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This article describes the purpose of water storage and water pressure tanks, how water tanks work, what goes wrong with the water tank (such as water tank leaks, loss of air charge, corrosion, failure to admit water) and how to fix water tank troubles. We explain the different types of water tanks such as tanks using an internal bladder or diaphragm, bladderless steel, fiberglass, or plastic water tanks, and water tank pressure and air controls and valves.
Our complete list of water tank installation, diagnosis, & repair articles is at the end of this page. See WATER PUMP LIFE EXPECTANCY for types of water well pumps, how they work, how they are diagnosed and repaired. Because the air charge is kept separate from the water in the tank, air is not absorbed into the water and bladder type water tanks do not normally need to have makeup air added.
Water pressure or water pump short cycling problems with bladder-type water tanks are usually traced to a problem with the pump controls, with well and water piping leaks, or less often, to a failure of the internal tank bladder itself - a component that may be replaceable. If the water-containing rubber bladder in a "captive air" water tank is defective (it can become stuck to itself and remain collapsed), the result can be a rapid on-off short cycling of the water pump. Bladderless Steel Water Pressure Tanks (photo at left and sketch just below) use a single steel tank interior to hold both the air charge and the water supply. Modern steel bladderless type water tanks may be coated internally to increase the water tank life by resisting corrosion.
Bladderless water pressure tanks, because the air charge and water are in the same container, can lose their air charge over time (air is absorbed into the water) and may need air added. This air cushion effect prevents the water from surging (much) at the plumbing fixture as the pump turns on and off as water is running during use of the fixture (such as a sink or shower).
I have a well system at a marina and would like to install commercial flushometer toilets and urinals.
I have space above the rest rooms and would like to install a stand alone pressurized system that is fed by the existing residential system, but would provide the gpm and pressure to function the commercial units.
While flushometer valves by various manufacturers can operate at a range of water pressures (10-100 psi) the typical operating pressure requirement is 25 psi. When choosing fixtures and deciding on water storage volume, pressure, and plumbing specifications you'll need to be sure to check the specific requirements of the flush valves you are buying for the urinals and toilets. Well water tanks are often collected and recycled, especially by larger plumbing and well drilling companies. The plumbing company that opens water pressure tanks has an inside view of problems that may have developed with the bladder or with the tank itself - useful water tank failure cause and effect data.
Continue reading at CISTERNS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below.
Because Wikipedia and other website entries can be amended in real time, we cite the retrieval date of such citations and we do not assert that the information found there is always authoritative. Life Expectancy of Wells & Water Tanks how long should a water well and its components last? Water pressure tanks - how to diagnose the need for air, how to add air, stop water pump short cycling to avoid damage - water storage water pressure tank safety. Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. Scalable to any size without losing image quality; can be used for any printing or online applications.
Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations.
The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales.
The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view.
Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period. To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy.
Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path.
Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator. Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity. In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description.
Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down.
Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist. We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions.
Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros.
These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world. But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge.
That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge.
Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps.
The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied.
Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence. In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life.
Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking.
The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent.
An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200.
The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994. Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost. As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China. Air is carried from the trachea (the windpipe) into the lung through flexible airways called bronchi. Like the branches of a tree, the bronchi in turn divide into over a million smaller airways called bronchioles. Lung cancer develops when genetic mutations (changes) occur in a normal cell within the lung. The two major categories of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.
In addition, cancers in the lung may have spread from other sites, such as the breast, thyroid, or colon. These separate types are grouped together because, in the early stages before the cancers have spread, they all can be treated with surgery. When squamous cell cancer spreads, it may travel to the bone, adrenal glands, liver, small intestine, and brain.
Squamous cell carcinoma is nearly always caused by smoking, and it used to be the most common cancer. Small cell lung cancer may, like squamous cells, originate from reserve cells or other cells in the epithelium.
In general, chronic exposure to nicotine may cause an acceleration of coronary artery disease, peptic ulcer disease, reproductive disturbances, esophageal reflux, hypertension, fetal illnesses and death, and delayed wound healing.
There is considerable debate over the lung cancer risk posed by depleted uranium used in military weapons (such as in the Gulf and Balkan conflicts).
Other lung carcinogens include asbestos, arsenic, certain petrochemicals (materials made from crude oil or natural gas), and other airborne (carried through the air) byproducts of various mining and manufacturing processes.
Damage to either type of gene can cause a mutation that results in uncontrolled division of cells. BPDE-caused mutations: The chemical BPDE, a byproduct of tobacco smoke, is involved with a number of genetic mutations, including those to an oncogene called K-ras and to three tumor-suppressor genes known as p53, PPP2R1B, and p16.
Rb mutations: Another important contributor to lung cancer is a genetically defective protein called retinoblastoma (Rb), which is associated with very aggressive tumors. Abnormalities in the FHIT gene: Such abnormalities may cause the cells lining the lung to become more vulnerable to the effects of tobacco smoke and other cancer-causing substances.
