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First aid for burns of varying severity rate,naturopathic treatment for edema 4 ,what to put in a personal first aid kit 0929 - PDF 2016

An injury that can damage or kill skin cells due to exposure to heat, fire, chemicals or electricity is called a burn.
In order to distinguish a severe burn from a mild one, it is important that you check the extent of the burn before you decide to call for medical help. First degree burns can be treated as minor burns but make sure you consider the other factors i.e. Second degree burns are more severe compared to first degree burns and often refer to burns that have damaged the outer layer and the second layer i.e. Alleviate the pain by cooling the burn: Bring the burned area under cool running water for about 15 minutes until the pain is reduced. Do not use home remedies such as butter, oil, toothpaste or egg whites to heal the burn as this may cause infections. To learn more about managing, recognizing, differentiating and treating burns take a first aid training course through a recognized provider near you. A torn back muscle can be due to overuse or overstraining the back such as the wrong technique when lifting objects that are heavy and repetitive movements. A dislocated shoulder is a common injury where the upper arm bone moves out of the cup-shaped hole of the shoulder blade. Varicose veins are veins that become large and twisted and usually common in the superficial veins of the legs. Burns are categorized according to severity and the severity determines the burn treatment options. 1st-degree burn – A first degree burn is the least serious of the type of burns you can receive and it is limited to only the outer layer of skin. 2nd-degree burn – When the burn goes past the first layer of skin to the second layer that is a second degree burn. Now that we have some reference on the types of burns out there, what are your treatment options? If a minor burn occurs, there are several steps you can take for immediate treatment of the burn. Cover the burn with a sterile bandage or clean cloth and protect it from pressure and friction. Over-the-counter pain medications may help reduce inflammation and swelling as well as help with the pain. If a major burn occurs, there are several steps you can take to immediately treat and care for the burn. If clothing cannot be removed from the victim make sure the victim is not in contact with smoldering materials. If the victim is breathing, cover the burn area with a moist, cool sterile bandage or clean cloth. Until medical help arrives, continue to monitor victims’ pulse, rate of breathing and blood pressure if possible. Hopefully you will never be faced with anything more serious than a minor first degree burn, but it is important to know what to do just in case.
These cases happen every day, and most of the time, nurses are expected to provide first aid care. Keep DRS in mind: Danger (check the scene for danger), Response (check for the victim’s consciousness) and Send someone to call for help. Remember that you have to stop bleeding by applying gauze or a clean piece of cloth to the wound firmly but gently. Puncture wounds, cuts, scrapes or amputations may cause external bleeding that needs immediate medical attention.
Prior to giving care, make sure that you don protective gloves or any barrier between you and the patient that can minimize transmission of disease. Nosebleeds are very common, and are usually caused by dryness, allergies, infection, increased blood pressure and aggressive nose picking among others.
Bleeding from the nose for more than twenty (20) minutes may be considered a medical emergency and immediate medical attention is necessary. Squeezing the soft part of the nose using the thumb and the index finger for about ten to fifteen minutes or placing an icepack on the bridge of the nose may also help stop the bleeding.
There are two types of airway obstruction, one of which is the partial airway obstruction wherein the breathing is labored or noisy and some air may be felt from the mouth.
If it is a complete airway obstruction and the victim is conscious, you have to call for help first (Call 911) before performing up to five back blows with the heel of one hand in the middle of the victim’s back, just between the shoulder blades.
If the back blows did not work, you can move on to performing up to five chest thrusts (or the Heimlich maneuver), which is similar to chest compressions, but sharper and must be delivered at a slower pace. Otherwise, place the victim on a side-lying position to promote drainage of secretion from the mouth.
When the organs and tissues in a person’s body are not receiving enough flow of blood, that person is susceptible to shock. Make sure to manage any bleeding, if present, by applying direct pressure and elevating the site. If possible, let the victim raise his legs and feet (shock position) and make sure to keep the patient warm and comfortable. A head trauma may cause a temporary loss or altered level of consciousness which occurs after an impact to the skull area. If the patient is not responding, but is breathing adequately, put him in a side-lying position. If the victim is not responding, but is breathing adequately, assist him to a side-lying position. Try to identify what has been taken, how much and when it was taken, while making sure that you maintain your safety.
If the victim is experiencing difficulty of breathing, abdominal pain, facial swelling and has signs and symptoms of shock, the first thing you should do is to call for help (Call 911), and assess the patient’s ABCDs. Assist the victim to a side-lying position to prevent him from choking if ever he vomits or bleeds through the mouth.
