take a break from reading or if you want to see how Amelia's life is. Glomerular filtrations rate after living donor nephrectomy, divided into age groups.Table 2. The creation of art acts as a catalyst to transform pain and negative experiences to healing and growth. It is their lived experiences of violence and the global movement to end VAW that unites and inspires them. The brainchild of Argentinian artist Alejandra Adorno Menduina, it began its worldwide journey with an extensive tour of Latin America.
She is the founder of Freedom4Ewa in which she helps survivors live in love by providing support and donating art supplies.
Special correspondent Sophia Kruz of Detroit Public Television reports on a movement in Brazil to spread awareness of domestic violence through the art of graffiti. Art Opposing Sexual Violence is an art workshop and exhibition series to raise awareness of and bring about an end to sexual violence.
Russia is currently in the process of examining the prevalence of domestic violence and the changes needed to improve it’s laws. Following that he used the Disney Princess posters to raise awareness about domestic violence. If people could live in a more peacefull and calm atmosphere they probably would not create a violent enviroment for themselves and others wich i think is dangerouse. They were using black bags from a promotional products outlet, so now they have two hand made cotton totes.
I have a printer that would print on transparency but were do I get the transparency sheets?
I created my own template and printed it on transparency film for ink jet printers and as soon as I placed it in the bottle the ink began to come off. I put a crate together each year for my children’s teachers including paper towels, hand sanitizer, kleenex, copy paper, construction paper, pens, dry erase markers, colors, glue sticks, etc.
The book is filled with tips and strategies for making your home beautiful, comfortable, functional and kid-friendly — a place where both you and your kids will thrive.
Now two bestselling classic Amelia books, Amelia’s Most Unforgettable Embarrassing Moments and Amelia’s Guide to Gossip, are together in a value-priced bind-up with a special Amelia eraser key chain.
Outcomes of procurement of kidneys with single versus multiple arteries by laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.
The emotional impact of art as a language crosses cultural lines, economic lines, and social lines. We hope that these 16 artists and their initiatives will engage you and inspire you to share and expand your own artistic ventures to join the global conversation to end VAW.
The exhibition includes works from France, Germany, Iran, Syria and Taiwan and has also toured Turkey, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Italy and Argentina. ALWH features the testimonies and art by survivors and their allies in order to provide safe and entertaining forums through which the public can learn about healing from and preventing gender-based violence. Hoping to break boundaries within society and the art world whilst helping raise awareness for certain causes. She donates her time and supplies to provide art programmes to children living in domestic violence shelters, and reaches out to the public to share her story of survival to spread awareness.
Love and relaxation make such a better person for the future and also helps home and economics. This year they wanted to give something to ALL their teachers, not just their homeroom teacher. Each year (and at christmas) my husband comes home with a laundry basket full of giant candy bars, soda pop, popcorn, mystery sweets. The kids can fill the cute bags with their loved items and bring them back for show and share with the class! I’m curious to know if using transparency film for a laser printer would make a difference. Introduction Kidney transplantation is the therapy of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease and gives the best chance on long-term survival with a good quality of life.
Thank you for your website I am really happy to know that i am not alone with my opinions and feelings on violence. The art work can be a lot of different formats, including buttons, patches, zines, and posters. To solve this problem I was going to add a metal loop to each end of one cutting blade so a nylon line could be attached. Intraoperative and postoperative complications (%) of the different types of operation techniques for live donor nephrectomy.
Since the successful kidney transplantations in the early 1950s by Rene Kuss and Joseph Murray great progress has been made in this field of medicine.[1] With the introduction of adequate immunosuppressive therapy in the 1960s and new organ preservation techniques the outcome of the transplantation procedures using deceased donor kidneys improved significantly and the use of living donors became an exception as the risk of living kidney donor were thought to be unacceptable.
