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Causes of edema of the leg,best books for ras 2014,sas bushcraft survival kit - You Shoud Know

A sprain in the ankle can occur to anyone but more specifically it occurs to sports persons.
Sprains are not only caused by muscle injury or damaged tendons but from torn ligaments as well.
Walking on uneven surface, placing the foot in awkward position while running or stepping down in wrong position can cause ankle sprain. When one player steps up on another player accidentally it can affect and damage the muscles or ligaments inside your foot. You can use over the counter medications to reduce swelling or apply ointments for decreasing inflammation.
In case of severe damage, your doctor will apply braces or casting on the ankle to immobilize it.
If you are a regular player, you can always wear ankle tapes for protecting injury during events. Consult your physician in case you have bunions on your foot which is likely to cause ankle sprains. Stasis dermatitis (also called venous stasis dermatitis) is an inflammatory reaction seen in the skin of the lower leg caused by static (slow or delayed) venous flow of the leg. The symptoms of stasis dermatitis vary with the general health of the patient, duration of the condition and status of treatment.
If left untreated, stasis dermatitis will continue to the final stage where the skin ulcerates due to the back pressure caused by venous incompentency.
Factors that can contribute to the early onset of stasis dermatitis include obesity, inactivity, venous injury, dependency (lower than the heart) of the leg and infection of the leg. Central to the treatment of venous stasis dermatitis and venous stasis ulcers is control of lower extremity edema due to venous hypertension. Eczematous changes (peeling and flaking) and lichenification (hardening of the epidermis) can be treated with skin softening agents. All Natural Antifungal Healing Foot Cream soothes dry peeling skin and treats fungal infections of the foot with a therapeutic formula of tea tree oil and lavender oil.
Therafirm Compression Knee High Socks are light-weight, fashionable graduated compression stockings designed for both men and women.
Natural Lavender Tea Tree Lotion soothes dry skin and treats fungal infections of the foot.
Drink lots of fluids like water, fruit and vegetable juices and soups, but avoid drinking carbonated beverages as they contain sodium which may aggravate or cause swelling in ankles. Regular exercise stimulates blood circulation and it prevents blood from accumulating in your legs and feet. Ankle exercises like ankle rotations and stretching exercises help to reduce swelling and maintain flexibility of the joints. Certain yoga asanas, such as Sarvanga asana and Uttanpada asana help to prevent and treat swelling in ankles by reversing the blood flow to the heart. When lying on the bed or a recliner, elevate your feet at 12 inches above the heart to reduce swelling in ankles. Technically known as “paresthesia”, this syndrome is caused by the compression of specific nerves.
Nerve impulses require a healthy energy supply, known as the axonal transport system.  This well developed micro-vascular distribution method provides the blood flow needed to maintain the cells in good working order. Studies have shown that it doesn’t take much to cause the axonal transport system go haywire.
Any discussion of what causes limbs to fall asleep would be remiss without talking about the common misconception that a limb falling asleep is caused by a lack of blood flow to the entire limb involved. In 2009, the only US supplier of Sodium Thiopental stopped production of the drug forcing several states to postpone some executions because they had to adjust their protocol for putting to death the accused.
The use of tourniquets to stop blood loss in trauma patients was once thought to be a staple life-saving treatment.
The use of tourniquets does have a place in certain situations, though.  For instance, the most common use of tourniquets today is in the military. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome occurs more often in women than men and is most common between the ages of 30-60. Prolonged numbness, tingling or loss of motor control, to any limb, should be evaluated by a medical professional.
During a neurological examination for neuropathy, my doctor informed me, that I had severe carpel tunnel syndrome. Yesterday night while coming back to home after having dinner with my friends, one hand and feet was suddenly losing the power and I stopped near a shop. Find Us On YouTube!Subscribe today to check out our free Daily Knowledge Youtube video series!
The genus streptococcus is comprised of many species of Gram positive cocci arranged in chains. These organisms are further divided into serologic subgroups called Lancefield groups designated by capital letters A, B, C etc.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is also alpha-hemolytic but must not be confused with the viridans streptococci. The most important non-hemolytic streptococci are now not in the genus Streptococcus at all.
This organism is one of the most important human pathogens and is responsible for a wide variety of clinical manifestations.
Group specific carbohydrate is an integral part of the cell wall and is the moiety that is detected in Lancefield serotyping of beta-hemolytic Streptococci.
Systemic Pyrogenic Exotoxins (SPEs) are produced by some strains and are responsible for the rash of scarlet fever. GAS is the only bacterium that causes significant pharyngitis in immunocompetent individuals. Scarlet fever is said to occur when GAS infection is accompanied by a, very characteristic, diffuse exanthem and enanthem. An infection of mainly the epidermis with significant lymphatic involvement, erysipelas is distinguished from cellulitis by its sharply demarcated, slightly raised borders.
Impetigo is a benign but unsightly condition commonly affecting the face of children that manifests as honey-colored crusts of exudate on an erythematous base. Since about 1987 there has been an increase of severe GAS infections that are often rapidly progressive and have a high rate of mortality.


