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Key words: 6 DOF, acceleration, biomechanics, CAREN, dual belt, force plate, gait, motion platform, treadmill, virtual reality.
Abbreviations: AP = anterior-posterior, CAREN = Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment, DOF = degree of freedom, GRF = ground reaction force, ML = medial-lateral, VT = vertical. The Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) (Motek Medical; Amsterdam, the Netherlands) is a virtual environment and a rehabilitation aid used in research and clinical settings. The CAREN-Extended system configuration integrates a motion capture system, six degree of freedom (DOF) motion platform, instrumented treadmill, and a virtual scene. The CAREN system's discrete technologies are not new, but aggregating these systems for rehabilitation or research is currently state-of-the-art. One particular challenge with the CAREN-Extended framework is integrating force plates within the motion platform. The goal of this article is to evaluate performance characteristics of the motion platform and treadmill and to examine the effects of different modes of CAREN operation on force measurements.
To examine the dynamic performance, the platform was translated or rotated over progressively larger distances. Force plate measurements were examined when the treadmill was in operation, during ambulation, and over time to observe the baseline drift. Finally, force plate measurement drift was examined during an unloaded condition and a walking condition. Treadmill speed was examined with and without a person walking on the treadmill to determine the difference between input settings and measured treadmill belt speed. The static performance for platform translation and rotation was consistent with the input specified in D-Flow.
Maximum platform velocity, acceleration, and deceleration increased as the distance the platform traveled increased (Figure 5). The platform tracking markers exhibited more VT translation when a person walked on the platform than observed without a person walking on the platform; however, this difference was less than 1 mm.
GRFs drifted less than 3 N over a 40 min period without a person walking on the platform (Figure 9(a)).
Treadmill speed was consistent across the platform conditions tested (level, incline, and decline) with and without a person walking on the treadmill (Table 3). Mean ± standard deviation of treadmill belt speed for one belt with (walking condition) and without (unloaded condition) person walking on treadmill. Improving healthcare access, treatment and education for underserved people in Zimbabwe in partnership with St. In early July, the 590’ cargo ship Maersky Visby left Baltimore’s Seagirt Terminal carrying a 40-foot container destined for St.
BBF begins planning to ship donated medical supplies to three African countries, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Liberia. Treadmill donated to Better Healthcare for Africa by Ohio State University and destined for St. Items from Better Healthcare for Africa included in the shipment: Several models for the St. Walkers and stands for intravenous fluids (IV stands) in the BBF warehouse prior to loading into the St Albert's container. The full container is shipped by truck to Seagirt Terminal, Baltimore, MD.  Luke notifies Elizabeth by email of the container’s progress. Her email also points to the ongoing conditions that hospitals in Zimbabwe cope with when she also notes: “This morning I received a mail from Dr Thistle [at Howard Hospital, a Salvation Army mission hospital], asking if St.
This is just a short note to let you know that the treasure container for St Albert’s Mission Hospital has reached its destination safely. This entry was posted in Activities, News and tagged 2011 trip, Brother's Brother Foundation, container shipping, hospital sisters mission outreach. Even as a snow-belt, northeast Ohio native who is used to constant flurries and cold weather, this was a rough winter.
The Olentangy Trail is the best, and during half marathon training season you can usually find me on it. As soon as you step onto the trail at Highbanks Metro Park, you’ll see that it lives up to its name. Sharon Woods Metro Park – The mix of forests and open fields at Sharon Woods is intriguing for a runner who likes to be distracted by her surroundings. Hayden Falls Park – With a 35-foot waterfall and gorgeous surrounding cliffs, Hayden Falls Park is a hidden gem in Columbus. This virtual environment consists of a 180 degree projection screen used to display a virtual scene, a 12-camera motion capture system, and a 6 degree of freedom actuated platform equipped with a dual-belt treadmill and two force plates.
This system enables innovative rehabilitation techniques and comprehensive evaluation measurements that provide insights into a person's recovery process [1]. The CAREN allows researchers to address a number of research questions by enabling manipulation of the standing or walking surface and visual scene and by providing real-time biofeedback or enabling interaction with the virtual environment.
Understanding this system's performance characteristics and limitations is crucial for effective design of research protocols or A­formulation of clinical treatment plans. In a typical motion analysis laboratory, force plates are secured in a level walkway, shielded from electromagnetic interference, and isolated from environmental vibrations.
We hypothesized that platform and treadmill operations are consistent with manufacturer specifications and that platform movement and treadmill operation affect force plate measurements. Six hydraulic actuators were connected in a Stewart configuration and controlled independently to enable motion in six DOFs: sway or medial-lateral (ML) translation, surge or anterior-posterior (AP) translation, heave or vertical (VT) translation, pitch, yaw, and roll (Figure 1). Visual3D was used to model the platform as a kinematic object (segment) and to calculate platform translation and rotation.
For the static analysis, the input platform position was compared with the measured platform position while the platform was stationary at specific intervals of operation listed in Table 1.