Alpha1-antitrypsin mutations: People who carry a common variation in the gene for alpha1-antitrypsin -- a substance that normally protects the walls of the alveoli in the lungs -- are 70% more likely to develop lung cancer than those without the mutation, regardless of whether they smoke.
Shortness of breath: This common symptom is the result of cancer that has spread in the lung and the pleura -- the membrane covering the lung. Superior vena cava syndrome: In some cases, tumor growth or spreading of the cancer presses against the superior vena cava, a large vein that returns blood from the upper part of the body to the heart. Trouble swallowing: The esophagus is the pipe that takes food from the mouth to the stomach. Pancoast syndrome: Damage to the brachial plexus, a group of nerves branching from the neck, can cause pain, weakness, or numbness in the arm or hand (Pancoast syndrome). Hypercalcemia: Some lung cancers produce substances that remove calcium from bone and release it into the bloodstream, causing a condition called hypercalcemia. Other lung cancers (usually small cell cancer) cause the body to retain water, lowering the blood's sodium levels.
People who smoked can be at increased risk for lung cancer more than 20 years after quitting, although the risk drops significantly even in the first year after quitting.
In China, about one-third of all young male smokers will eventually die because of tobacco-related illnesses. By contrast, agricultural workers seem to have a lower lung cancer rate, despite their possible occupational exposures to risky chemicals. A family history of lung cancer may play a role in increasing susceptibility to this disease. Smokers with emphysema or chronic inflammatory lung diseases, such as asthma, are at increased risk for lung cancer.
The many methods of quitting smoking include counseling and support groups, nicotine patches, gums and sprays, and incremental reduction. The antidepressants bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin), which reduce emotional effects and cravings associated with withdrawal, and improve abstinence rates. Professional counseling or support organizations that may, in addition to medication, help people stop smoking. While people are in the process of quitting (and afterwards), they should maintain as healthy a lifestyle as possible. The research on diet and cancer suggests that antioxidants in certain foods may protect against the DNA damage that can lead cells to turn cancerous.
In fact, evidence is now suggesting that high doses of vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene supplements may have harmful effects. People concerned about radon in their home or area can purchase a test approved by the Environmental Protection Agency. Evidence to date has not proven a survival benefit of using CT scans to screen people without symptoms.
It should also be noted that about 98% of suspicious areas seen on CT scans turn out to be benign.
High-risk individuals who are still interested in early screening with CT scans should ask their doctor about available clinical trials. Computed tomography is the standard imaging procedure for determining if and where the cancer has spread (metastasized). PET is a good imaging technique for staging lung patients thought to have early stage lung cancer after other testing. With this imaging test, the patient is first injected with a specially formulated, radioactive liquid sugar (called FDG), and then viewed with a machine that records energy given off by cells that absorb high levels of FDG, such as lung tumor cells. The doctor inserts a bronchoscope -- a hollow flexible tube, often containing a fiber optic light source, into the lower respiratory tract through the nose or mouth. The tube acts like a telescope into the body, allowing the doctor to see the windpipe and major airways.
The surgeon removes specimens for biopsy, ideally combining techniques to include cutting tissue, brushings, and a washing process called bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Sputum analysis may also be used to diagnose lung cancer in someone with signs of lung cancer. A number of these biomarkers are being evaluated alone or in combination as either screening tools or as potential markers for the risk of disease progression.
As part of the doctor's initial examination, patients may have a pulmonary function test to evaluate lung health and capacity. The cancer cells are examined microscopically for size, shape, and other configurations that may indicate whether the cancer is likely to spread, even if the tumor is small.
Computer tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used to scan the lung and perhaps other locations, such as the liver, upper abdomen, and brain, to determine if and how far the disease has spread. In lung cancer, the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis is a major factor in determining how to treat the cancer, and how long the patient can expect to live.
To determine the stage, medical professionals first categorize each tumor by size and by how far it has extended.
TNM stands for Tumor, regional lymph Nodes, and Metastasis (cancer spread beyond the original tumor). In T1, the tumor is 3 cm or less in size, is still contained in the lung or the membrane covering the lung, and has not reached the main airway.
The tumor is in the main airway, less than 2 cm away from the carina, but is not in the trachea (windpipe). The tumor is accompanied by an increased amount of fluid between the pleural membrane and the lung.
N followed by a number from 0 to 3 refers to whether the cancer has reached regional (in the area of tumor) lymph nodes.
In N1, the cancer has spread to the nearest lymph nodes around the airways, to the hilum (a central zone in the lung where blood and lymph vessels enter), or both. In N2, the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the middle of the chest next to the affected lung, to the nodes below the carina, or to both regions.
In N3 the cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the middle of the chest that are next to the opposite lung, to the hilum in the opposite lung, to lymph nodes in nearby or opposite muscle tissue, or to lymph nodes above the collar bone. Researchers are always looking for more accurate ways to determine lung cancer treatment and outlook.
