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admin | Category: Where To Buy Exercise Equipment | 11.03.2013
I recently noticed a discussion in an online fitness training forum about age-related norms for maximum heart rate (HRmax). Age-predicted HRmax is subject to considerable variation between individuals, but provided you’re aware of the margin for error from aged-based predictions, the method still provides a useful estimate of HRmax. The origins of the 220-age formula are somewhat uncertain, but a scientific paper by Robergs and Landwehr (Journal of Exercise Physiology online; 2002) provides some interesting insight into how this formula was derived – sport geeks (like me) will find the article an interesting read.
As estimates of HRmax from the traditional 220-age formula are associated with a large margin of error, researchers have attempted to provide alternative formulas that improve the accuracy of HRmax estimates.  The alternative formulas have improved the precision of HRmax estimates, but the margin of error is still larger than ideal. So if the accuracy of age-based estimates of HRmax is limited, how do you find out your true HRmax? Maximal-intensity exercise is required to stimulate the cardiovascular system and drive HR to maximum levels. Based on my experience working with athletes, individuals with a low HRmax aren’t usually disadvantaged compared with individuals with a high HRmax.
Hopefully this provides some useful information about HRmax and how it relates to exercise intensity. By using a robotic physiotherapy aid, Annie Goldsmith has been able reverse some of the symptoms of cerebral palsy and learn how to walk. Kathryn Goldsmith knew her daughter would face physical challenges after being diagnosed with cerebral palsy, but she never guessed a robot could help her to learn how to walk.Ms Goldsmith's daughter Annie received a head injury during pregnancy. There are photos of her waterskiing, she horse rides and she jumps off jetties with assistance.
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However, if the exercise intensity is too high, local muscular fatigue will limit performance before HRmax can be achieved. According to Robergs and Landwehr (2002) the standard error of HRmax estimates from the 215.4 – (0.9 x age) formula is approximately 12%, meaning the error from the 220-age formula is likely to be greater again!
Conversely, if the exercise intensity is too low, the cardiovascular system will not be sufficiently stimulated to elicit HRmax.


In practice, many athletes will display their HRmax during a sprint finish in a race, or during a long and steep hill climb. However, an incremental exercise test (also called a step test or ramp test) is the most effective way to measure an athlete’s HRmax. Between-individual variation in HRmax is probably mainly due to genetic factors and fitness status, both of which influence heart size and sensitivity to signals from the nervous system. During a step test, exercise intensity is gradually increased (by controlling power output) until the athlete indicates that no further increases are possible and they can no longer sustain the workload.
It also means that HR-based exercise prescriptions should be based on relative exercise intensity. HRmax is usually achieved during the final 60-90 seconds of a step test when an increase in workload is no longer accompanied by an increase in HR.
Step tests also provide the opportunity to measure important fitness markers such as VO2max and Anaerobic Threshold, which provide feedback about fitness status and individualised training intensities. Training zones based on fixed percentages of HRmax are a good starting point for calculating general exercise intensities for endurance training. However, training zones should ideally be further individualised based on an athlete’s lactate threshold. As direct determination of HRmax requires maximal-intensity exercise, professional advice is required to determine whether medical clearance is necessary.



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