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Over the past century, the number of Catholics around the globe has more than tripled, from an estimated 291 million in 1910 to nearly 1.1 billion as of 2010, according to a comprehensive demographic study by the Pew Research Center.
What has changed substantially over the past century is the geographic distribution of the world’s Catholics.
Rapid growth has occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, which today is home to about 171 million Catholics (16%), up from an estimated 1 million (less than 1%) in 1910. North America’s share of the global Catholic population has increased more slowly, from about 15 million (5%) in 1910 to 89 million (8%) as of 2010.
Though the Middle East and North Africa are the ancient cradle of Christianity, the Middle East-North Africa region is home to less than 1% of Catholics today, about the same as in 1910. While there were dramatic shifts in the regional distribution of the Catholic population between 1910 and 2010, some of this change is due to different rates of overall population growth. Another way to look at the change between 1910 and 2010 is to compare the portion of each region’s population that is Catholic.
As a percentage of regional population, the largest growth occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, which went from about 1% Catholic in 1910 to 21% Catholic in 2010. In several countries with large Catholic populations, the share of the populace identifying as Catholic has declined over the last decade. Data for 1910 come from the World Christian Database (Brill 2013) and are based on historical church membership data standardized by Todd M. All the other demographic data in the report were compiled by the staff of the Pew Research Center and are based primarily on censuses and nationally representative surveys. The Catholic Church includes the international body of churches in full communion with the bishop of Rome, the pope.
Estimates for the number of Catholics in this report also include members of some relatively small Catholic groups (such as the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church) that are not in communion with the bishop of Rome. How did the share of Catholics in various regions change between 1910 and 2010?How has the population changed in heavily Catholic countries in the past decade?What do we know about the U.S.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.
The expert panel developed the recommendations for cancer prevention, but they also considered impact on total health.
If you do drink, you can minimize your risk by limiting how many drinks you have and controlling portions. One standard drink contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol and is equivalent to 5 ounces of wine, 12 ounces of beer or 1½ ounces of liquor (80 proof).
As with many other beverages, beer, wine and mixed drinks also contain calories that add up fast and can lead to too much body fat, another cause of colorectal cancer. The bottom line for alcohol and cancer – if you drink, keep your amount small and occasions infrequent. The share of countries with a high or very high level of social hostilities involving religion reached a six-year peak in 2012, according to a new study by the Pew Research Center.
The Government Restrictions Index (GRI) measures government laws, policies and actions that restrict religious beliefs and practices. The Social Hostilities Index (SHI) measures acts of religious hostility by private individuals, organizations or groups in society.
As noted above, there has been a sizable increase in the share of countries with high or very high levels of social hostilities involving religion.
In the latest year studied, the number of countries with very high religious hostilities rose from 14 to 20, an increase of more than 40%.
The number of countries with very high government restrictions rose from 20 in 2011 to 24 in 2012, an increase of 20%.
In addition to scoring countries on both indexes, the study looks at the extent and direction of change in the level of social hostilities involving religion within each country between 2011 and 2012.
This study also looks at the extent and direction of change in government restrictions on religion within each country between 2011 and 2012.
Considering government restrictions and social hostilities together, increases outnumbered decreases in each point range during the latest year studied.
Looking at the extent and direction of change on the Government Restrictions Index and the Social Hostilities Index together, increases of one point or more outnumbered decreases of that magnitude in all five regions.
The median level of social hostilities involving religion increased in four of the five regions (the Middle East and North Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and sub-Saharan Africa).
The median level of government restrictions on religion increased in two of the five regions (Middle East-North Africa and Europe) and decreased in two regions (Asia-Pacific and sub-Saharan Africa).
Among the world’s 25 most populous countries, Egypt, Indonesia, Russia, Pakistan and Burma (Myanmar) stand out as having the most restrictions on religion (as of the end of 2012) when both government restrictions and religious hostilities are taken into account.
Among the world’s 25 most populous countries, Egypt, Indonesia, Russia, Pakistan and Burma (Myanmar) stand out as having the most restrictions on religion when both government restrictions and social hostilities are taken into account.
Note: For 2007-2010, the index scores are for the 12-month period ending in June of that year.
These are among the key findings of the Pew Research Center’s assessment of global restrictions on religion in calendar year 2012. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. IT’S not every day you can compare a car and a fighter jet, but this vehicle has something very special under the bonnet.
A SICK website targeting female students at more than 70 Australian schools has been taken down after a brave underage girl came forward.
