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admin | Category: Small Elliptical Trainer | 13.10.2013
Our objective here is to gain a simple understanding of the movements of the planets and see what that tells us about their physical properties. Throughout human history, people noted that while most celestial objects stayed in one position, a few "wanderers" (planets) moved around. Theories of classical antiquity are the best known of the early thinkers' because many of their records survived. Aristarchus (310-230 BC) proposed a heliocentric (sun-centered) model in which retrograde motion was the result of the relative motion of Earth and the planets around the Sun, but didn't convince many people because of the problem of parallax (stars appearing to change position against the background as Earth moves). Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was a Danish astronomer-aristocrat who equipped an observatory at Uraniborg from his own fortune. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) worked as an assistant to Tycho Brahe after the latter relocated to Prague. Where c = distance from center to a focus and a = the semimajor axis, the distance from the center to the apex. Kepler's First Law: Planets move in elliptical orbits about the Sun with the Sun at one focus. Apoapsis: the point in an orbit of greatest distance between the orbiting body and the primary. Aphelion: the point in an orbit of greatest distance between the orbiting body and the Sun. Apogee: the point in an orbit of greatest distance between the orbiting body and the Earth. Kepler's Second Law: Imaginary lines drawn between Sun and planet sweep out equal areas in equal time as planets move.
Thus, planets farther from the Sun take longer to complete their orbits not only because they follow longer orbital paths, but because their absolute speed is lower.
The four largest moons of Jupiter, demonstrating that the Earth was not center of all celestial movement. In any case, Galileo's ideas were still in circulation when the European Enlightenment began during the century after his death. Isaac Newton (1643-1727) formulated the laws of motion which provided elegant explanations for celestial movements.
Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled to change that state by the action of some outside force (things remain in motion unless friction slows them down). The change of motion (acceleration) is proportional to the force acting on the body and inversely proportional to the mass of the body (can calculate the motions from the force exerted on an object, for example a spacecraft).
To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (apple attracts Earth as Earth attracts apple).


Kepler's second law, that orbits sweep out equal areas over equal times, is a consequence of Newton's laws of motion (conservation of angular momentum).
From Newton's laws of motion, one can also calculate the velocity necessary to stay in orbit. Thus, we need only know the semimajor axis and orbital period of an object to know the mass of the thing it orbits. What happens when we accelerate an orbiting object (say we execute an engine burn on a spacecraft)? Ring particles orbiting inside the shepherd moons are slowed down by them and fall into lower orbits. Now for a paradox: Suppose two particles orbit a planet in orbits whose semimajor axes differ by several hundred kilometers (1).
In reality, every particle of the moon experiences the tidal force, so that it is effectively stretched by the planet it orbits. The Roche limit: What would happen in scenario 2 if the tidal force were stronger than the tensile strength of the cable?
Tidal retreat: Tides influence the orbital relationships of planets and their moons in subtle ways. Of course, if a moon's orbit is retrograde like that of Triton around Neptune, then its orbit gradually gets lower because the tidal bulge that it raises slows it down. Libration: Note - to say that an object in a synchronous orbit keeps exactly the same face toward its primary is an oversimplification because the orbiting object's rate of rotation is constant, but its orbit is an ellipse, not a circle. HD 40307g is the closest habitable planet candidate around a Sun-like star.A team of European-American astronomers announced the discovery of a new potential habitable exoplanet around the star HD 40307, a star slightly smaller than the Sun and 42 light years away in the constellation Pictor. Although they had trouble separating the physical heavens above our heads with the metaphysical Heaven of religion, Greco-Roman astronomers understood that celestial objects were physical things whose motion could be described analytically. Example: They need to explain retrograde motions of planets where a planet appears to stop and reverses direction for some time. He viewed the geocentric system as unreasonably complex, and became the first modern proponent of a heliocentric system, explaining retrograde motions as the Earth either passing an outer planet, or an inner planet passing the Earth (because of different planet velocities). He made superb naked-eye observations of the planets and recorded their movements with unprecedented accuracy. Given the task of calculating the precise orbit of Mars based on Brahe's observations, he came to the startling conclusion that its shape was that of an ellipse, not a circle.
Note that the velocity is high if the distance R is small, and it is low if the distance is large. On Earth, we see the effect of the moon's tidal force in the "stretching" of the oceans to produce two ocean tidal bulges, one facing the moon and one facing away.


HD 40307 is the third known star system with as many as six planets(1), and the first one of such with a potentially habitable planet.The star HD 40307 was previously known to have three planets. Developed a poorly-received "compromise" system in which the Sun and Moon orbited the Earth but everything else orbited the Sun. The research team discovered three additional ones, including the one potentially habitable, HD 40307g.
His great achievement was the mass of excellent data he assembled - the best ever produced by the pre-telescope era of astronomy. They used a novel statistical tool, the HARPS-TERRA software(2), to extract the faint signals of these objects from data from ESO's HARPS Instrument.HD 40307g is a superterran(3) at least seven times more massive than Earth orbiting the star at the right distance to support liquid water.
HD 40307g receives on average about 67% of the light Earth receives from the Sun.There is no information about the type and composition of the atmosphere of HD 40307g. Average temperatures might be near 9°C (48°F) assuming a similar scaled-up terrestrial atmosphere.
It might also experience strong seasonal surface temperature shifts between -17° to 52°C (1.4°  to  126°F) due to its orbital eccentricity. Nevertheless, these extremes are tolerable by most complex life, as we know it.HD 40307g has been added to the Planetary Habitability Laboratory’s Habitable Exoplanets Catalog(4). However, this kind of detection needs independent confirmation by other methods, as also cautioned by the research team. Meanwhile, this discovery is considered a potentially habitable exoplanet candidate and an interesting target for future observations.The international research team was led by Mikko Tuomi (Hertfordshire University) and Guillem Anglada-Escude (University of Goettingen). HD 10180 also has a planet in its stellar habitable zone but is too large, Neptune-size, to be considered potentially habitable. All the Kepler-11 planets are too hot for life.HARPS-TERRA is a new software tool that implements additional analyses and tests beyond those enabled by other methods to analyze exoplanets radial velocity data. The green shade is the stellar habitable zone where surface liquid water is possible for a planet with the right size and atmosphere.
Note that the orbit of HD 40307g is probably highly elliptical causing extreme temperature changes similar to seasons.Figure 3.
All currently know potential habitable exoplanets listed in PHL's Habitable Exoplanets Catalog.



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