A person can still be revived during a cardiac arrest, but the more time that passes, the more unlikely that the victim will be revived. Before performing CPR, make sure that you have already asked for immediate medical attention (Call 911) and that you have assessed the patient’s ABCDs. A person in cardiac arrest will lie motionless without breathing, and will not be able to respond to any questions or stimulation. If the victim is unresponsive, turn him on his back and assess if breathing is completely absent. If the bite is actively bleeding, apply direct pressure with a clean, dry cloth until the bleeding subsides.
Cats don’t normally bite though, unless they are restrained or when you attempt to intervene in a cat fight. The first aid involves controlling the bleeding and washing the wound thoroughly under running water for a few minutes.
Near drowning is when a person suffers from severe oxygen deprivation while submerged in water, but not resulting in death. When a person suffers near drowning, water may enter the lungs, causing them to cease transferring oxygen to the blood.
The eyes are well-protected from injury by the structure of our face and with the help of our eyelids. Before helping a person with eye injury, make sure to seek for medical attention (Call 911) immediately. If the injury is caused by a blunt impact, ice packs may help reduce swelling and ease pain. Do not rub or apply any pressure to the eye either, as this may cause further damage to the injured eye.
While waiting for help, cover both eyes with sterile dressings to minimize the injured eye’s movement. If the victim stops breathing and becomes unresponsive, follow DRS, assess ABCDs and immediately perform CPR.
You have to assume that a person has a spinal injury if there is an evidence of head injury.
If you suspect that a person has a spinal injury, make sure to seek for medical attention (Call 911) immediately.
Check the victim’s ABCDs and keep the person still by placing towels on the sides of the neck to prevent movement. You will need help from another person if it is vital to move the victim because he is vomiting or choking on blood, or if he is at risk of further injury.
About the Author: Mary Elizabeth Velarmino Francisco earned her Bachelor of Science in Nursing Degree from the Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Philippines. Most ViewedRecent Posts100 Funniest Nursing Memes on Pinterest - Our Special Collection 50 Best Bible Verses for Nurses Top 10 Nursing Schools in the US 20 Greatest Florence Nightingale Quotes For Nurses 20 Short But Effective Prayers for Surgery 25 Cutest Gifts for Nurses You'll Also Want 50 Vintage Photos of Nurses Being Awesome 25 Medical Slang Terms Nurses Use Today's Meme: Brace Yourselves 7 Easy Stain Removal Tips Every Nurse Needs To Know 5 Things You Should Know Before Becoming a Vocational Nurse Today's Meme: Am I Going Crazy?
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Stuck outside, perhaps wet cold, area with wild animals--The knowledge of how to start a fire can mean life or death. Gather wood or other burnables, Make a small pile of them for the fire itself with the thinest driest materials at the bottom. With the ability to start a fire being a primary survival necessity, a single-handed fire starter is an important asset. Boy Scouts Handbook 1911 Both Boys and Girls should insist on getting a Boy Scout Handbook at least 1979 or newer.

Roasters can be made from green branches to roast meat, corn, fish, bread, marshmallows, hot dogs or just about anything solid. But successful cooking on a grill takes a little practice which you can get on your own backyard grill.
Coat hanger wire or heavier wire can be used instead of chicken wire or cutting metal to make shelves.
Just put your Canteen Cup or other style pot on top, put in a heating tab, light it and your all set. Stove is powered by Esbit solid fuel tablets (sold separately); tablets generate up to 1,400°F of intense heat and burn for about 12 min. Other Versions The Whisperlite Internationale ($10 more) is capable of operating on alternative fuels such as diesel, kerosene, gasoline, and jet fuel. MSR also sells an Expedition Maintenance Kit, which includes all necessary parts and instructions to disassemble and repair a damaged Whisperlite. The BioLite Wood Burning CampStove™ combines the benefits of a backpacking stove and an off-grid power charger so you can cook a meal while charging your gadgets at a backcountry campsite. CampStove can also burn wood pellets (available at many home and garden stores) if you're camping in a spot where you're not allowed to collect twigs or trees aren't present.