All of the art is replicable, meaning that people can take copies of it with them from the exhibitions. I saw this idea of putting a personal message inside a soap bottle at my mother-in-law’s house and decided to see if it would work. Furthermore, in those years there was an adequate number of deceased donors to accommodate the number of patients on the waiting lists. In the late 80s a growing discrepancy was noted between organ demand and supply due to an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) included for transplantation and a stagnating number of organ donors.


The average waiting time for a kidney transplant from a deceased donor increased significantly and up to twenty percent of patients on dialysis had to be removed from the waiting list annually because of a worsening condition or even mortality. This encouraged a new interest in live donor kidney transplantation and in the last decade the number of transplants from live donors significantly increased in the Western World.
In addition, the use of live kidney donor transplantation created new opportunities, including crossover programs and pre-emptive and ABO-incompatible kidney transplantations. All these developments contributed to the success of live kidney donation at present and popularity is still increasing in many countries.
Today the expansion of live kidney donation may be considered as the most realistic option to solve the problem of kidney donor shortage.
The ongoing stream of technical innovations and social, ethical and psychological research focused on live kidney donation legitimize the increasing use of living donors.
Renal transplantation from living donors confers several advantages as compared to dialysis and transplantation from deceased donors, including improved longer-term patient survival, better quality of life, immediate functioning of the transplant, better transplant survival, and the possibility of transplanting pre-emptively. To date the health of live kidney donors at long-term follow-up is good, and the procedure is considered to be safe. Due to good outcome of living kidney donors, the boundaries for acceptance of kidney donors are shifting towards a wider acceptance. Donors with higher body mass index (BMI), moderate hypertension, older age or kidneys with multiple arteries are nowadays accepted.[2-8] Currently, attention to donor wellbeing has become a priority, and therefore the surgical technique must be optimized continually. Surgical practice has evolved from the open lumbotomy, through mini-incision muscle-splitting open (MIDN), to minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques.
Over the last years many changes have been introduced in the field of living kidney donor nephrectomy.
There are different minimally invasive techniques, including standard laparoscopic, hand-assisted laparoscopic, hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic, pure retroperitoneoscopic, and robotic-assisted live donor nephrectomy. In the literature, there is level I evidence that minimally invasive techniques are preferred above open donor nephrectomy.[9] Optimizing the donation procedure is mainly focused on donor safety and includes proper definition of criteria for inclusion of donors, anaesthetic and surgical aspects and post-operative care. Long-term follow-up may be offered as surveillance program to detect potential threats for the donors health such as hypertension, protein loss or overweight.
In this chapter we’ll address the surgical procedure of live kidney donation and discuss aspects that may influence successful outcome. Standard evaluation of the donorSelection of live kidney donors is mixed by ethical and medical issues.
It is only justified if the harm to the donor is limited and the potential benefit to the recipient is major. The risk for the short-term and long-term adverse health consequences to the donor is therefore essential.
To ensure donor safety, every donor should be offered a number of standard tests, including blood and urine screening, chest x-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG), radiographic assessment of the kidneys and vessels via renal ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) with intravenous contrast or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with intravenous contrast, psychological evaluation, and age- and family history–appropriate additional cardiac testing.[10]A multidisciplinary approach including nephrologists, transplant surgeons, urologists, and psychologists is required to optimize the quality of a live kidney donation program in each hospital.
