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Now that you know conventional training pitfalls most fall victim to, I will lay out workouts for both men and women to help build those specific physiques. 5 minutes – warm up with a light jog (or brisk walk depending on your fitness level). Resistance Training:  You want a combination of high and low rep phases to utilize sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar hypertrophy.
Resistance Training:  Resistance training is important and now that you know the mistakes in conventional wisdom regarding weight training, you no longer have to fear the results you will achieve. Skeletal muscle is associated with the bony skeleton, and consists of large cells that bear striations and are controlled voluntarily. Cardiac muscle occurs only in the heart, and consists of small cells that are striated and under involuntary control.
Smooth muscle is found in the walls of hollow organs, and consists of small elongated cells that are not striated and are under involuntary control. Muscles produce movement by acting on the bones of the skeleton, pumping blood, or propelling substances throughout hollow organ systems. Muscles aid in maintaining posture by adjusting the position of the body with respect to gravity. Each muscle has a nerve and blood supply that allows neural control and ensures adequate nutrient delivery and waste removal.
Connective tissue sheaths are found at various structural levels of each muscle: endomysium surrounds each muscle fiber, perimysium surrounds groups of muscle fibers, and epimysium surrounds whole muscles.
Attachments span joints and cause movement to occur from the movable bone (the muscle’s insertion) toward the less movable bone (the muscle’s origin).
Describe the microscopic structure and functional roles of the myofibrils, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and T tubule(s) of skeletal mucle fibers.
Skeletal muscle fibers are long cylindrical cells with multiple nuclei beneath the sarcolemma.
Myofibrils account for roughly 80% of cellular volume, and contain the contractile elements of the muscle cell. T tubules are infoldings of the sarcolemma that conduct electrical impulses from the surface of the cell to the terminal cisternae. Explain how muscle fibers are stimulated to contract by describing events that occur at the neuromuscular junction.
Define motor unit and muscle twitch and describe the events occurring during the three phases of a muscle twitch. Isometric contractions result in increases in muscle tension, but no lengthening or shortening of the muscle occurs. Describe factors that influence the force, velocity, and duration of skeletal muscle contraction.
As the rate of stimulation increases, contractions sum up, ultimately producing tetanus and generating more force.
3.     There is an optimal length-tension relationship when the muscle is slightly stretched and there is slight overlap between the myofibrils.
There are three muscle fiber types: slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative fibers, and fast glycolytic fibers.
Compare and contrast the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on skeletal muscles and on other body systems. Aerobic, or endurance, exercise promotes an increase in capillary penetration, the number of mitochondria, and increased synthesis of myoglobin, leading to more efficient metabolism, but no hypertrophy. Resistance exercise, such as weight lifting or isometric exercise, promotes an increase in the number of mitochondria, myofilaments and myofibrils, and glycogen storage, leading to hypertrophied cells. Compare the gross and microscopic anatomy of smooth muscle fibers to that of skeletal muscle fibers. Describe three types of skeletal muscle fibers and explain the relative value of each type. Compare and contrast the contractile mechanisms and the means of activation of skeletal and smooth muscles in the body. Smooth muscle fibers exhibit slow, synchronized contractions due to electrical coupling by gap junctions. Autonomic nerve endings release either acetylcholine or norepinephrine, which may result in excitation of certain groups of smooth muscle cells, and inhibition of others.

Smooth muscle initially contracts when stretched, but contraction is brief, and then the cells relax to accommodate the stretch. 2. Smooth muscle stretches more and generates more tension when stretched than skeletal muscle.
Single-unit smooth muscle, called visceral muscle, is the most common type of smooth muscle. Multiunit smooth muscle is located in large airways to the lungs, large arteries, arrector pili muscles in hair follicles, and the iris of the eye. Describe the embryonic development of muscle tissues and the changes that occur in skeletal muscles with age. A.    Nearly all muscle tissue develops from specialized mesodermal cells called myoblasts (p. B.    Skeletal muscle fibers form through the fusion of several myoblasts, and are actively contracting by week 7 of fetal development (p. C.    Myoblasts of cardiac and smooth muscle do not fuse but form gap junctions at a very early stage (p. D.    Muscular development in infants is mostly reflexive at birth, and progresses in a head-to-toe and proximal-to-distal direction (p.
