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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. AbstractReflective learning has been described as a promising approach for ameliorating the impact of continuing education (CE) programs. Camp Impact stretches the mind, fosters new attitudes and encourages creativity and imagination. Our Central Wisconsin community is focused on helping others - locally and worldwide - and has many non-profit organizations. Campers are housed two to a room in a modern, convenient residence hall on the UW-Stevens Point campus. Healthcare is available around the clock to assist with medication distribution, minor injuries or health concerns. All meals are included and served in the Dreyfus University Center food court, which is within easy walking distance of the residence hall. Below is a listing of continuing education programs taking place this Spring in Baltimore. If you receive a Financial Aid award you are required to register for all courses by February 17. The results of empirical research regarding the question of if “legal education make[s] people unbiased decision-makers”  are mixed. In the first study, 155 undergraduates were trained in varying levels on the legal doctrines involved (all, some, none). Amanda Beltrani is a current graduate student in the Forensic Psychology Masters program at John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York. However, there are still very few studies that have investigated how occupational therapists use reflection to improve the integration of CE program content in their decision-making processes. Below is a summary of the research and findings as well as a translation of this research into practice. Over the past decade, some researchers have found that implicit and explicit biases do not impact the decision making process of individuals with legal training and mock jurors.
Rules are inflexible and determinative in the sense that they ‘attempt to specify outcomes before particular cases arise’ leaving little or no room for discretion or interpretation. By comparison, legal education is unlikely to have any effect on stereotyping when the doctrines require those who have learned them to draw additional inferences in the context of a specific case otherwise involves a set of discretionary judgments” (p. The design was then repeated with a sample of 77 law students who had taken a tort law class.
In both studies, when participants had no training, training on doctrine that did not apply to the case, or training on and were deciding cases to which legal standards applied, stereotypic warmth had a significant positive influence on case outcomes. As noted above, in the debate, rules are thought to limit the impact individual judges’ biases have on their particular decisions at the expense of flexibility and standards assumed to retain case-specific flexibility at the potential expense of bias. Their perceptions of the strength of a potential claim impacts whether they agree to take the case, the time and energy it merits, and whether it is settled and for how much.
But when debating which is better, knowing the breadth and magnitude of the cost that selecting standards may systematically impose on members of society who belong to groups that are not associated with stereotypically warm traits could potentially tip the balance. Although additional research is needed to validate and extend them, the results have the potential to help us to better understand and quantify the social costs and benefits of policy decisions regarding how to structure legal doctrine. Her professional interests include forensic assessments, specifically, criminal matter evaluations. The study objectives were to describe how these professionals, working in the sector of work rehabilitation, used reflective learning to integrate research evidence into their clinical decision-making process and to identify the factors that influenced the reflective learning process. How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the education process. Changing the behavior of healthcare professionals: The use of theory in promoting the uptake of research findings. Healthcare professionalsa€™ intentions and behaviours: A systematic review of studies based on social cognitive theories.