The surgical removal of an entire lobe or parts of a lung is the primary treatment for eligible patients in the early stages of cancer. Surgery is not out of the question in rare cases of metastasis when the cancer appears in a single operable location, such as the brain.
Unfortunately, lung surgery may be too risky for patients with other lung diseases or serious medical conditions, and because lung cancers tend to occur in smokers over 50, such health problems are likely to be present. The type of surgery a patient needs depends on the amount of lung or other tissue that needs to be removed. Surgical advances are allowing a wider range of options, including minimal surgeries for early cancers and surgeries that relieve cancer symptoms in the late stages of the disease. Delaying radiation therapy until symptoms develop in patients with minimal or no symptoms does not appear to reduce survival times or impair quality of life compared to starting it right away. The goal of radiation treatment is to administer doses as high as possible to kill as many cancer cells as possible, without destroying surrounding healthy tissues or causing a dangerous reaction. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy gives smaller-than-standard doses a number of times a day (usually two or three). Three-dimensional (3-D) conformal radiotherapy delivers external-beam radiation specifically to targeted organs or tissues. Radiation can have significant side effects when used as part of intensive treatments, such as hyperfractionated radiotherapy or radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy.
In the occult stage (TX, N0, M0), cancer cells are found in a sample of a patient's coughed-up sputum, but no cancer cells have yet been detected in the lung. In patients who cannot be treated surgically, consider photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, or brachytherapy (discussed below). In stage I, the cancer has reached the higher layers of the lung but has not spread into the lymph nodes or beyond the lung.
Wedge or segment removal, particularly in patients with poor lung function who cannot handle lobectomy.
Radiation in selected patients whose condition is inoperable (for example, frail patients) or whose cancer cannot be fully removed. In general, chemotherapy is not done following surgery unless the tumor is not completely removed.
Lobectomy or sometimes pneumonectomy; wedge or segment removal, particularly in patients with poor lung function. Radiation in selected patients whose condition is inoperable (for example, frail patients) or where the tumor cannot be completely removed. If the tumor is completely removed, radiation therapy is usually not performed after surgery. Patients who do well after surgical removal of the tumor often receive a platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. In patients who can complete treatment, 5-year survival rates average 20 - 30%, with higher rates for stage IIA. In stage III, the cancer cells have spread beyond the lung to the chest wall, diaphragm, or further lymph nodes, such as those in the neck. Radiation treatment plus platinum-based chemotherapy, given at the same time, is an option for those in otherwise good health.
Consider clinical trials using advanced radiation techniques, including continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation, or 3-D conformal radiation (discussed below). Consider other clinical trials, including those of various combination treatments, preventive radiation therapy to the brain, and new drugs. In stage IV (any T, any N, M1), the cancer has spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body.
Combination of two- or three-drug chemotherapies that include platinum-based drugs and newer drugs; the best candidates are patients in otherwise good health, who have a limited number of distant tumors. Bevacizumab (Avastin) may be used for patients with non-squamous lung cancer, no spread to the brain, and who are not coughing up blood.
If metastasized cancer involves only one or two areas in the brain, it may respond to surgery followed by radiation to the brain. If the cancer has spread to only one site in the brain, it may respond to surgery, followed by whole-brain radiation. Chemotherapy in early stages: Chemotherapy is proving to be beneficial in many patients as an additional (adjuvant) treatment with surgery or radiation. Chemotherapy in advanced disease: Chemotherapy may be used as first-line treatment in patients with inoperable or metastasized lung cancer. Most chemotherapy regimens use platinum compounds, either cisplatin (Platinol) or carboplatin (Paraplatin). Side effects of chemotherapy treatments are common, and they are more severe with higher doses.
Nausea and vomiting: Drugs known as serotonin antagonists, especially ondansetron (Zofran), can relieve these two side effects. Serious complications of chemotherapy can also occur, and vary depending on the specific drugs. Severe drop in white blood cells (neutropenia): Certain chemotherapy drugs, such as taxanes, pose a higher risk for this complication than other drugs.
Liver and kidney damage: Amifostine (Ethyol) reduces the risk for kidney damage in patients taking repeated regimens of cisplatin-based therapy.
Allergic reaction, particularly to platinum-based agents: A simple skin test is under investigation that may identify people with a potential allergic response.
Second-line chemotherapy is used for patients whose cancers have come back after the first round of chemotherapy. Gefitinib (Iressa) was approved in 2003 as a second-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Particularly for more aggressive or advanced cancers, different combinations of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy may be tried.
Severe inflammation in the esophagus is the most common severe side effect of the radiation and chemotherapy combination. Although patients over 70 may suffer more from toxic effects than younger patients, studies now suggest that they can achieve survival rates with combined treatments that are equal to those in younger patients. The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. So last week after we showed you how to create amazing lightboxes with OptinMonster – a WordPress popup plugin.
