03.01.2016
American bison are formidable animals, both in terms of size and weight, so they are usually only taken down by large predators, such as mountain lions, wolves and humans. Male wild chimpanzees living in Bossou, Guinea, have figured out how to deactivate, and sometimes even destroy, snares set out by human hunters, according to Gaku Ohashi of the Japan Monkey Center and colleagues. Walruses breed during harsh Arctic winters, with mothers giving birth to just one offspring per season.
The major groups of vertebrates include the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Fiction in this case mirrors fact, as there are countless reports of heroic dogs saving the day. Abundant new techniques and strategies for human and non-human animal research have been developed. In fact, subcortical neural networks aroused during affective states in humans are also critically important for generating emotional behaviors in animals. Evidence of near human-like levels of consciousness has been most dramatically observed in African grey parrots.


Pharmacological interventions in non-human animals with compounds known to affect conscious behavior in humans can lead to similar perturbations in behavior in non-human animals.
About 1.3 million kinds have been identified to date, and new kinds are continually being discovered. They comprise one of the best-known groups of animals and include fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. Artificial arousal of the same brain regions generates corresponding behavior and feeling states in both humans and non-human animals. Mammalian and avian emotional networks and cognitive microcircuitries appear to be far more homologous than previously thought.
In humans, there is evidence to suggest that awareness is correlated with cortical activity, which does not exclude possible contributions by subcortical or early cortical processing, as in visual awareness. Studies of non-human animals have shown that homologous brain circuits correlated with conscious experience and perception can be selectively facilitated and disrupted to assess whether they are in fact necessary for those experiences.
Wherever in the brain one evokes instinctual emotional behaviors in non-human animals, many of the ensuing behaviors are consistent with experienced feeling states, including those internal states that are rewarding and punishing.


Moreover, certain species of birds have been found to exhibit neural sleep patterns similar to those of mammals, including REM sleep and, as was demonstrated in zebra finches, neurophysiological patterns, previously thought to require a mammalian neocortex.
Evidence that human and nonhuman animal emotional feelings arise from homologous subcortical brain networks provide compelling evidence for evolutionarily shared primal affective qualia. Moreover, in humans, new non-invasive techniques are readily available to survey the correlates of consciousness. Deep brain stimulation of these systems in humans can also generate similar affective states. Magpies in articular have been shown to exhibit striking similarities to humans, great apes, dolphins, and elephants in studies of mirror self-recognition.
Systems associated with affect are concentrated in subcortical regions where neural homologies abound.



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