MOTORING body the RACQ says its disturbing that almost a quarter of million people have been caught doing a certain illegal practice on Queensland roads. IN A big leap forward Uber users in one US city are about to be given the option to hail driverless cars.
A MAN has done a rough job at parking his silver four-wheel-drive, with his vehicle ended up plunging into Sydney Harbour. WHY do people turn to the web to get TV shows, movies and music without paying for them when they know they should?
WEATHER chaos hit the east coast of Australia, from Queensland down to the south coast of New South Wales. A NOTE ABOUT RELEVANT ADVERTISING: We collect information about the content (including ads) you use across this site and use it to make both advertising and content more relevant to you on our network and other sites. In 1910, Europe was home to about two-thirds of all Catholics, and nearly nine-in-ten lived either in Europe (65%) or Latin America (24%).
There also has been rapid growth in the vast Asia-Pacific region, where 131 million Catholics (12%) now live, up from 14 million (5%) a century ago. Europe, for example, was home to 24% of the people in the world in 1910; as of 2010, just 11% of the world’s population lives in Europe.
Latin America was the most heavily Catholic region in both years, but the share of the region’s population that is Catholic decreased from about 90% in 1910 to 72% in 2010. The Catholic share of the population in the Asia-Pacific region grew from 1% to 3% during this period. Brazil has the largest Catholic population in the world, but the share of self-identified Catholics in Brazil dropped from approximately three-quarters (74%) in 2000 to about two-thirds (65%) in 2010. Johnson and his colleagues at the Center for the Study of Global Christianity at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary in South Hamilton, Mass. European estimates were developed in collaboration with researchers at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg, Austria.
It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Because there is some evidence that moderate alcohol may be beneficial for heart health, the expert panel took that into account. March is Colorectal Cancer Awareness month and AICR is focusing on alcohol as one of several lifestyle factors that affect Americans’ risk for this deadly, but preventable cancer.
A third (33%) of the 198 countries and territories included in the study had high religious hostilities in 2012, up from 29% in 2011 and 20% as of mid-2007. The GRI is comprised of 20 measures of restrictions, including efforts by governments to ban particular faiths, prohibit conversions, limit preaching or give preferential treatment to one or more religious groups.
This includes religion-related armed conflict or terrorism, mob or sectarian violence, harassment over attire for religious reasons or other religion-related intimidation or abuse.


Increases in the percentage of countries experiencing certain types of religious hostilities have driven this rise. Six countries had very high social hostilities in 2012 but not in 2011: Syria, Lebanon, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand and Burma (Myanmar).
Five countries had very high government restrictions in 2012 but not in 2011: Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Morocco, Iraq and Kazakhstan.
Eleven countries (6%) had large changes (2.0 points or more) in their scores on the 10-point Social Hostilities Index, and all 11 (Mali, Libya, Mexico, Tunisia, Syria, Guinea, Netherlands, Madagascar, Lebanon, Afghanistan and Malawi) were in the direction of increased hostilities. Just two countries (1%) had large changes (2.0 points or more) in their scores on the 10-point Government Restrictions Index, one toward higher restrictions (Rwanda) and the other toward lower restrictions (Ivory Coast). The Middle East-North Africa region and Europe had the largest share of countries with increases of one point or more (35% and 31%, respectively). Brazil, the Philippines, Japan, South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo have the least restrictions and hostilities. The 198 countries and self-administering territories covered by the study contain more than 99.5% of the world’s population. Click here to read the original storyRead on for more results on each type of media.TV shows6694 respondents said they had illegally downloaded or streamed a TV show in the past 12 months. It explains that if you do not provide us with information we have requested from you, we may not be able to provide you with the goods and services you require.
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In 1910, Catholics comprised about half (48%) of all Christians and 17% of the world’s total population, according to historical estimates from the World Christian Database.
Meanwhile, Latin America and the Caribbean grew from 4% of the global population in 1910 to 9% in 2010. Mexico, the country with the second-largest Catholic population in the world, went from about 89% Catholic in 2000 to 85% Catholic in 2010. For example, the Catholic population has lost more members than it has gained from religious switching.
By contrast, Pew Research analysis of 2010 census data suggests there are 126,750,000 Catholics in Brazil and 96,450,000 Catholics in Mexico. Each of these churches has a distinct hierarchy and traditional liturgy, prayers and religious observances.
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One example is abuse of religious minorities by private individuals or groups in society for acts perceived as offensive or threatening to the majority faith of the country.