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Post to 50 And More Social Media Sites, including Instant Blog Subscribers, Facebook and Twitter. We test water pressure tanks to see if they're empty or nearly empty of water by seeing if we can gently rock or move the tank. That's why we call this the water pressure tank rather than a water storage tank - though for most people these are the same device.
But the fixtures also need a high water flow rate at that pressure to operate the valve and flush the fixture properly.
To recycle an internal-bladder well water pressure tank the tank is cut open and the bladder is removed.
This is a useful detail to know about not just because we recommend recycling whenever possible. The steel tank will be taken away by the installer (avoiding leaving something difficult for the homeowner to dispose-of), and stored in the installer's junkyard until that company has accumlated enough tanks to have them hauled en-masse to the recycler. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals.
A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them.
Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store.
When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others.
Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training.
Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness.
There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C.
In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India.


Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers.
The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).
The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion.
Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race).
That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c.
That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents.
The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge.
Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences.
The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps.
Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
BackgroundAlthough lung cancer accounts for only 15% of all newly-diagnosed cancers in the United States, it is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. Each lung is composed of smooth, shiny lobes: the right lung has three lobes, and the left has two.
The alveoli are the microscopic blood vessel-lined sacks in which oxygen and carbon dioxide gas are exchanged.
They are now estimated to account for 40% of all lung cancers and are the most common lung cancers in many countries. Large cell carcinoma, which makes up about 10 - 15% of lung cancers, includes cancers that cannot be identified under the microscope as squamous cell cancers or adenocarcinomas.
Smoking causes 87% of lung cancer deaths, and accounts for 30% of all cancer-related deaths. It probably takes a variety of mutations to start the devastating chain of events leading to cancer.
Low levels of the normal Rb gene may sometimes predict aggressive cancer, especially in patients with small cell lung cancer. When this happens, a condition called superior vena cava syndrome may occur, leading to obvious swelling in the arms and face. The cancer may spread to or press against the esophagus, interfering with swallowing and nutrition. Patients with this disorder can experience nausea, vomiting, constipation, weakness, and fatigue. The Environmental Protection Agency has classified secondhand smoke as a carcinogen (cancer-causing chemical). For example, African-American men have about a 45% higher risk of developing lung cancer than Caucasian men. Their risk for lung cancer, however, is much less than it is for chronic lung disease, the opposite of the Western trend. Researchers say socioeconomic status is connected to other factors involved in lung cancer risk, such as smoking, diet, and exposure to cancer-causing chemicals in the workplace.
An estimated 9,000 - 10,000 men and 900 - 1,900 women develop lung cancer each year because of occupational exposure to carcinogens.
While this rate has traditionally been attributed to good health habits, including low tobacco use, agricultural workers' exposure to endotoxin may be responsible.
Although any risk from air pollution is very small, it nevertheless may be a contributor to those lung cancers not obviously related to smoking. Some evidence suggests that the benefits for the lungs are even more significant for women who quit than for men. It's important to note that, although studies have suggested an association between these factors and cancer risk, no cause-and-effect has been proven. Some data suggest that diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables may protect against lung cancer in both smokers and nonsmokers. It is unlikely that individual phytochemicals offer protection, but rather that any benefit comes from a collection of vitamins and plant chemicals contained in fruits and vegetables.
Some studies have indicated that diets high in animal fats increase the risk for lung cancer. Even in those who eat a healthful diet, smoking reduces the levels of a number of vitamins, importantly vitamin C. The strongest studies to date on the negative effects of antioxidant supplements have reported an increase in lung cancer and overall mortality rates among smokers who took beta carotene or vitamin E supplements. Trace elements such as zinc and selenium have been studied for potential protection against lung cancer without any clear evidence to support their benefits. In a small percentage of cases, a routine chest x-ray reveals the first signs of lung cancer. Computed tomography (CT), particularly the specific technique called low-dose spiral (or helical) CT, is more effective than x-rays for detecting cancer in patients with suspected lung cancer. Even after rescreening, many scans will show suspicious areas that turn out to be harmless but will require invasive and expensive biopsies.
Other imaging tests, however, may also be useful for staging and tracking lung cancers (staging means finding out how advanced the cancer is).
Positron emission tomography (PET), specifically a technique known as FDG-PET can diagnose lung tumors as small as 1 centimeter with very high accuracy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an imaging procedure that uses radio wave energy, is frequently used instead of CT scanning to locate brain and bone tumors that have spread from the lung. This requires invasive procedures that may vary from simple needle aspiration to chest surgery. Sometimes, a biopsy specimen is obtained by inserting a needle between the ribs, and then guiding it with the use of CT scans, ultrasound, or fluoroscopy (a device allowing an x-ray view).
Thoracoscopy is usually very effective for diagnosing cancer in the outer areas of the lungs, or those involving the pleura (membrane surrounding the lungs).
Bronchoscopy can help locate cancer that develops in the central areas and major airways of the lung (usually squamous or small-cell cancer).