At the start of each trial, the platform was positioned at the origin and then translated or rotated. Mean and two standard deviations of force data over five foot strikes were calculated to examine the effect of foot contact on the unloaded force plate.

All data were collected after following the standardized power-up sequence and the force plate amplifiers reached optimal operational condition. Three reflective markers were attached to the spokes of a distance-measuring wheel, which consisted of a single wheel attached to a handle that can be pushed or pulled alongside a person.
Difference between D-Flow input and measured platform position for platform (a) translation and (b) rotation operational range for one trial. Dynamic performance characteristic for platform translation and rotation including platform velocity, acceleration, deceleration, peak transition time, total transition time, and overshoot. Two standard deviations of force measurements due to platform acceleration for progressively larger platform movement.
With a person walking on one force plate, the adjacent or unloaded force plate measurements should be 0 N. When a person walked on a level platform, the VT drifted approximately 5 N every 5 min and the AP and ML GRFs drifted less than 5 N over a 25 min period (Figure 9(b)). Force signal baseline drift for each axis (a) without person walking on level treadmill (unloaded condition) and (b) with person walking on level treadmill (walking condition). Treadmill speed variability was greater when a person walked on the treadmill and the variability was greater at faster speeds. For walking condition, treadmill belt speed was calculated from foot marker data and distance wheel data for 10 steps. Luke Hingson, president of BBF, contacted BHA for help in reaching Dr Elizabeth Tarira, director of the Zimbabwe Catholic Health Commission, which oversees Zimbabwe’s network of Catholic mission hospitals.
Chip Lambert makes a reconnaissance trip to visit the hospitals identified for possible shipments. Albert’s midwife program (purchased using contributions from individual donations to BHA) and the treadmill donated by Ohio State University.
BBF loads the goods into a 40-foot container, filling the remaining space with manually operated hospital beds, mattresses and other items. 1: After stopping briefly at Port Elizabeth, South Africa, the Maersk Visby arrives at the Port of Durban, South Africa, where the St. From fitness classes and facilities to recipes and workout app reviews, we show you how to have a life in motion at Ohio State. I love to run all over campus, weaving my way through the buildings, taking a few laps around The Shoe and heading through the gorgeous Oval.
This meandering, paved trail runs along the river past the heart of campus, heading south into downtown Columbus and north into Clintonville. It’s a 20-minute drive from campus but worth it for the beautiful nature and challenging hills it provides. Four miles of paved trails and three miles of nature trails alongside a stream—count me in. This small, two-acre park located within Griggs Nature Preserve is a little piece of heaven in our concrete jungle of Columbus. In addition to clinical use, researchers employ the CAREN for scientific inquiry, furthering knowledge of walking stability [2], traumatic brain injury [3], and neurorehabilitation [4]. Conventional treadmill systems instrumented with force plates introduce electrical and mechanical noise from the treadmill belt motion and electric motor [6–8]. Since these systems are emerging as tools for research and clinical rehabilitation decision-making, a better understanding of technical performance is needed to develop protocols for specific human movement evaluations and to guide data collection, processing, and analysis methodologies. The power spectral density of the unloaded force plate signal was also examined for the ML, AP, and VT directions. For each condition, the force plates were reinitialized and a 5 s trial was recorded to capture the baseline signal. To examine treadmill speed without a person walking on the treadmill, a person stood on the platform next to the treadmill, holding the distance-A­measuring wheel on the treadmill belt. Platform peak transition time was approximately 1 s for a default D-Flow safety filter, set to 1, and increased to approximately 4 s for the largest safety filter setting (Figure 5).
The power spectral density showed that most signal noise from the treadmill components occurred at frequencies higher than 20 Hz (Figure 7(a)) and could be effectively removed using a low-pass filter with a 20 Hz cut-off frequency (Figure 7(b)). Force data were filtered using fourth-order Butterworth low-pass filter with cut-off frequency of 20 Hz.
However, a force signal artifact was observed on the unloaded force plate equivalent to ±40 N, averaged over all force channels (Figure 8(a)). The container was shipped by Brother’s Brother Foundation (BBF), with a support from Better Healthcare for Africa (BHA). The visits enable us to understand each hospital’s needs and to explain to the staff how the supplies are requested and shipments are carried out.
I’m ready to enjoy the spring weather and one of the best ways is to fit my exercise in outdoors. Check out the list of running loops plus distances on the Outdoor Facilities Rec Sports page to map out your next campus run.
Platform static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by translating or rotating the platform over progressively larger distances and comparing input and measured values. In the CAREN-Extended system, force plates are embedded in a treadmill and six-DOF platform. The performance tests cover static and dynamic characteristics of the motion platform, treadmill belt speed variability, force plate signals analysis during treadmill and platform operation, ambulation, and baseline drift.