Anodized-aluminum legs create a stable platform for cooking; legs fold in for compact storage when you're done making dinner. CampStove's starter battery helps kick-start the fire before the stove begins generating its own power so it's best to charge the battery for 2 - 4 hrs. Charcoal burns hotter, cleaner, and more evenly than wood, air is fuel as much as is the charcoal so give your fire some air. JUST A FIRE ALONE Lowest cost, But much more time consuming, wood availability uncertain, may have to pack in wood, cooking time uncertain may be impossible in wet weather. CANDLES USED FOR FUEL Must be wind shielded, slow cooking, slow boiling, low cost, reliable, dependable, have to be stored away from heat. ALCOHOL BURNERS Must be wind shielded, slow cooking, slow boiling, reliable, dependable, may be more expensive depending on quantity purchased.
WHITE GAS STOVES Must be wind shielded, fast cooking, fast boiling, reliable, dependable, Less expensive than Propane. If you look at what experienced back packers use they usually use either the Butane or the White gas stoves.
Square lashings are used to bind together two spars that are at right angles with one another.
A loose Sheer Lashing made around the ends of two poles will allow the poles to be opened out and used as an A-frame.
Maps There are road maps and Topographic maps which show the physical features of the land as well as roads. The constellations (groups of stars) appear to change through out the year as the Earth travels around the sun. Now we have hand held GPS devices or GPS directions finders as phone apps built into cell phones.
IF YOU ARE FLYING KEEPING TRACK OF YOUR LOCATION IS EVEN MORE IMPORTANT BECAUSE YOU CAN'T STOP AND READ ROAD SIGNS. If the known height is lets say 5 feet (one boy tall) then just use a stick and count how many 5 foot sections high the tree is. You can go to Google maps and print out both a satellite and road map of the area you are going to be in.
Topographic Map Quadrangles Also go to your state government site or do a Google search for your state. Ten reasons why you should try hammock camping Light weight, comfortable, Insect free, no rocks, affordable!, refreshing!, You can still use your regular sleeping bag and pad, It gets you off the rocks, roots, bugs, muck, and slope of the ground.
A hammock maybe used with 1 tree and a pole if the pole is strong and is staked in three directions. Cot Tent DoubleThere also single cot tents which are more expensive and not for backpackers. But Tents are the old standard and can be lightweight, easy to set up, with full insect and rain protection. The closest thing to refrigeration is a flowing stream which in most cases now-days is rather rare. It doesn't have to be expensive like the top of the line items in the following backpacker link. Most sporting departments of large stores have water bottle filters often good for 100 gallons. Solar still One may see that it would be good to carry extra water, some plastic sheeting, drinking tube and a container, when traveling in areas where water is scarce.
In the new Scout Fieldbook they start this chapter with this Quote "We should all realize that every right implies a responsibility every opportunity an obligation, every position a duty, and that the most effective sermon is expressed in deeds instead of words." from Waite Phillips whose gift of property to the BSA became Philmont Scout Ranch. When most of our country was wilderness making a fire or tossing trash was no problem but now many people camp in parks, and use the same trails. Major bleeding apply direct pressure and pressure point if that fails send for materials for tourniquet. New American Heart Association CPR Guidelines released by the American Heart Association recommend that the three steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) be rearranged. New guidelines released by the American Heart Association recommend that the three steps of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR be rearranged. The new guidelines may inspire more people to perform CPR, says Sayre, an associate professor of emergency medicine at Ohio State University, Columbus. If you’re alone with a child or baby who is unresponsive and not breathing (or only gasping), call 911 after you’ve done 2 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
For a baby, place two fingers on breastbone, For a child, place heel of one hand on center of chest at nipple line. Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the child starts breathing or emergency help arrives. If you are alone with the child and have done 2 minutes of CPR (about 5 cycles of compressions and breathing), call 911 and find an AED and use it. Blister while hiking can be treated by applying a piece of moleskin cut slightly larger than the blistered area and perhaps with the center cut out to take pressure off of blister. Prevention is better use caution when gathering firewood and stepping over rocks, logs etc. Most spider bites are no problem but the Black Widow and Brown Recluse and a few others can be painful and ocassionaly deadly. Symptoms: Pale skin, clammy, Nausea and tiredness, Dizziness and fainting, Headache, muscle cramps, weakness. The night of April 1, 2005 is a night that Aimee Wakeman, then 9, of Troop 1933 from Lakewood, won't soon forget. At its 36th annual Youthpower dinner last Friday (March 4), the Seneca Waterways Council honored Eagle Scout Cody Jordan, Troop 111, Sodus, for saving his father’s life.
Blood Circle - a method of safely moving the tool around you to determine if your work area is free of obstacles that could cause potential problems. The circle is found by holding the blade of the cutting instrument (never the handle) in the hand used for cutting, and slowly swinging the arm in a 360° arc. If you are working in an unsecured area such as a trail use “Coming Through” and “Go For It”. The severity of the burn is based on three factors: the depth of the burn, the area of the burn and the location of the burn. Burns in the nose or neck may cause swelling or inflammation which can drastically constrict the airways causing difficulty in breathing.