In a procedure called fluorescence bronchoscopy, the doctor injects the patient with a drug that makes cancer tissue appear red when exposed to laser light from the bronchoscope. BAL involves injecting saline through the bronchoscope into the lung and then immediately suctioning the fluid back through the hollow tube of the bronchoscope. Mediastinoscopy uses a tube inserted between the lungs to locate the appropriate areas for biopsy. Analysis of coughed-up sputum performed as a screening test for lung cancer, is often done along with chest x-rays. Biologic markers, called biomarkers, are high levels of substances that are released by tumors and indicate the presence of specific cancers.
After diagnosing non-small cell lung cancer, the doctor makes treatment choices by determining the cancer's stage (how large the tumor is and how far the cancer has spread). A detailed physical examination of the whole body is very important to identify or rule out the spread of cancer to other areas, and to determine the patient's general condition.
In general, survival is longest for patients with very early-stage disease and shortest for patients with very advanced disease that has spread to several areas of the body.
In TX and T0, the tumor is indicated by cancer cells in sputum or lung samples but it cannot be seen.
For example, some research involves specific biomarkers and related blood vessel development within tumors.
Long-term survival rates appear to be better in patients treated at hospitals that perform large numbers of lung cancer surgeries, and when surgeries are performed by thoracic surgeons, who specialize in chest procedures.
Thoracoscopy, also known as video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), is a less-invasive technique that uses a thin tube containing a miniature camera and surgical instruments. Laser surgery allows surgeons to remove small amounts of lung tissue, and it is proving useful for improving symptoms in stage II and IIIA patients. Photodynamic therapy uses bronchoscopy and special laser light beams combined with a light-sensitive drug, called porfimer sodium (Photofrin), to kill cancer cells. Electric cauterization, which uses electricity to produce heat that destroys tissue, is also under investigation as a treatment for early-stage disease. This non-surgical technique that uses an x-ray guided electrode to deliver heat to tissues may benefit lung cancer patients who are not eligible for surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy.
Radical radiation is used as the sole procedure in stage I and some stage II patients who have adequate lung function but, for medical or other reasons, cannot be treated with surgery. Radiation is also being investigated in various combinations with chemotherapy, surgery, or both. Radiation is the primary treatment when cancer has spread to the brain, unless the cancer is small enough to be treated surgically. Brachytherapy implants radioactive seeds through thin tubes directly into the cancer sites. Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) administers multiple doses of radiation per day but uses the standard doses. This allows doctors to administer significantly higher doses to attack the cancer, while reducing the risk to healthy cells. Among the most serious problems is severe inflammation in the esophagus (esophagitis) or lungs (pneumonitis). Surgically removing the tumor (if one can be located) can allow doctors to identify the stage, and often results in a cure.
The primary treatment is surgery, such as lobectomy (removal of a whole lobe), if possible.
Surgery, usually removal of a lobe (lobectomy) or one lung (pneumonectomy), is the treatment of choice. Generally, the treatment of choice for stage III tumors is radiation and sometimes surgery, chemotherapy, or combinations of all three. One treatment approach starts with chemotherapy and radiation, given at the same time, followed by surgery. Some patients may consider surgery if the lymph nodes are not involved (T4, N0), and the tumor can be removed. Research shows that a single tumor in the lung is more often a new tumor that, in many cases, may be operable. Chemotherapy TreatmentsChemotherapy is the use of drugs given by mouth or injection to destroy cancer cells that may have spread beyond the tumor. It is typically used in late stages to reduce symptoms and, in some cases, extend survival. It is approved for patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer who have failed one type of chemotherapy treatment in the past (it is a second-line treatment). Pemetrexed, known as an anti-folate, is a new drug for first-line treatment of advanced nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer, in combination with cisplatin. Chemotherapy is a form of treatment for lung cancer that may cure, shrink, or keep the cancer from spreading.
Serotonin antagonists work well in nearly all patients given moderate chemotherapy drugs, and in most patients who take more powerful drugs.
One treatment involves transfusions or injections of erythropoietin, a drug that increases red blood cell production. Most patients are able to continue with their normal activities for all but perhaps 1 or 2 days per month. A drug called granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (filgrastim and lenograstim) can improve the white blood cell count. It is also a radioprotector; that is, it helps prevent severe effects in the esophagus from radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. Several of these agents listed below have prolonged survival for patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Docetaxel is the drug of choice at this time for cancers that do not respond to initial chemotherapy.
Pemetrexed, a first-line treatment of nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer in combination with cisplatin, is also approved as a single second-line treatment of the same type of cancer.
Research is focusing on drugs that block small molecules involved with the growth of blood vessels that feed the tumor (a process called angiogenesis).
Recent large-scale clinical trials have failed to confirm any survival advantage for most patients. Evidence is now supporting the use of platinum-based chemotherapy after surgery in some patients with lung cancers. In more advanced cancers, investigators are researching very intensive treatments that use two or more combinations of chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. There is also a very high risk of serious infections, including pneumonia, herpes zoster, and cytomegalovirus.