Though now very rare in industrialized countries, Rheumatic Fever is still a feared complication of GAS pharyngitis.
Post Streptococcal Acute Glomerulonephritis (AGN) Characterized by edema, hypertension, hematuria and proteinuria approximately 2 weeks after a GAS infection, Post Streptococcal AGN is a fairly common complication of both pharyngitis and skin infections especially in children. Babies most at risk include those that are premature or are born to mothers with prolonged rupture of membranes. The genus Enterococcus includes organisms that are normal inhabitants of the human gut that were formerly included within the genus Streptococcus.
Even an extended twisting motion of the ankle can damage the muscles of the ankle causing sprain. When the ligaments are dislocated or overly stressed it will tear or stretch in excess causing sprain. Resting your feet completely, applying ice or cold-packs on the area, applying compression like braces of splint and keeping your foot elevated are some of the best forms of home treatment. You can always wrap ice cubes in a soft cloth and gently place it on the swelling to get relief from pain.
Crutches are yet another alternative to shift the body weight from ankle which facilitates better healing. For mild to moderate forms of injury and ankle sprain, you can consult physiotherapist to learn easy stretching exercises. Most of the ankle sprains can be completely cured but you should not get repeated sprain which may damage the ligaments well within the ankle. The primary contributing cause of stasis dermatitis is valvular incompentency of the veins of the leg resulting in chronic edema (swelling).
Edema can be controlled by elevating the legs above the level of the heart, use of diuretics and the use of compression hose. Inflammatory changes of the skin are common and can be treated with topical or oral steroids. The area superficial to the origin of the great saphenous vein is the most common site of ulceration. We recommend using Onox Foot Solution daily to control excessive foot perspiration and foot odor.
You have to take small measures to prevent and cure swelling in ankles without resorting to harmful medicines. Eat a high fibre diet in form of fresh vegetables like cabbage, cucumber, tomato and radish etc.
Keep 2-3 cushions under the feet or place 3-4 hard bound books under the mattress for elevation.
It provides support to muscles that support the ankles and it prevents fluid retention in the area. Wear them while travelling for long hours and while standing for a prolonged period of time. When you sit cross-legged, sleep with your arm above your head, or position any limb in such a way to put excess pressure on a nerve, that nerve will stop sending impulses normally.
They have what are known as “axons” that branch out to your limbs (and other parts of the body, but we will focus on the limbs) and carry nerve impulses out from the spinal cord. If pressure is put on the correct spot, though, all the tiny arteries, veins and capillaries that supply the nerves’ nutrients become pinched off and the nerve cells begin to function abnormally. External pressures of as little as 20 mmHg (about ? pound per square inch) caused intermittent paresthesia due to the veins supplying the nerve having their blood flow reduced.  When you get to around 1 pound per square inch for around 2 minutes, this can cause numbness, impaired dexterity, and result in muscle weakness. While blood flow is blocked to the nerve specifically, if the entire limb were to be cut off from blood, severe life threatening problems would arise every time we sat “crisscross applesauce” in grade-school (see the problems with tourniquet use in the bonus factoids below). The resulting induced compartment syndrome, created by their use, has shown the risks of using them far exceed the benefits, in most cases. The need for the rapid control of blood loss in a hostile environment has been shown to reduce battlefield deaths, despite the potential risk factor in using a tourniquet. It usually pops up in people who perform repetitive motion activities like typing, sewing, or playing musical instruments and gets its named from the “tunnel” that provides the pathway for the median nerve being narrowed. It could be a sign of a more serious problem like a tumor, peripheral neuropathy, or stroke. They are distinguished from the other major genus of Gram-positive cocci – Staphylococcus by their cellular arrangement and their inability to produce the enzyme catalase. The two most important types of beta-hemolytic streptococci, by far, are Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) or Streptococcus pyogenes and Group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae.
They have been separated into the genus Enterococcus and have gained importance as pathogens in recent years. The only reservoir is human beings and it may be found in a proportion of the oropharynges of healthy individuals referred to as carriers. It is a relatively infrequent cause accounting for approximately 10% of sore throats assessed in a physicians office, the majority of cases being viral in origin.
The rash is a generalized, fine raised red rash, prominent on the face and trunk and, late in its course, is said to feel like sandpaper. Commonly affecting the lower legs, especially in persons with chronically edematous extremities, it can occur on any part of the skin and is often associated with severe systemic toxicity. Approximately two weeks after infection patients develop an acute inflammatory state with heart, joints, subcutaneous tissues and CNS bearing the brunt of the assault.
Thought to immunologically mediated, it is usually self limited and fairly benign but may result in permanent renal damage requiring dialysis or transplantation. Though also involved in many kinds of infections in adults particularly in debilitated individuals, it is disease in newborns that is most important.