Prevention of work disability due to musculoskeletal disorders: The challenge of implementing evidence. Do general practitionersa€™ risk-taking propensities and learning styles influence their continuing medical education preferences? Client-centred decision making in return to work: A systematic approach informed by reflection.
Factors affecting feasibility and acceptability of a practice-based educational intervention to support evidence-based prescribing: A qualitative study.
With guidance from UW-Stevens Point faculty, you'll work side-by-side with upper-class students who are already on their way to becoming change-makers in their communities. The results of 2 experimental studies involving undergraduates and law students provide strong support for this theory. However, some findings have indicated that racial biases impacted the decision-making process of law firm partners and professional arbitrators. But even when they are factually accurate at the group level, people tend to overestimate the extent to which stereotypes apply to particular individual members of a group. Standards, by comparison, are flexible and indeterminate in that, to make a decision, the person applying the doctrine must figure out what it means in the context of the facts of a particular situation… When a rule governs a given situation, application is straight- forward and the correct outcome generally constrained and highly predictable.
Both groups read and decided 24 case vignettes which were manipulated based on the stereotypes of warmth described above. The only situation in which stereotypic warmth ratings did not have a significant positive impact on the decisions was where participants were trained in legal rules and were deciding cases with facts to which legal rules applied. Although routinely made, however, such observations about rules and standards are most frequently offered without supporting empirical evidence. To the extent these initial liability decisions are themselves impacted by stereotyping, the bias may create or exacerbate disparities in the availability of legal services, access to justice, and thus the meaningful protection of substantive rights” (p. Moreover, it can improve the ability of policymakers and those administering the legal system to target scarce resources toward areas of legal decision-making that are likely to be particularly vulnerable to bias from stereotyping. Converging results from such studies would provide very strong support for the conditional de-biasing effect of legal education on decision-making in this context” (p. Amanda plans to continue her studies in a doctoral program after completion of her Masters degree. Occupational therapy practitionersa€™ perceptions of the impact of continuing education activities in continuing competency. Constructing the program impact theory for an evidence-based work rehabilitation program for workers with low back pain. In each, consistent with the predictions of the Stereotype Content Model, participants tended to decide cases for the party that was rated by an independent sample to be associated with stereotypically warmer traits unless the participants had learned legal rules and were deciding cases with facts to which those rules applied.
Given these contrary findings, the current study examined the effects of legal education on bias.
Moreover, stereotypes are socially shared and thus represent a common perspective, not idiosyncratic, individually held beliefs. As a result, rules are thought to reduce or eliminate errors in judgment, including those caused by biases” (p. In those decisions, the relative stereotypic warmth of the parties was actually a negative predictor of participants’ liability decisions” (p. The results reported here fill this gap and provide an often neglected psychological and empirical foundation for the assertion that rules have a comparative advantage over standards in reducing the impact of bias on legal decisions” (p.
In doing so, at least with respect to such bias, this insight may help us to work toward the ideal of law as a system of wise restraints that make us free” (p.
By having research assistants, blind to hypothesis, attend a hearing or trial and complete a few measures of the warmth of the parties, counsel, witnesses, or others involved, researchers could attempt to replicate these findings, or test other hypotheses related to stereotype use, in the courtroom” (p. Eight occupational therapists were recruited to participate to the group that was convened for 12 meetings and held during a 15-month period. Specifically, the author theorized that “legal education is likely a conditional moderator of bias from stereotypes.

As a result, the impacts of stereotypes tend to be systematic…Because of the enormous variety in the groups and subgroups about which there are stereotypes, broad statements about how stereotypes impact particular decisions can be difficult to make. The strategies used were critical analysis of ill-structured and authentic clinical situations, peer support, reflective journal writing and complementary reading. Reflective practice and clinical outcomes: Practitionersa€™ views on how reflective practice has influenced their clinical practice. Continuing education meetings and workshops: Effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. Empowering occupational therapists to become evidence-based work rehabilitation practitioners.
The findings provide additional support for the distinction between rules and standards in law and can inform the public policy decisions between which is most beneficial. Studying legal doctrines will only attenuate the effects of stereotyping when those doctrines provide specific guidance as to the correct outcome in the cases being decided. The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) attempts to resolve this issue by mapping the stereotypes about any group or subgroup onto two dimensions: Warmth and competence. In the other half, the names and descriptions of the parties were altered to produce the opposite pattern, that is, plaintiff(s) with stereotypically warmer traits than defendant(s)” (p.
The benefits of theory for clinical practice: Cognitive treatment for chronic low back pain patients as an illustrative example. Learning from todaya€™s clinicians in vocational practice to educate tomorrowa€™s therapists. Secondary prevention of work disability: Community-based psychosocial intervention for musculoskeletal disorders.
If the doctrines provide only general guidance that requires decision-makers to draw inferences and make discretionary judgments, then stereotypes will impact the decisions of even those with legal training” (p. Warmth, the primary and most influential dimension, represents an assessment of the intentions, good or bad, of others.
The reflective learning process, used by the participants, enabled them to change their perspective at six different stages in their decision-making process. Determining the level of reflective thinking from studentsa€™ written journals using a coding scheme based on the work of Mezirow. The participants developed their ability to use different types of reflective thinking: introspection, concept attainment, self-attribution, problem solving, action planning and reorganization. Understanding the influence of emotions and reflection upon multi-source feedback acceptance and use. The factors that most influenced learning were: ease in sharing experience, normative beliefs, coping with negative emotions, perceived self-efficacy, social support and risk taking. Professional development and reflective practice: Strategies for learning through professional experience. Conversely, people will tend to harm, or work against the goals of, those from groups that are stereotypically associated with traits low in warmth (for U.S.
Motivational and volitional processes in action initiation: A field study of the role of implementation intentions. Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Compensable work disability management: A literature review of biopsychosocial perspectives. Criticisms of the biopsychosocial model in spine care: Creating and then attacking a straw person. Reducing sickness absence from work due to low back pain: How well do intervention strategies match modifiable risk factors?

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