Research shows that aggressive pain relief can help patients better manage cancer treatment symptoms.
The correct use of these strong medications is very important for reaching acceptable pain relief and preventing a toxic response. These drugs are of particular interest for patients who have cancers that produce too much of the protein called HER2. Bong lung: regular smokers of cannabis show relatively distinctive histologic changes that predispose to pneumothorax.
Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, stage IIIB: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
Response to radiofrequency ablation of pulmonary tumours: a prospective, intention-to-treat, multicentre clinical trial (the RAPTURE study). Initial diagnosis of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer-stage IIIA: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells. Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer stage I and stage II: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Special treatment issues in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Noninvasive staging of non-small cell lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition).
Long-term use of supplemental vitamins, vitamin C, Vitamin E, and folate does not reduce the risk of lung cancer. 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer: a clinical practice guideline. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency carriers, tobacco smoke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer risk. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Also make sure to choose which pages you want the lightbox to pop up on and how long it should delay before appearing. Once they have followed you on twitter will the plugin continue to pop up on them in the future?
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They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse.
The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes.
Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties. We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven.
On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated.
Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire.
John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor.
In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world.
Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance.
Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans.
Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map.
Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. The abnormal cells form a tumor that, if not surgically removed, invades neighboring blood vessels and lymph nodes and spreads to nearby sites. Less common cancers of the lung are known as carcinoids, cylindromas, and certain sarcomas (cancer in soft tissues). These are round cells that replace injured or damaged cells in the lining (the epithelium) of the bronchi, the major airways. About two-thirds of adenocarcinomas develop in the outer regions of the lung, while one-third develop in the center of the lung. They are also the most common lung cancers in women, and their rates are increasing dramatically in men. It develops as a layer of column-like cells on the lung and spreads through the airways, causing great volumes of sputum. When people inhale cigarette smoke, they bring into their lungs tar that includes over 4,000 chemicals, some of which are carcinogenic (cancer-causing). Whether or not these studies apply to long-term use of nicotine replacement products (such as patches), or to cigarette smoking, is still unclear. Multiple studies report an association between abnormal lung changes and marijuana smoking. When symptoms develop, they may result from the lung tumor itself, from its effects on tissues outside the lung, or from the spread of cancerous cells to other organs. Risk FactorsBefore cigarettes became popular in the beginning of the 20th century, lung cancer was rare. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke increases the risk of lung cancer in the nonsmoker by about 20 - 30%.
The lower rate of lung cancer among Chinese people might be due to a slow rate of clearing nicotine, which results in smoking fewer cigarettes.
It is unclear whether the results of these studies would apply to people exposed to radon in their homes. More than half of these cases are attributable to past exposure to asbestos, which has long been known to be a risk factor for mesothelioma (cancer of the pleura, the lining around the lung) and can increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers. Endotoxin is a component of common bacteria found in soil and animals, and it may have cancer-preventing effects on the immune system. Some studies have found an association between increased risk for lung cancer and long-term exposure to very small particulates, especially sulfates, in polluted air. However, it can take 20 years or longer, particularly in heavy smokers, for the lungs to be restored to full health and the risk for lung cancer to be reduced as low as it is for nonsmokers. People taking varenicline, especially those with a history of psychiatric problems, should be closely monitored for changes in mood or behavior. Also, the overwhelming association of smoking with lung cancer makes it more difficult to exclude these and other factors.
Those most studied in relationship to protection from lung cancer include phytoestrogens, flavonoids, and glucosinoids.
Others have suggested some protection against lung cancer comes from cod liver oil, which contains omega-3 fatty acids (found in fatty fish), omega-6 fatty acids (found in flax and in soybean and canola oils), and monounsaturated oils (found in olive and canola oils). There is not enough evidence, however, to support any benefit from taking antioxidant supplements, including vitamins C, E, A, folate, or beta carotene. This is particularly important information for smokers, who may carry precancerous or cancerous cells for years before developing the disease.
It should be noted, however, that home prevention measures rarely reduce radon levels to zero. Usually, however, symptoms of existing lung cancer, such as coughing, chest pain, and blood in the sputum, will lead to a chest x-ray. It is the standard imaging procedure for determining if and where the cancer has spread (metastasized). Using very complicated mathematical processes called algorithms, the computer generates a 3-D image of a section of the body. Some evidence, for example, suggests that lung cancer cells in non-small cell lung cancer are often very aggressive at microscopic levels (before a tumor is formed). In these cases, patients are more at risk from aggressive tests than from the disease itself. Performance of a PET scan for this group has been shown to prevent unnecessary surgical procedures by identifying previously undetected spread of the cancer elsewhere in the body. Specific techniques include transbronchial or transthoracic needle aspiration (TBNA or TTNA) or endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle aspiration (EUS-NA). It is performed if the physician suspects that cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes but has not yet spread to other parts of the body. Regardless of which imaging test is used, experts say the results should be confirmed with a biopsy.