Disciplines have to cooperate in the screening of donors and informing relatives without exerting pressure on potential donors. Imaging of the donor kidney should be performed without any complications and the surgical procedure should be organised with optimal peri-operative care to minimize pain and discomfort to the donor. Advances in surgical technique have improved the comfort of the donor considerably and the risks of morbidity and mortality have been minimized. Side selectionMeticulous preoperative preparation of donor operations has become increasingly important as vascular anatomy may significantly influence safety and surgical outcome.Traditionally, the donor’s renal anatomy was assessed by angiography with good results but with significant consequences for the donor including radiation and a short stay in the hospital. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) have both been reported feasible alternatives.[11, 12]Angiography was gradually replaced by MRI as this technique does not cause radiation and, in addition, provides information on venous anatomy. Recently, new CT-protocols allow the use of minimal radiation while offering optimal imaging of the renal anatomy and they may be used safely in the work-up of selected donors.If both kidneys have a normal or comparable anatomy regarding the number of renal vessels there is the issue of choosing the right or left kidney, especially in those cases where a laparoscopic approach is considered. Right-sided donor nephrectomy has been associated with a shorter renal vein and renal vein thrombosis in the recipient. The rationale was to avoid vascular and ureteral complications by using only kidneys with single arteries. But as there were doubts about the use of the right kidney, many centres favoured left donor nephrectomy even in the presence of multiple arteries. Live donor kidneys with multiple arteries are associated with increased surgical complexity for removal and increased rate of recipient ureteral complications. All studies included a relative small number of donors with multiple arteries and indicate the safety and feasibility of donor nephrectomy in case of multiple arteries.
Two studies suggest that multiple renal arteries are associated with more ureteral complications in the recipient, especially when accessory arteries to the lower renal pole are involved. Age Due to the increasing shortage of deceased kidney donors one is trying to expand and maximize the live donor pool. In this transition new criteria are being defined and a number of issues studied as relative contra-indications for the operative procedure include age, body weight and co morbidity of the living donor. Nowadays, older live donors, obese donors and donors with minor co morbidity indeed may be selected as candidates for kidney donation. There is an ongoing shift towards the acceptance of these donors and the outcome demonstrates the feasibility of this approach in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply of kidney transplants. Controversy remains, as age related changes in the kidney may result in a decline in renal function over the years, and so far the combination of aging and donor nephrectomy has only been investigated by few. We questioned whether the outcome of older live kidney donation wouldn’t hamper the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) on long-term after donation. In addition older donors may also have an increased risk of other perioperative and postoperative complications as they often have a higher ‘American Society of Anesthesiologist score’ (ASA-score), indicating more comorbidity, a higher incidence of hypertension and a higher Body Mass Index (BMI).
All these factors may contribute to a higher risk of complications related to a surgical intervention.
As kidney function does not progressively decline during follow up we believe that, live kidney donation by older donors can be considered safe. BMITo date donors with isolated abnormalities, like obesity, are included in living donation programs.
In addition to technical aspects like positioning of the donor, the port-site of the trocars and the instrumentation needed surgeons may face longer and more complex operation procedures with the risk of a higher incidence of anaesthetic and postoperative complications. Obese donors have higher baseline cardiovascular risk and warrant risk reduction for long-term health. Furthermore obesity acts on renal function, it accounts for an increase in glomerular filtration rate with less elevated or even decreased effective renal plasma flow, and filtration fraction is increased. The filtration fraction is a predictor for renal function loss, independent of blood pressure. Multiple factors are assumed to contribute to these renal hemodynamic alterations such as insulin resistance, the renin-angiotensin system and the tubulo-glomerular responses to increased proximal sodium reabsorption, and possibly also inappropriate activity of the sympathetic nervous system and increased leptin levels.
Together with donor nephrectomy this might be harmful on long-term follow-up, especially because the incidence of overweight and obesity is increasing. While early operative results are encouraging, we advocate careful study of obese donors, especially for the long-term renal effects.In general, a body mass index (BMI) below 35 is considered acceptable to undergo donor nephrectomy without increased risks.
It remains open for discussion which operative procedure should be preferred in obese donors. LDN has been demonstrated feasible in this category of donors and can lead to equivalent results in obese as in normal weight individuals. In specialized centers in the USA, hand-assisted LDN in overweight and obese donors has become a common practice. Nevertheless, total LDN in overweight and obese donors is definitely more challenging and experience is required to render acceptable results.
On the other hand, total LDN may avoid postoperative complications that typically occur in obese individuals such as wound infections and incisional hernias, because there is no hand introduced into the abdominal cavity and the extraction incision is smaller as a hand-port is not required.
