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You can only change the font size for the Reading Pane in Outlook 2003 by right clicking the tiny grey border around the Reading Pane. When you do click the menu item then move to another email, the option switches back to Medium for the next message. The menu items have no effect (the font sizes don't change) on 90% of corporate mail including RTF and WordMail. Scott Hanselman is a former professor, former Chief Architect in finance, now speaker, consultant, father, diabetic, and Microsoft employee. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed herein are my own personal opinions and do not represent my employer's view in any way.
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Accurate assessment of the visual field is of great importance in many neuro-ophthalmologic disorders. The hill of vision may be mapped by kinetic (moving stimulus) or static (stationary stimulus) methods.
Manual perimeters, such as the Goldmann and the Tubingen, are capable of quantitative threshold measurements when operated by an experienced perimetrist.
The measurement of light in units based on the response of the eye is termed photometry, with the apostilb (asb) as the unit of measure for the luminance of a perfectly diffusing surface.
Perimetry is a subjective psychophysical test requiring the patient's cooperation, effort, and communication.
Several recent studies have explored the characteristics of frequency-of-seeing curves in glaucoma. Numeric measurements of a physiologic parameter produce variation around the mean of a test result.
STF is caused by a combination of the instability of the threshold being tested and the level of cooperation and attentiveness of the patient.
A basic understanding of the test algorithm used by automated perimeters employing a full threshold strategy is essential to interpreting the results and troubleshooting problematic fields. Since the visual threshold of a given point in the retina is the luminance at which 50% of the presented stimuli are perceived, a patient undergoing a threshold examination may see only half-of the presented stimuli.
If the initial stimulus is suprathreshold, stimulus intensity is decreased by 4-dB steps until the threshold is crossed, then increased in 2-dB steps (the threshold again is doubly crossed). Measurement of the foveal sensitivity is an option that, if selected, occurs at the very beginning of the test. Important time savers are used to reduce the number of stimuli necessary to estimate the threshold level and thereby shorten the test.
Not infrequently, patients are attentive during the initial seed-location threshold determination process and then rapidly fatigue with deficient further responses. Throughout the performance of the test, patient fixation and level of alertness is periodically assessed. Another technique to reduce the percentage of fixation losses is to instruct the technician to set the machine to replot the blind spot if high fixation losses are detected early in the test and seem to have an optical cause. The technician's description of patient fixation is also extremely valuable in detecting pseudo—loss of fixation. False-positive errors are tested by periodically withholding a stimulus presentation, although the faint noise that usually accompanies a stimulus projection is created. False-negative errors are tested by projecting a 9-dB suprathreshold stimulus in a region already thresholded. The single field printout from Programs 30-2 and 24-2 of the Humphrey perimeter contains a large amount of data, with various analyses presented in multiple ways (Fig. Positioned at the top of the printout, the general information section displays important data about the individual patient as well as particular test variables. The reliability data, located below and to the left of the general information section, indicate which eye (left or right) was tested and displays a calculated patient age. The two largest plots on the printout, located to the right of the reliability indices, are the raw data printouts. Since the introduction of the Humphrey perimeter, the manufacturer has upgraded the machine with increasingly sophisticated statistical analysis packages. Patterns of visual field loss can be conveniently divided into generalized depression, which uniformly affects the entire field by a similar amount, and localized ("scotomatous") loss, which is frequently more diagnostic.
In the lower right corner of the single field printout, Statpac displays the global indices, which describe the entire visual field in four numeric values: (a) MD, mean deviation, is a location-weighted mean of the values in the total deviation plot. Statpac 2, Humphrey's more recent statistical upgrade of the single field analysis printout, introduced an additional statistical analysis titled the glaucoma hemifield test (GHT). Increasing the number of test locations and the precision with which they are tested does not necessarily provide a more accurate picture of the visual field. The standard Humphrey Program 30-2, one of the more commonly used tests, samples 76 locations with a uniform 6° grid extending to 27° from fixation (Fig. To threshold every location, generate reliability indices, measure STF, and rethreshold unexpected values, approximately 550 questions are asked in a typical test, which takes about 15 minutes per eye.
A further decrease in time can be realized by choosing the fast threshold strategy (different from Fastpac), which performs the entire bracketing process only at locations that are not seen with a predicted 2-dB suprathreshold stimulus. Programs 30-1 and 24-1 test a uniform 6° grid out to 30° and 24°, respectively, but are not offset from the horizontal and vertical meridians. Program 10-2 provides a high-resolution test of the central 10°, with a tight 2° grid, offset 1° from the meridians (Fig. An even more localized test is the macula test, which thresholds 16 locations within the central 5°. Patients with possible nasal steps can be further explored with the nasal step program, which tests 12 locations beyond 30° nasally. Most programs are performed with stimulus size III, which subtends a diameter of 0.43° in visual space. When evaluating a series of automated fields performed over time, the perimetrist may find the integration of the massive amount of data overwhelming. The change analysis printout represents each field as a box plot, depicted graphically over time (Fig. The change analysis printout also plots the four global indices over time, with threshold levels for statistical significance. The results of many psychophysical tests improve as the subject gains more experience performing the test. Armed with a solid understanding of the test printout algorithm and derivation of catch trials, the examiner is better prepared to interpret a single test. The patient with a tendency toward high false-negative responses can be thought of as the easily fatigued patient who gradually becomes less responsive during the test.