For example, questions about dizziness or headaches can help the doctor determine if the cancer has spread to the brain. Staging is based on the results of physical and surgical examinations, and laboratory and imaging tests, including biopsies. It involves much smaller incisions than open surgery and speeds recovery to the point that patients are up within hours.
Laser surgery may also be beneficial in treating cancers that have spread to, and are obstructing, the throat.
Radiation treatment plus platinum-based chemotherapy may extend survival times in advanced lung cancer. Palliative radiation is appropriate for patients with advanced disease and poor lung function, or for those with cancer that has spread. When radiation is used, a technique called stereotactic radiosurgery may deliver powerful, highly targeted radiation to specific areas in the brain. Brachytherapy may be used for lung cancers that have spread to the throat and caused obstruction. It is not as useful as therapy by itself, but can have survival benefits when combined with chemotherapy. This allows the total dose of radiation to be administered over a shorter time period than the standard 6 weeks. This technique is probably considered the standard method of delivering radiation to lung tumors. The cancer has not grown through to the top lining in the lung and can be surgically removed.
Until recently, there has been some doubt about the effectiveness of chemotherapy for lung cancer. Since 2006, the combination of bevacizumab (Avastin) and platinum-based chemotherapy is also a first-line treatment choice for patients with advanced, non-squamous cancer. Many experts are pinning their hope on agents called biologic response modifiers, such as gefitinib (Iressa). Unlike gefitinib, erlotinib shows survival and progression-free benefits compared to placebo. Researchers are still investigating how many chemotherapy cycles to administer in late-stage cancers, the timing of those cycles, and the sequences of the drugs.
Some studies suggest that side effects can be reduced by giving the drugs for shorter durations, without losing the cancer-killing effects.
Erythropoietin is available as epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit) and darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp), which requires fewer injections. Compounds called growth factors, which may be important in cancer cell production, control the growth of these new blood vessels. Erlotinib is taken by mouth and has very low risk of side effects (rash and diarrhea are common). At this time, gefitinib is available only for patients who have benefited from it in the past.
Studies have been mixed as to whether there are any survival benefits in patients with advanced lung cancer.
For example, radiation plus chemotherapy may be helpful in patients whose tumors are surgically removable. For example, reducing pain in elderly cancer patients may markedly lower their fatigue levels, and improve other symptoms as well. Bevacizumab (Avastin) was approved in October 2006 as a first-line treatment (in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel) for inoperable, locally advanced, metastatic, or recurrent non-squamous, non-small cell lung cancer. They show great promise in combination with chemotherapies and newer drugs, such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. The main goal of this site is to provide quality tips, tricks, hacks, and other WordPress resources that allows WordPress beginners to improve their site(s).
This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text.
Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period.
They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science.
With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt.
Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period.
Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret.
The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration.
In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians. Some experts believe all primary lung cancers come from a single common cancerous (malignant) stem cell. Tumors formed from squamous cells are usually found in the center of the lung, either in a major lobe or in one of the main airway branches.
It requires a different treatment approach from non-small cell lung cancer, so it is not discussed in this report. Other inhaled chemicals in cigarette smoke that may increase the risk for cancer include cyanide, benzene, formaldehyde, methanol (wood alcohol), acetylene (the fuel used in torches), and ammonia. The studies should certainly not discourage people from using nicotine replacement methods for quitting.
In 2009, lung cancer is expected to strike up to 219,440 Americans, and about 159,000 are expected to die from it. A 2006 Surgeon General report found that about 3,000 nonsmokers die each year of lung cancer resulting from exposure to secondhand smoke. Some African Americans appear to have a genetic vulnerability to the harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke.
However, the ability of these substances to protect against lung cancer remains controversial, and quitting smoking remains the best advice. If non-small cell lung cancer is present, chest x-rays may show lesions (damaged or abnormal tissue) in the center of the lung, cavities formed by squamous cell carcinoma, or a lace-like pattern of cells spreading through the lungs.
If this were true, the cancer would be highly likely to have spread long before it was visible with CT scans. Additional experience with CT scans, however, may allow experts to better determine which abnormalities are likely to be benign. Their use depends on how much of the area can be observed with less invasive imaging methods. The patient has a 3 - 5% risk of death after this operation, with older patients having the highest risk. Though the procedure is not appropriate in all cases, it offers significant advantages, especially in older or frail patients. Because the technique spares damage to nearby tissues, patients tend to have minimal side effects. In up to 85% of patients with advanced disease, palliative radiation therapy helps relieve pain, shortness of breath, superior vena cava syndrome, coughing up blood, and symptoms caused by cancer that has spread to the brain. Some trials are investigating using radiation to the head to prevent the cancer from spreading to the brain.