The study finds that the share of countries where some level of government interfered with worship or other religious practices increased to 74% in 2012, up from 69% in 2011 and 57% in the baseline year. And every country that had very high social hostilities in 2011 continued to have very high hostilities in 2012. Just one country that had very high government restrictions in 2011 – Yemen – did not have very high restrictions in 2012.
In northern Mali, for example, Islamist extremists implemented harsh penalties under sharia law, including executions, amputations and flogging. This is a slightly larger margin of difference than during the preceding year, when 60% of countries had increases and 35% had decreases. Harassment and intimidation also include things such as verbal assaults on members of one religious group by other groups or individuals. The Americas had the lowest proportion of countries where overall restrictions increased by one point or more (3%). As in the previous years of the study, social hostilities involving religion were highest in 2012 across the Middle East and North Africa.
In the latest year studied, the Middle East and North Africa continued to have the highest median level of government restrictions. None of the 25 most populous countries had low social hostilities involving religion in 2012, while five had low government restrictions on religion: Brazil, South Africa, the Philippines, Japan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. They include 192 of the 193 member states of the United Nations as of 2012 plus six self-administering territories — Kosovo, Hong Kong, Macau, the Palestinian territories, Taiwan and Western Sahara.38 Each country or territory was scored on a total of 33 measures phrased as questions about government restrictions and social hostilities involving religion. In some situations, however, an individual restriction or hostility may be part of a broader set of restrictions or hostilities. It also explains how you can access or seek correction of your personal information, how you can complain about a breach of the Australian Privacy Principles and how we will deal with a complaint of that nature. If the consumers are demanding something done a certain way, then the job of the companies is to find a way to satisfy our demand and turning a profit. I can watch past shows, shows that havent made it here yet, or shows that will never make it here at all. A century later, the Pew Research study found, Catholics still comprise about half (50%) of Christians worldwide and 16% of the total global population. While both Latin America and Europe became less heavily Catholic over this period, Latin America – which had much larger population growth – eclipsed Europe to become the region with the largest Catholic population in sheer numbers. The sharpest increase was in the Middle East and North Africa, which still is feeling the effects of the 2010-11 political uprisings known as the Arab Spring.1 There also was a significant increase in religious hostilities in the Asia-Pacific region, where China edged into the “high” category for the first time.
Incidents of abuse targeting religious minorities were reported in 47% of countries in 2012, up from 38% in 2011 and 24% in the baseline year of the study.
In Tuvalu, for instance, the central government began enforcing a law that prevents unapproved religious groups from holding public meetings.22 According to the study, public preaching by religious groups was restricted by governments in 38% of countries in 2012, up from 31% in 2011 and 28% as of mid-2007. Considering changes of one point or more in government restrictions from 2011 to 2012, 8% of countries had increases and 4% of countries had decreases.
Harassment or intimidation of specific religious groups occurred in 166 countries in 2012, a six-year high. Asia and the Pacific and sub-Saharan Africa were the only regions where decreases of one point or more occurred. As discussed in a previous report, the United States moved from the low category of government restrictions as of mid-2009 to the moderate category in 2010, where it remained in 2012.37 Among the 25 most populous countries, Turkey was the only one in which the level of government restrictions increased by one full point or more, and Japan and Nigeria were the only two in which the level of government restrictions decreased by one point or more.
If convenience is really the killer issue, then the solution to privacy is to make legal channels as convenient as the illegal channels.
The companies aren't providing convenient streams and downloads, aren't supporting the new technology. Among the major branches of the Eastern churches are the Alexandrian, Antiochene, Armenian, Byzantine and Chaldean. The share of countries with a high or very high level of government restrictions on religion stayed roughly the same in the latest year studied. In Libya, for instance, two worshippers were killed in an attack on a Coptic Orthodox church in the city of Misrata in December 2012.
In Tunisia, for instance, authorities made efforts to remove imams suspected of preaching what were seen as divisive theologies, including Salafism.23 Governments used force against religious groups or individuals in nearly half (48%) of the world’s countries in 2012, up from 41% in 2011 and 31% as of mid-2007. The level of increase in government restrictions during the latest year studied was about the same as the increase in the previous year, when 6% of countries had increases and 2% had decreases of one point or more.
In 2012, government or social harassment of Muslims was reported in 109 countries; the previous high was 101 countries in the previous year of the study.
Religious hostilities increased in 15 of the 20 countries in the region and declined in only four. The level of religious hostilities increased by one point or more in nine countries: Mexico, Turkey, China, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, France, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Italy.