The burn damages all layers of the skin and even the fat, muscle and bone may be affected as well. You may also cool the burn by immersing the area in cool water or by giving it cold compresses. Make sure you do not use cotton balls or any form of material that may leave a residue on the burn. However, make sure the person is not in contact with material that is on fire and keep him away from smoke. There are many ways where one can end up exposed to chlorine and the most common is through chlorine-treated drinking water, swimming pools or the soil. When you can’t run to the Emergency Room or the neighborhood clinic, the responsibility for medical care may rest on your shoulders. A quick way to tell the difference between a first degree and second degree burn are the presence of blisters. In a severe burn, the skin has been removed and fat, muscle and even bone areas may be affected.
Since it is more likely that you will have and be able to survive first or second degree burns, we will cover those first. Treat a burn as a major burn if the area is more than 2 to 3 inches in diameter or if it is located on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks or major joints. To prevent shock, lay the victim flat, elevate the feet 12 inches and cover the victim with a coat or blanket. Putting ice directly on a burn can cause a person’s body to become too cold and cause further damage to the wound. The ideas expressed on this site are solely the opinions of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the opinions of anyone else.
For instance, we should all know what to do with a victim of a road accident or someone with an injury as simple as a burnt finger. We should learn not only how to stay as calm as possible, but also what to do while waiting for help to arrive.

Is the victim’s airway (mouth and throat) free from foreign objects that may cause blockage?
If you can stop, or at least lessen, the bleeding until help arrives (Call 911), the patient’s chances of surviving may increase tremendously.
This will help in reducing the blood pressure in the veins of the nose, thus, minimizing the bleeding.
The other type is the complete airway obstruction wherein no air can be felt escaping the mouth. Make sure that the site is free from jewelries and clothing that may be contaminated by chemicals. Stings may be considered an emergency, especially if the victim experiences an allergic reaction. You can use the “look, listen and feel” approach: Look if the person’s chest is moving up and down, listen to any sounds of breathing and feel for air passing through the victim’s nose or mouth. It is a very life-threatening condition that results in extremely high body temperature, thus causing many organ systems to fail.
Domestic animals like horses, pigs and cows, do not bite often, but when they do, serious wounds may result. Otherwise, the proper authorities must be notified so that they can observe the animal for signs of rabies. Nonetheless, injuries are still possible, some to the extent that vision is lost, or, in rare cases, the eye must be surgically removed. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, stress, pollen, molds and changes in air temperature are only a few. Fractures may cause pain at the injury site, bleeding, deformities, tenderness, swelling and, often, inability to move. This may result to unresponsiveness, headache, nausea and vomiting, paralysis or convulsions. Both of you should work together to keep the victim’s head aligned with the neck and the back while rolling him onto his side. If you still can not find your city in the list, please CLICK HERE to submit a request for inclusion of your city. While a lighter, or even matches in many cases, can be used with one hand, when push comes to shove what you need is a reliable artificial flint style fire starter as your ultimate back-up. The stove fits conveniently around a canteen cup and then whole thing stores in the canteen pouch .
The priming process involves releasing a small amount of fuel into the fuel cup, lighting it, and letting it burn down.
The two stoves are mechanically identical with the exception of a wicking cup for lighting less flammable fuels and several interchangeable jets for different fuel types.
Isobutane burns hot and clean, and in colder conditions it outperforms conventional butane.
This can be done by drinking pure water and eating food that has been adequately cooked, using pots and utensils that have been sterilized, washing hands before preparing and eating food. The new first step is doing chest compressions instead of first establishing the airway and then doing mouth to mouth. Sayre, MD, chair of the emergency cardiovascular care committee for the American Heart Association and co-author of the executive summary of the 2010 AHA guidelines for CPR and emergency cardiovascular care. Press down so you compress the chest at least 2 inches in adults and children and 1.5 inches in infants. This is the night that she acted in a manner that was mature way beyond her years and risked her own life to save her father and brother's lives after an intruder broke into their house and started attacking her father.
The idea is no one except the person using the tool is inside, this keeps other from being accidentally hit and or hurt. If you decide to gave a tool to someone, you will not let go of it until the other person say “Thank You” letting you know that – that person has it and will not drop on you or anyone else.