As opposed to many American centers, many European centers are still reluctant towards LDN in general and LDN in donors with more difficult anatomy in particular.
There are a lot of variations in technique, but we tend to describe the most universal way in which these operations are performed.
Which surgical technique to use is depending on the preference and experience of the surgeon.
Open donor nephrectomy: Flank incision versus mini-incisionWith the donor placed in a lateral decubitus position, lumbotomy is performed in the eleventh intercostal space or below the 12th rib. The kidney is dissected from its capsula and the arterial and venous structures are identified.
Thereafter, the kidney is extracted, flushed and stored on ice.Mini-incision muscle-splitting approach (MIDN) is performed with the patient placed in a lateral decubitus position and the operation table maximally flexed.
A horizontal 10–15 cm skin incision is made anterior to the 11th rib towards the umbilicus.
The fascia and muscles of the abdominal wall are either split attempting to avoid harming the intercostal nerves or divided.
Further dissection and preparation of the vascular structures is performed as described above. The flank incision technique sometimes required a rib resection, with considerable co-morbidity. There is one randomized controlled trial RCT comparing transcostal to subcostal incision (Level II evidence).


Donors benefit from reduced blood loss, shorter hospitalization, and preservation of continuity of abdominal muscles, only with marginally longer operation time, without compromising graft and recipient survival.
In one (2%) and 11 (13%) donors (p = 0.02) late complications related to the incision occurred. Notwithstanding MIDN was a step forward, there were still disincentives to the open, not minimally invasive approach; this may be a drawback for possible live kidney donors. Hand-assisted techniquesThe hand-assisted laparoscopic (HALDN) and retroperitoneoscopic (HARP) donor nephrectomy start with an incision for the handport. With the HARP technique the retroperitoneal space is created manually (or with a balloon or catheter) through the pfannenstiel incision. In the HALDN after establishing a pneumoperitoneum, the colon is mobilized and displaced medially. The renal artery and vein are divided using an endoscopic stapler and the kidney is removed manually. Hand-assisted donor nephrectomy can be performed transperitoneally (HALDN) and retroperitoneally (HARP). Hand-assistance can be performed during the whole operation or only during the stapling- and extraction phase, with different incisions for hand introduction. Periumbilical incision, a midline supraumbilical incision, a midline infraumbilical incision, or a Pfannenstiel incision have been described in several studies. The advantages of hand-assisted donor nephrectomy above conventional laparoscopy include the ability to use tactile feedback, easier and rapid control of bleeding by digital pressure, better exposure and dissection of structures, rapid kidney removal.
With the retroperitoneal approach there is less chance to injure the intra-abdominal organs.
This is an important advantage in times where safety of laparoscopic technique is still questioned. Most studies describing hand-assisted laparoscopic (transperitoneally) donor nephrectomy conclude that the hand-assisted technique is superior to the laparoscopic technique regarding operative time. Complications and morphine requirement, convalescence time, and graft and recipient survival were similar in most studies.
Only three studies compare left-sided hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Two centers posed the hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic approach as an alternative for right-sided donor nephrectomy.
Reduced operation time was observed for the HARP group compared with the LDN (166 min vs 244 min). There was no statistically significant difference in operative bleeding or length of hospital stay between the groups. LDN vs ODN Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is performed with the donor in lateral decubitus position.
Opening of the renal capsule and division of the perirenal fat is facilitated using an ultrasonic device or diathermia. After identification and careful dissection of the ureter, the renal artery, and the renal vein, a pfannenstiel incision is made. Since MIDN was introduced, evidence has mounted that the laparoscopic approach may be superior to conventional open donor nephrectomy. Various non-randomized studies have led to the similar conclusion, despite longer operation times and longer warm ischemia time LDN results in shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, less pain, less blood loss, earlier return to work, and better quality of life as compared to the conventional open approach.
Most of these studies presented (hand-assisted) laparoscopic donor nephrectomy as an alternative rather than as the preferred technique.