Consumers are demanding new channels of distribution, and the companies aren't meeting those demands. Migration estimates are drawn from the Pew Research Center’s Global Religion and Migration Database. About three-in-ten countries in the world (29%) had a high or very high level of government restrictions in 2012, compared with 28% in 2011 and 20% as of mid-2007.
This was the “first attack [in Libya] specifically targeting a church since the 2011 revolution,” according to the U.S. In April 2012 in Mauritania, for instance, “the government arrested 12 anti-slavery activists and charged them with sacrilege and blasphemy, along with other civil charges, for publicly burning religious texts to denounce what the activists viewed as support for slavery in Islamic commentary and jurisprudence,” according to the U.S.


Jews were harassed in 71 countries in 2012, slightly higher than the year before (69 countries, which was the previous high). Ethiopia was the only country among the 25 most populous where the level of religious hostilities decreased by one or more points during the same time period.
Europe had the biggest increase in the median level of government restrictions in 2012, followed closely by the Middle East-North Africa – the only other region where the median level of government restrictions on religion rose. Department of State.3 In some countries, violence toward religious minorities intensified from the levels reported in previous years. This means that each of the 13 types of social hostilities involving religion was present in Somalia in 2012, including religion-related war and terrorism, mob violence, hostility over religious conversion, harassment of women for violating religious dress codes, and all six types of malicious acts and crimes inspired by religious bias: harassment and intimidation, displacement from homes, destruction of religious property, abductions, physical abuse and killings. Harassment of Christians continued to be reported in the largest number of countries (110), an increase from the previous year (105) but not a six-year high.
Among the government restrictions that decreased in the region were restrictions on foreign missionaries and government violence toward minority or unapproved religious groups. Looking at the overall level of restrictions – whether resulting from government policies or from social hostilities – the study finds that restrictions on religion are high or very high in 43% of countries, also a six-year high. In Buddhist-majority Sri Lanka, for example, monks attacked Muslim and Christian places of worship, including reportedly attacking a mosque in the town of Dambulla in April 2012 and forcibly occupying a Seventh-day Adventist church in the town of Deniyaya and converting it into a Buddhist temple in August 2012.4 And in Muslim-majority Egypt, attacks on Coptic Orthodox Christian churches and Christian-owned businesses were on the rise well before the acceleration in attacks that took place following the ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi in July 2013 (which falls outside the date range studied in this analysis).
There also was an increase in the number of countries in which Hindus, Buddhists and members of folk or traditional religions were harassed. Factors contributing to the increase included an uptick in sectarian violence, which was reported in 11 of the 50 countries in the region in 2012, up from seven countries in 2011.
Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, the Council of the European Union, the United Kingdom’s Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Human Rights Watch, the International Crisis Group, Freedom House and Amnesty International. Because some of these countries (like China) are very populous, more than 5.3 billion people (76% of the world’s population) live in countries with a high or very high level of restrictions on religion, up from 74% in 2011 and 68% as of mid-2007.
For instance, in August 2012, in the village of Dahshur, a dispute between a Christian and a Muslim led to one death and more than a dozen injuries. Overall, across the six years of this study, religious groups were harassed in a total of 185 countries at one time or another. There also was an increase in the number of countries in the region reporting attempts by organized groups to dominate public life at the national level with their perspective on religion, violence to enforce religious norms and violence toward members of minority religious groups. Increases in government restrictions within the region included more reported limits on worship or religious practices, widespread harassment or intimidation of religious groups, violence against members of minority religious groups and restrictions on religious literature. Among the world’s 25 most populous countries, Egypt, Indonesia, Russia, Pakistan and Burma (Myanmar) had the most restrictions on religion in 2012, when both government restrictions and social hostilities are taken into account.
Several Christian homes and businesses were destroyed and nearly all Christian families fled the village.5 The study finds that the share of countries where violence, or the threat of violence, was used to compel people to adhere to religious norms also increased in 2012.
Considering changes of one point or more in social hostilities from 2011 to 2012, 20% of countries had increases and 4% of countries had decreases. Members of the world’s two largest religious groups – Christians and Muslims, who together comprise more than half of the global population – were harassed in the largest number of countries, 151 and 135, respectively.34 Jews, who comprise less than 1% of the world’s population, experienced harassment in a total of 95 countries, while members of other world faiths were harassed in a total of 77 countries. As in the previous year, Pakistan had the highest level of social hostilities involving religion, and Egypt had the highest level of government restrictions on religion. In 2011, by comparison, 14% of countries had increases of one point or more and 2% had decreases of one point or more.