E.    Women have relatively less muscle mass than men due to the effects of the male sex hormone testosterone, which accounts for the difference in strength between the sexes (p. F.     Muscular dystrophy is one of the few disorders that muscles experience, and is characterized by atrophy and degeneration of muscle tissue. Smooth muscle features long, narrow "spindle" shaped cells with a single central , Functionally, smooth muscle cells contract as a single unit, Muscle cell -An individual skeletal muscle is separated from adjacent muscles and held in place by layers of fibrous connective tissues call 'fascia.' Muscle Structure - View diagram of the structure of muscle and read about key terms in the anatomy and physiology of muscle (IvyRose Holisic Resources 11 Jan 2011 Brief and Straightforward Guide: What Is a Muscle Cell ? Quick question though, how many personal trainers actually have the look you’re going for, and how has following their advice worked for you? This has the very important outcome of raising the level of free testosterone in the body, since one of the effects of cortisol is to suppress testosterone. During excitation-contraction coupling, calcium ions enter the cell from the extracellular space, bind to calmodulin, and activate myosin light chain kinase, powering the cross bridging cycle. It contracts rhythmically as a unit, is electrically coupled by gap junctions, and exhibits spontaneous action potentials. It consists of cells that are structurally independent of each other, has motor units, and is capable of graded contractions. Muscle cells contain contractile filaments that move past each other and change the size of the cell. In many ways testosterone has the opposite functions to cortisol, it is an anabolic hormone, it boosts protein synthesis and results in the gain of lean muscle. The final trigger for contraction is a rise in intracellular calcium level, and the process is energized by ATP.
Exercise is known to cause a temporary spike in testosterone levels, which increases protein synthesis and the growth of muscle fibres.
However, since exercise also causes a spike in cortisol level, the anabolic effects of testosterone cannot reach their full potential. By blunting the cortisol response to exercise, nucleotides aid the full recovery of muscles, maximising the increase in muscle mass from physical training.What is TestosteroneTestosterone is a steroid hormone, synthesised in the body from cholesterol.
The main site of its synthesis are the Leydig cells of testes in men, and ovaries in women. When testosterone levels in the blood are low, the hypothalamus secretes the gonadotropin release hormone.
This, in turn, causes the pituitary to secrete luteinizing hormone, which stimulates testosterone production and release. Cortisol inhibits the production of testosterone by acting on the pituitary.Testosterone exerts its many physiological effects through regulating gene expression in its target tissues. It is transported across the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of cells, where it binds the androgen receptor.
Some of the free hormone in the cytoplasm, some estimates suggest as much as 7%, is converted into 5-alpha-dihydrotestestosterone (DHT) by the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT can also bind the androgen receptor, but with 5 times the affinity of testosterone, so it is an even more potent form of the hormone. Binding of the ligand to the receptor induces a conformation change, which allows it to translocate to the nucleus.

It is thought that testosterone-derived estradiol is particularly important in maintaining the strength of bones and preventing osteoporosis.The Effects of Testosterone on Skeletal Muscle GainA period of intense exercise causes trauma and injury to the muscle fibres, twhich must be repaired during the recovery period after the exercise. The repair involves an increase in the muscle fibres rather than just replacing those that were damaged, so the body is adapts and is prepared to this new, higher level of exercise in the future. The additional myofibres come from satellite cells, muscle progenitor cells which are normally quiescent, but are activated by the damage to the muscle.
Once activated the satellite cells proliferate replacing the satellite cell population, and differentiate into myoblasts. Myofibrils, which make up skeletal muscle are syncytial, they have many nuclei, and are formed by the fusing of multiple myoblasts, which have a single nucleus. The cytoplasm of myofibrils is filled with myosin and actin chains organised in sarcomeres.