This involved a hardware zeroing of the force plates while unloaded, stationary, and level. This was repeated twice for each of the conditions listed in Table 2 and for three D-Flow safety filter input settings (1, 2.5, and 5), where larger safety filter values resulted in more gradual platform movement. Acc = acceleration, Dec = deceleration, AP = anterior-posterior, SD = standard deviation.Click Image to Enlarge. The power spectral density (Welch method [11]) of the force plate signal was estimated for the ML, AP, and VT directions and each treadmill belt speed. For the unloaded condition, a 5 s trial was recorded every 5 min for a 40 min period without a person walking on the platform.

To examine speed with a person walking on the treadmill, a person walked on one belt while holding the distance wheel out in front of his or her feet on the same treadmill belt. Peak platform orientation was often greater than the specified input (overshoot) before gradually moving to the final orientation. Acc = acceleration, AP = anterior-posterior, Decel = deceleration, ML = medial-lateral, Vel = velocity, VT = vertical.Click Image to Enlarge.
AP = anterior-posterior, ML = medial-lateral, na = not applicable, VT = vertical.Click Image to Enlarge.
The power spectral density analysis demonstrated the frequency components of this force signal artifact were between 0 and 40 Hz. Force measurements on unloaded force plate should be 0 N; however, force signal artifact was observed in unloaded force plate signal. Our trip together concludes with a morning-long meeting with Zimbabwe Association of Church-related Hospitals (ZACH), an organization formed to work with customs officials and faciliate the importation of donated medical supplies for member hospitals.
We beneficiaries especially and you also for having accomplished a good gesture in the name of the Lord.
Treadmill belt speed was assessed with and without a person walking on the platform and at different orientations. Force plate data are a key component of gait analysis and are typically used as an input of the inverse dynamic model to estimate multiple biomechanical parameters such as torque at the ankle, knee, and hip. Platform velocity, acceleration, and deceleration were calculated for translation trials; and platform angular velocity, angular acceleration, and angular deceleration were calculated for rotation trials (Figure 2). Compared with the Fast Fourier Transform, the Welch method reduces variability of the power spectral density estimate but decreases the frequency resolution. Markers were also attached to the person's feet to calculate treadmill speed from the foot marker trajectories during single limb stance.
As the D-Flow safety filter increased, the platform total transition time and overshoot increased and the platform acceleration decreased (Figure 5).
This overlaps the frequency components of GRFs [12] and cannot be easily removed by filtering techniques.
The difference between treadmill belt speed calculated from foot marker velocity data and treadmill belt speed calculated from the distance wheel was less than 2 percent. On behalf of all the beneficiaries I would like to extend our sincere gratitude and thanks.
Preliminary findings demonstrated that platform and treadmill operation affected the ground reaction force (GRF) signals [9], which will affect torque derived from the inverse dynamic model. When the platform was stationary, force signals were less than 3 N, and force signals increased when the platform was moving.
Applying a low-pass filter was only able to reduce the force signal artifact to less than 20 N (Figure 8(b)). The D-Flow platform safety filter parameter was set to 1, which was equivalent to the inverse of the cut-off frequency for a real-time second-order Butterworth low pass filter of 1 Hz. Peak platform transition time was defined as the time from initial to peak platform position (Figure 2; T1). Force signals increased as platform acceleration increased and were largest in the direction of platform motion (Figure 6). At the start of each trial, the force plates were reinitialized while the platform was level and stationary. Even the most gradual platform movement (safety filter = 5) introduced force plate noise when compared with a stationary platform, but the noise was less than 30 N (Figure 6).
Force plate measurements were affected by platform and treadmill operation, contralateral impact forces during gait, and baseline drift.
During the trials, the platform changed orientation and the forces from gravity and platform weight were represented in the force signal (Figure 3(a)).
The distance wheel was modeled using Visual3D, with the origin at the center of the distance wheel. Additional results tables for motion platform testing can be found in the Appendix (available online only). Knowledge of performance characteristics and their effect on outcome data is crucial for effective design of CAREN research protocols and rehabilitation scenarios. To correct for these orientation-based forces, an offset (Figure 3(b)) was subtracted from the original force data so that the force data were zero when the platform was stationary (Figure 3(c)). Angular velocity of the distance-measuring wheel was calculated and converted to linear velocity of the treadmill belt.
Red line at 0 N on all graphs represents force signal without person walking on platform.Click Image to Enlarge. Mean and two standard deviations of the resulting force signal were calculated to quantify the force due to platform acceleration (Figure 2). Mean and standard deviation were calculated over 3 s for each treadmill belt and each speed increment without a person on the treadmill. Treadmill speed was also calculated from foot marker AP velocity to evaluate the use of foot marker data as a method to determine treadmill speed.
Five consecutive frames of foot marker velocity with the smallest standard deviation were selected during single-leg stance. These data corresponded to the smoothest part of the velocity curve when the foot was flat on the treadmill. Mean velocity over 10 steps was calculated for both methods to evaluate foot marker velocity as a measure of treadmill belt speed.

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