In 2012, some religious groups were more likely to be harassed by governments, while others were more likely to be harassed by individuals or groups in society. Multiple types of social hostilities were present in China in 2012, including religion-related terrorism, harassment of women for religious dress, and mob violence and sectarian conflict. Decreases in government restrictions included fewer limits on proselytizing and fewer restrictions on the work of foreign missionaries. Some of the increases in the level of religious restrictions noted in this study could reflect the use of more up-to-date or better information sources, but there is no evidence of a general informational bias in the direction of higher restrictions. Social hostilities related to religion in Burma (Myanmar) rose to the “very high” level for the first time in the study.
In Vietnam, for instance, the managing council of the government-recognized Cao Dai religion, a syncretistic religious movement that originated in Vietnam in the 20th century, orchestrated an assault on followers of an unsanctioned Cao Dai group in September 2012, injuring six. Jews, for instance, experienced social harassment in many more countries (66) than they faced government harassment (28).
There also were fewer reports that governments did not intervene in cases of religious discrimination. During the latest year studied, there also was an increase in the level of harassment or intimidation of particular religious groups. The head of the Cao Dai managing council said the reason for the assault was that the followers of the unsanctioned group were not worshipping according to the dictates of the council.6 In addition to new instances of violence, efforts to enforce religious norms intensified in other countries.
By contrast, members of other world faiths, such as Sikhs and Baha’is, were harassed by some level of government in more countries (35) than they were by groups or individuals in society (21).
There was an increase in the number of European countries where harassment of women due to religious dress and violent attacks on members of minority religious groups were reported. The Americas’ median score on the Government Restrictions Index stayed the same in 2012 (at 1.5), considerably below the global median.
State Department’s annual reports on International Religious Freedom (one of the 18 primary sources used in this study) in general have become shorter in more recent years.
Indeed, two of the seven major religious groups monitored by the study – Muslims and Jews – experienced six-year highs in the number of countries in which they were harassed by national, provincial or local governments, or by individuals or groups in society. Government harassment or intimidation of religious groups was reported in 16 of the 35 countries in the Americas in 2012, down from 18 in 2011. As in previous years, Christians and Muslims – who together make up more than half of the global population – were harassed in the largest number of countries (110 and 109, respectively). In China, for instance, a Han Chinese man accosted a Uighur Muslim girl in Henan province and lifted her veil in November 2012. Among the religious hostilities that were reported in a higher number of countries in the region were mob violence, enforcement of religious norms, violence against members of minority religious groups and harassment of women due to religious dress.
This is the fifth time the Pew Research Center has reported on religious restrictions around the globe. As such, they provide a guide for comparing country scores and evaluating their direction of change over time. They also reflect the number and severity of various kinds of restrictions or hostilities that occurred in any part of a country. Accordingly, more populous countries may have a higher likelihood of scoring higher than less populous countries, though in practice, some countries with very high levels of restrictions or hostilities, such as the Maldives and the Palestinian territories, have relatively small populations. In August 2012, for instance, some 500 Sunni hard-liners attacked a Shia community in the city of Sampang, killing two people, burning dozens of homes and displacing hundreds of people.12 And in Nigeria, hundreds of Muslim youths attacked and burned Christian businesses and places of worship in November 2012 after a Christian was accused of blasphemy. Finally, it is very likely that more restrictions exist than are reported by the 18 primary sources. Four Christians were killed.13 Religion-related terrorist violence occurred in about a fifth of countries in 2012 (20%), roughly the same share as in 2011 (19%) but up markedly from 2007 (9%).
But taken together, the sources are sufficiently comprehensive to provide a good estimate of the levels of restrictions in almost all countries. The widely covered 2013 al-Shabab attack on a Nairobi mall (which falls outside the date range studied in this analysis), for instance, was part of a steady increase in religion-related terrorism in Kenya. The sources clearly indicate that North Korea’s government is among the most repressive in the world with respect to religion as well as other civil and political liberties. In China, for example, sectarian tensions escalated into violence in October 2012 when Tibetan Buddhist monks led an attack against Hui Muslims at a site where a new mosque was being built in Gansu province.18 Ongoing sectarian violence also continued unabated in some countries in 2012.
State Department’s 2012 Report on International Religious Freedom, for example, says that “Genuine freedom of religion does not exist” in North Korea.) But because North Korean society is effectively closed to outsiders and independent observers lack regular access to the country, the sources were unable to provide the kind of specific, timely information that Pew Research categorized and counted (“coded,” in social science parlance) for this quantitative study. The six countries with modest decreases were: Japan, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Mongolia and Colombia (also ordered from larger to smaller change).



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