Several case series from large volume centres in the United States tried to prove the feasibility and safety of the laparoscopic technique. Nowadays it is the standard technique in a lot of centres for surgeons experienced in laparoscopic techniques. LDN vs MIDNOne RCT, one retrospective study, and one meta-analysis (Level I evidence) aimed to assess the superiority of either the laparoscopic or the minimally invasive open approach (MIDN). The RCT concluded that laparoscopic donor nephrectomy results in a better quality of life compared with MIDN with equal safety and graft function. Transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal endoscopic donor nephrectomyTransperitoneal and retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy can be practiced with or without hand-assistance. Endoscopic and hand-assisted trans- and retroperitoneal donornephrectomy are described above. Whether to take the retroperitoneal or the transperitoneal route for donor nephrectomy has not been solved yet.
The limited retroperitoneal space makes it technically more challenging but provides superior access to posterior and particularly posteromedial space. There is limited data confirming both techniques have equal complications, hospital stay, and graft and recipient survival. Robotic-assisted donor nephrectomyRobotic-assisted donor nephrectomy with the da Vinci robot can be performed with or without hand-assistance. The images can be magnified and the movement of the articulated arm of the robot reproduces the action of the human wrist. The nephrectomy is carried out in the same way as the laparoscopic procedure.There are few articles on robot-assisted donor nephrectomy, but perhaps this will be expanded in this evolving field. Theoretical advantages of the robot-assisted technique are the combination of robotics and computer imaging, to enable microsurgery in a laparoscopic environment.
There is one study comparing the robot-assisted donor nephrectomy ( n=13) to the open donor nephrectomy (n=13). There was one complication in both groups, a deep venous thrombosis in the robot-assisted group, and an acute pyelonephritis in the open group. Intra-operative complicationsIntra-operative complications are important to note because of the high impact on donor and recipient life. There are not many studies describing the intra-operative complications as they are difficult to score uniformly. Only studies where a research fellow is present at the operation theater can give some information about the intra-operative complication rate.
The rate of intra-operative complications is described in literature for the different techniques from 2 to 28% (table 5).
There are no randomized studies reporting the intra-operative complications, as the inclusion number will be far too high. Sorts of complications are: excessive blood loss, lesions to the small and large bowel, bladder, ureter and the kidney itself. The table below shows the modified Clavien scoring system, as we use for our intra- and postoperative complications (table 6).[47]4. OutcomeLive kidney donation is relatively safe, but keeping in mind the otherwise healthy donor, it is never safe enough. Previous studies have shown that morbidity and mortality rates after LDN are low, with mortality estimated at 0.03%. Safety is gaining increasingly more interest and remains the big conundrum in minimal-invasive surgery. Safety consists of a few issues, not only the real complications but also the near complications or small intra and post-operative complications. Long-term follow upAdequate follow-up may identify donors who develop complications and to monitor the risks of life kidney donation.
Donors who develop hypertension or a diminished kidney function may be identified and it may also aid donors from a social point of view.
Some donors who struggle with their recovery or experience problems resuming work can be helped.Literature indicates that the life expectancy of living kidney donors is similar to that of persons who have not donated a kidney. The risk of developing end-stage renal disease does not appear to be increased among kidney donors, and their current health seems to be similar to that of the general population.
A lot of studies report on quality of life, and their quality of life appears to be very good.
These outcomes may be a direct consequence of the meticulous routine screening of donors for important health conditions related to kidney disease at the time of donation. Kidney donation, or nephrectomy, is followed by a compensatory increase in the GFR in the remaining kidney to about 70% of pre nephrectomy values. The direct relationship between time since donation and the GFR may reflect not only a young age at donation but also the afore mentioned meticulous screening for underlying kidney disease that live kidney donors undergo. Compensatory hemodynamic changes in some animal models after a reduction of 50% or more in renal mass have been reported to be ultimately deleterious.
There has been a concern that kidney donors might have damage in addition to the normal loss of kidney function with age.



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