The differentiation of satellite cells into mature skeletal muscle cells involves developing sarcomeres, and is associated with expression of genes such as myogenin, MF4, myoD and Myf5.Satellite cells express the androgen receptor, and hence are a likely to be a target for testosterone. There are several theories that attempt to explain how testosterone regulates satellite cell proliferation and differentiation.
The population of satellite cells decreases with age, one of the reasons for muscle hypotrophy in the elderly. The loss of testosterone with old age is thought to be one of the reasons for the loss of satellite cells.It has been shown, both in animals and in humans that testosterone acts to increase the number of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Since the androgen receptor is located in the nucleus, fibres with more nuclei will naturally have more receptors.3D rendering of a skeletal muscle fibre by BruceBlaus. You are free to share and adapt this image on the condition that you give credit to its creator.Testosterone Increases Protein Synthesis by Boosting Other Anabolic HormonesIn addition to its direct effects increasing the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells to increase muscle mass after exercise, testosterone also acts indirectly by increasing the levels of other hormones.
IGF-1 is expressed in all skeletal muscle cells and is important for protein synthesis, satellite cell proliferation and terminal differentiation.   Transgenic mice over-expressing IGF-1 have significantly higher muscle mass than control mice. Studies in animals and humans indicates that testosterone increases the expression of the IGF-1 gene, since its messenger RNA levels increases after treatment with androgens, while it decreased after men were treated with a compound which lowered the levels of testosterone. The androgen hormone also increased the sensitivity of satellite cells to IGF-1, possibly through upregulating the levels of its receptor.Another hormone that is regulated by testosterone is the growth hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland.
It also stimulates the uptake of amino acids by muscle cells, increasing protein synthesis. It has clearly been shown to have anabolic effects, recombinant growth hormone treatment increases lean muscle mass and bone density in people with growth hormone deficiency. It also appears to act on the insulin-like growth factor 1, since IGF-1 messenger RNA levels increase after exogenous growth hormone treatment.Cortisol Inhibits Testosterone LevelsCortisol is a stress hormone and is part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormonal axis, which interacts with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis to suppress testosterone levels.
Cortisol is released by the adrenal glands, in response to stress, including the physical stress of intense exercise. Numerous studies have detected increased cortisol level in the saliva of athletes directly after a training session. However, two studies in trained male volunteers have shown that taking a nucleotide supplement, containing ingredients identical to that of Xbrain’s NucleoCharged™ significantly lowers the cortisol released after exercise, compared to taking a placebo.The release of testosterone is chiefly controlled by hormones from the hypothalamus and pituitary, which signal to the Leydig cells, or ovary cells to secrete the steroid hormone.
GnRH in turn stimulates the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone. LH circulates through the blood stream until it reaches the testes, where it stimulates the synthesis and release of testosterone.
It controls the number of Leydig cells, where testosterone is synthesised, and also regulates the production of 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme essential for the biosynthesis of testosterone.
The axis is controlled by a negative feedback loop, high levels of testosterone signal back to the pituitary to stop releasing gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which in turn stops the release of more testosterone.Cortisol acts to inhibit the secretion of luteinizing hormone, and directly inhibiting the secretion of testosterone. It also acts on the target tissues, such as skeletal muscle cells and renders them insensitive to the anabolic hormone, possibly through decreasing the levels of the androgen receptor. Athletes such as high performance runners, ballet dancers and bodybuilders have been shown to have chronically elevated baseline levels of cortisol, and corresponding low luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. Nucleotide supplementation, such as Xbrain’s NucleoCharged™ help prevent this by blunting the cortisol response to the physical stress of exercise, helping gain the maximum benefits from training sessions in terms of lean muscle gain.A diagram showing the control of testosterone by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis by Boghog2. You are free to share and adapt this work on the condition that you give credit to its creator.

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