For example a shovel should be carried at your side with your hand half way down the handle with the shove blade down but out in front of you. For example if you are using an Ax shouldn’t you be wearing boots to protect your feet, long pants to protect your legs, long sleeve shirt to protect your chest and arms, gloves to protect your hands, goggles to keep flying wood out of your eyes, and a hard hat to keep a branch from knocking you silly. If the area of the burn is equivalent to the area of the palm of your hand and has affected the hands, feet, major joint, face, buttocks or genitals, it is essential that you call for emergency medical help.
Wrap the bandage around the burn loosely and make sure you do not apply too much pressure on the burn. Seriously, from simple sun burns to touching that hot item on the stove, or reaching into the over too quickly most of us have been burned to varying degrees. Knowing how to recognize and treat burns is a medical skill that everyone in your family should have. 1st and 2nd degree burns that do not cover an area of more than 3 inches (length of your finger) are considered a minor burn. If someone else has caught fire, douse them with water, wrap them in a thick, non-synthetic material such as wool or cotton or lay them on the ground flat and roll them.
Do not put the victim in this position if he or she is uncomfortable or if you suspect a head, neck, back or leg injury. The author may or may not have a financial interest in any company or advertiser referenced. If the bite is not bleeding severely, wash the wound thoroughly with mild soap and running water for 3 to 5 minutes. Cat bites, on the other hand, involve deep puncture wounds that, most of the time, become infected.
Asthma attacks are characterized by difficulty of breathing and speaking, shortness of breath, cyanosis and wheezing. With coffee running through her veins, she enthusiastically battles each day, one article at a time.
This added versatility may seem appealing, but because white gas is widely available throughout the world we believe it’s necessary only for a small percentage of users. MOST EXPENSIVE BUT SAFEST, fast cooking, fast boiling, reliable, dependable, Easy clean up. The frapping turns used to tighten the lashing may be omitted and replaced with wedges inserted between the poles. Folding Spoons and forks as part of a knife need to be placed in boiling water before use, Eating utensils should have a hole in the handle that will allow them to be dipped in boiling water.
The old approach, he says, was causing delays in chest compressions, which are crucial for keeping the blood circulating.
Take a normal breath, cover the victim’s mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give two, one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise. While a hand ax the blade is carried in the hand, and a large ax you carry with the blade facing the ground and your hand about halfway on the handle so that it is angled to the ground.Place a sheath over an ax blade whenever it is not in use. This may seem a little over kill and it might be, until one or all of these things could have save you from a lot of pain and your life.
Burns are often difficult to heal and leave scars so it is essential that you take the condition more seriously and seek for medical help if required.
In their most minor form, burns seldom require much attention, the pain is brief and we go on with our lives.
Any action taken as a result of information, analysis, or advertisement on this site is ultimately the responsibility of the reader. Over the next 24 to 48 hours, observe the bite for signs of infection (increasing skin redness, swelling, and pain).
Here’s how: prime, light, turn off, release fuel pressure, pump three times, and light again.
While it is never a good idea to enter another person’s blood circle, it is customarily the responsibility of the knife-holder to clear the circle, or to move if the circle cannot be cleared.
In a real grid-down scenario you could easily get scalded when you are trying to boil your water to make sure it is safe for consumption or any one of hundreds of different possibilities.
This site is being constructed so let me know if there is anything you desire to know that is not here.
Once it starts to heat up, Perfectheat™ Technology gets the temperatures just right and the PerfectFlow™ Pressure Control System keeps the heat steady—even in cold weather, high altitudes and when fuel is low. The outdoors has become like our kitchen in that all those who use it should clean up their own mess. There could be accidents dealing with using fuel such as gas to power your emergency generator. The best one was the 9th edition of 1979-1990 which can be found used for a low price on internet. Regardless of the make and model, this process is roughly the same for all liquid fuel stoves. Full Flame Control: Glove-friendly controls allow precise flame adjustment, from a simmer to a boil Wind Clip™ wind shield boosts efficiency in breezy conditions.
Most important if you feel your hair standing on ends get down put your feet together and cover your head with both hands.
In his book, The Ultimate Hiker’s Gear Guide, author Andrew Skurka estimates a typical 8-ounce fuel canister should heat about 30 pints of water.
A freeze-dried meal usually requires 2 or more cups of water to rehydrate, so a canister is a good bet for 15 to 20 meals—barring cold temps, high winds or similar factors that could diminish stove performance. Also we recommend you get a Scout Field book which has more advanced skills displayed in pictures.

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