You can keep the ice-pack for 15-20 minutes and you can repeat this process many times a day. For managing severe pain, your doctor may give Tylenol or other forms of acetaminophen drugs. Lichenification describes crusting and layering of the skin that occurs when the normal exfoliative properties of the skin are disrupted by chronic swelling. It's important to realize that when using compression hose, the hose need to be put on first thing in the morning in advance of any swelling. We recommend using Onox daily to control excessive perspiration, athlete's foot and foot odor.


Swelling in ankles can be caused due to sitting for a prolonged period of time with your legs suspended, long hours of travelling in the car or in an aero plane. Consult a doctor to determine the root cause for the swelling if it is not cured by trying the following methods.
They help in proper functioning of the bowels and also increase the flow of urine to flush out toxins from the body and thus help to reduce swelling in ankles. Together with another cellular protrusion known as a dendrite, these projections allow us to feel the world around us.
If you doubt me, hit the Ulnar nerve (the funny bone) on something and see how sudden, extreme pressure makes you scream! Operating hand-held vibrating tools is an extremely common cause of this.  For example, dirt bike racers who need to grip handlebars tightly, while jumping frequently, experience this and commonly refer to these symptoms as “arm pump”. Once applied, a strict protocol of reperfusion (restoring blood flow) must be followed to ensure fatal metabolites will not be introduced into the bloodstream. Once the fight has ended, the need for such a method of bleeding control is then reconsidered.
This creates a problem when repetitive activities cause minor swelling in the area surrounding the nerve. Then I saw my friend was going, my eyesight is good but that time I also couldn’t see him properly. Infections similar to those caused by GAS are occasionally caused by Group C and G beta-hemolytic streptococci. However, there are approximately 80 distinct M types and because immunity is type specific, repeat infections with different serotypes occur. Diagnostic microbiology laboratories restrict the processing of throat cultures to determining if GAS is present or not. The distinction between the two may be difficult and is clinically moot as investigation and therapy are the same. The effects of carditis with deformity of heart valves makes up the major long term morbidity associated with the condition. Strategies to identify pregnant women who are colonized with GBS and then treat them with intra-partum (during labor) antibiotics if risk factors are present has reduced the incidence of serious GBS disease and is an area of active research and controversy. Until recent times they were viewed as relatively inconsequential, low virulence organisms that are involved mostly in mixed organism infections related to gut disruption. It happens when you walk on uneven surfaces, place your foot in awkward position or withstand enormous force or weight on your foot for long time.
Sometimes the small blood vessels rupture insides to leak out blood into the soft tissue on the joints causing swelling.
Pigmentation changes (darkening) of the leg usually follows a prolonged period of swelling (edema) of the lower leg.
In this stage of stasis dermatitis, oozing, scaling and deep pigmentation changes in the skin may become apparent. Discoloration or darkening of the skin is often due to the deposition of hemosiderin (the iron component of red blood cells).
The process that causes these symptoms in the presence of vibration hasn’t yet been fully clarified, but these pulsations have been shown to injure the entire neuron. Pressure is then placed on the nerve and symptoms like numbness tingling and pain are the result. This is generally a fairly mild self limiting illness, though local complications can occur e.g. Systemic pyrogenic exotoxins are responsible and disease is generally no more severe than GAS pharyngitis unaccompanied by Scarlet Fever rash. Diagnosis is made clinically using the revised (1992) Jones Criteria which state that Rheumatic Fever is highly likely if supported by evidence of a preceding GAS infection and the presence of two major OR one major and two minor manifestations. These muscles are connected to tendon and hence any injury or trauma to the underlying muscles or tendons cause ankle sprain.
Once hemosiderin is deposited in the skin, is is much like a tattoo that stains the skin from within. If the person’s heavy enough, or she stands on the hose for too long and the hose fully compresses, water will eventually stop flowing entirely.
Once the pressure on the limb is released, this “acid blood” is then sent back to the heart with potentially lethal consequences.
So next time Timmy the neighbor skins his knee in a bicycle accident, make sure that you instill the nick-name “stubby” before you take off your belt and cinch it around his bloody leg. This is an excellent example of the need for extremely prudent antibiotic prescribing practices. Ask all those people on death row if excessive potassium is a good thing.  They might want to reconsider investing in a portfolio that backs the production of potassium chloride.  Cardiac arrest anyone! However, it is the association of GAS pharyngitis with Rheumatic Fever that has made this illness far more important than it otherwise would be as discussed below. There were fears that a clone of GAS with increased virulence had re-emerged, was spreading and this was responsible for the change in epidemiology. Nerves, like a well worn hose, may take some time to work properly (expand) and you may feel some tingling, “pins and needles”, during the process. However clinical microbiology laboratories generally do not have the ability (or the interest) to differentiate one species from the other. However, as with most infectious diseases, the circumstance seems considerably more complicated and organisms of many M types producing all three types of SPEs have now been implicated.
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis (SBE) is an infection of heart valves that is commonly caused by this group of organisms. This is the reason that people with abnormal heart valves are advised to receive prophylactic antibiotics prior to dental manipulation. Clinically, patients present with pain and systemic complaints disproportionate to their soft tissue infection. They progress rapidly to shock and death without interventions in the form of aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics.



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