High-dose-rate brachytherapy may also have some value for patients with inoperable tumors in the central region of the lung. CHART may give patients with localized cancer better survival rates than standard radiotherapy or non-accelerated hyperfractionated radiation. Radiation treatments may be appropriate and beneficial for patients who cannot have surgery. Even if cancer returns in the brain (in 50% of cases), treating it again is possible in many patients, if the disease has not spread elsewhere in the body.
A major analysis of 52 trials supported its use, particularly with platinum-based regimens, and with the combination of supportive care. This regimen can also include gemcitabine, docetaxel, or vinblastine (vindesine or vinorelbine).
To date, however, they have not achieved better results than standard platinum-based chemotherapies. Pemetrexed does have some serious toxic effects, but they can be significantly reduced with folic acid and vitamin B12 supplements. For instance, a three- or four-course cycle may achieve the same survival times and better quality of life than the standard of six or more course cycles.
Efforts are under way to identify which patients are more likely to benefit from these therapies.
It is less toxic than docetaxel when docetaxel is given every 21 days, but not when it is given weekly. Researchers are interested in medications that literally turn off these growth factors or their receptors.
Trastuzumab (Herceptin) and cetuximab (Erbitux) are MAbs under investigation for lung cancer. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites.
Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making. All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts.
However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca. From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed. Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od. Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth.
In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.
On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography.
Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period.
He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. As it copies itself, that stem cell can develop into any one of these cancer types in different people.
Experts now suggest, however, that the dramatic increase in this lung cancer type in recent decades may be due to low-tar, filtered cigarettes.
However, these studies may suggest that people should not use these products on a long-term basis, unless they are the only way to stay off cigarettes.
Most people move an average of 10 or 11 times over their lifetime, so the risk of developing lung cancer through radon exposure is very low in most individuals, even for those who lived for a while in areas with high radon levels. Both genetic factors and secondhand smoke appear to contribute to the danger in these individuals. By the time lung cancer is diagnosed by chest x-rays, however, it has often spread so far that it cannot be surgically cured.
Moreover, some studies have found no association between tumor size at the time of diagnosis and survival times.
The surgeon passes surgical instruments and a fiber optic tube through a small incision in the chest. The death and complication rates following VATS are lower than those after conventional surgeries. Photodynamic therapy may be considered for patients in early-stage disease who are not candidates for other surgical procedures.
Radiation in these cases is not generally used to reduce mortality rates, although it may increase survival in some patients, such as those with excellent lung function whose tumors are small.
It is not clear if early-stage lung cancer patients who have radiation or chemotherapy in addition to surgery have higher survival rates.
Gefitinib (Iressa), a second-line therapy for non-small cell lung cancer, is now available only for a limited group of patients.
However, changing even one day in a drug sequence can sometimes significantly affect the outcome. Because platinum-based agents are most often used first, they are not beneficial for second-line therapy.
Investigative AgentsAccording to a 2001 article, of the nearly 500 cancer drugs in development, 58 (about 13%) were aimed at fighting lung cancer. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.
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Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made. It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia.
This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents.
From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice.
With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration.
Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere. But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today. Death rates have been declining in men over the past decade, and they have about stabilized in women.
People with homes that have high radon levels and those who sleep or spend a long time in basements with detectable but moderate levels should consider taking protective measures. Four major studies found no survival benefits in early detection from chest x-rays and sputum screening. The tube has a camera in it, which allows the surgeon to look at the lungs on a video screen. Also, the patient's weight loss and ability to function are two very important factors for predicting survival following treatment. Radiation TreatmentsIn addition to surgery, radiation is the other primary treatment for early-stage lung cancer. The gemcitabine and vinorelbine combination might be a good option for patients who cannot tolerate platinum compounds.
These patients have benefited from gefitinib in the past, or they are enrolled in a clinical study with the drug. Such fine-tuning of chemotherapy regimens is likely to have the most effect on patients with advanced-stage disease, which requires more tailored treatment than early-stage disease. Epidemiology of lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society.
In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds.
Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail.
In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. On the encouraging side, the rate of lung cancer in men has been declining significantly over the past decade. Patients who are mobile and have lost less than 10% of their pre-treatment weight tend to have better survival rates. Several studies found that the 5-year survival and recurrence rates in patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer treated with VATS were comparable to those in patients treated with traditional open chest surgeries. Patients should consider clinical trials to prevent cancer from returning after the initial treatment. While this medicine initially showed great promise in clinical trials, results from a newer study failed to show that it prolonged survival in advanced lung cancer patients who failed other treatments. It is not clear if the weekly schedule achieves survival rates comparable to those of pemetrexed, however. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction.
Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. While lung cancer rates have been increasing dramatically in women (by 600% from 1950 to 2000), they now appear to be stabilizing. However, some drugs are showing promise, and at this time, these agents are the best hope for improving lung cancer survival rates. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries.
But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate. Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc.
They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter.
The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities.
At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order.



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