Historically, ophthalmologists have relied on manual techniques such as the tangent screen and Goidmann kinetic perimeter to map a patient's peripheral vision.
Kinetic perimetry uses a stimulus of a constant size and intensity, which is moved from nonseeing to seeing areas of the visual field (Fig.
Kinetic perimetry uses a stimulus of uniform size and intensity, which is varied in location from nonseeing areas of the field until the patient sees the stimulus. It is the stimulus intensity that is varied, and the results are generally displayed in terms of threshold intensity at each location tested (Fig. Static perimetry uses a uniformly sized stimulus that is presented in a single location at different stimulus intensillen to determirie threshold.
The predicted threshold values can be based on age-matched normal data or on the results of an individual's prior threshold testing. Suprathreshold static perimetry uses a uniformly intense stimulus that should be seen in most of the field. Suprathreshold static testing uses a stimulus that is slightly brighter than expected in that location. Static perimetry is often more sensitive in detecting shallowing depressions of the field than kinetic perimetry. Most automated perimeters use neutral-density filters, graded in decibels (dB), over a maximally emitting bulb to vary stimulus intensity. For example, a location in visual space might be tested 10 times each with stimuli of 39, 37, 35, 33, 31, 29, and 27 dB, for a total of 70 questions. The slope of the curve, a measure of uncertainty in determining the threshold, is highly correlated to actual threshold or threshold deviation (threshold deviation is the deviation from age-appropriate normal values at a particular location).
Quantitative measure-ments are not usual with manual perimetric techniques; therefore, fluctuations in sensitivity that cause these variations are not easily recognized. It is calculated by measuring the sensitivity at a location several times within the context of a single testing session. Similar to the broadening of the frequency-of-seeing curve seen in locations with reduced sensitivity, patients with glaucomatous visual field loss have higher STF than normal subjects.
In normal patients, LTF may increase with age and increases as the intertest time interval increases.
With this strategy, accurate threshold estimates are achieved by presenting, on average, approximately five stimuli per test location. This option should generally be left on, as it takes very few stimulus presentations and provides information about the most valuable portion of the visual field. Starting points for threshold determinations usually depend on results from already thresholded primary locations.
The Humphrey perimeter estimates fixation with the Heijl-Krakau technique of projecting a stimulus in the anticipated blind spot location. The machine then executes a short subprogram that presents densely packed stimuli in the region of the expected blind spot until the actual blind spot is mapped. The absence of a low patient reliability message should not lull the examiner into a false sense of security. The first of these, Statpac, allows comparison of the raw threshold data with age-matched normal values at each location: accompanying probability symbols indicate the significance of any abnormality.
Generalized depression is most commonly caused by cataract and can hide underlying scotomatous loss. It is essentially a distilled value that represents the average height of the entire hill of vision. The software produces the GHT result by dividing each of the upper and lower halves of the field into five mirror-imaged zones. Lengthy tests become fatiguing to the patient and may result in greater variability of responses. As the distance from fixation increases, the normal threshold values decrease, with a corresponding increase in the intratest and test-retest variabilities, providing diminishing returns.
The stimulus intensity can be calculated from age-matched normal data or preferably from the results of the patient's prior conventional threshold tests. Instead of the standard 4-2 full strategy with a double crossing of threshold, Fastpac adjusts the stimulus intensity by 3-dB increments until the threshold is crossed once.
Two locations in the temporal visual field are also included to reduce the predictability of the questions to the patients.
The Humphrey instrument allows the creation of several serial printouts to ease confusion and allow statistical analysis of change over time. 17.22) simply presents a sequential listing of condensed single field printouts chronologically.

17.24A), which allows the examiner to average two initial fields into a baseline field and then perform a point-by-point statistical comparison of each subsequent field, looking for significant change (Fig. The learning effect in automated perimetry seems to be small in most patients who have had experience with manual perimetry. Because the outer edges of the test grid are tested last, the easily fatigued patient will tend to produce patchy reduction in sensitivity toward the periphery of the field.
This table emphasizes the importance of excluding far peripheral values as well as values around the physiologic blind spot because of high fluctuation.
Over the past two decades, automated perimetry has increased in popularity and is currently a frequently employed formal method to evaluate a patient's peripheral vision. These stimuli may be based on normal patient data or on prior threshold results for that particular patient. The greatest advantage of computerized perimetry lies in its ability to make static threshold measurements in an acceptable length of time under standardized conditions. Thus, it is the differential light sensitivity of stimulus against a constantly illuminated background that is measured by static perimetry. Retinal locations of reduced sensitivity require brighter stimuli to reach threshold, represented by lower decibel values.
Note that more sensitive areas of the visual field depicted as light symbols require higher neutral-density filters graded in dB to produce dimmer threshold stimuli. The frequency-of-seeing curve is a useful construction to emphasize the importance of probabilistic considerations in estimating a location's threshold (Fig. Thus, areas of high retinal sensitivity (normal central locations) tend to test with high reproducibility, while locations with reduced sensitivity (abnormal central locations or peripheral locations) have a more shallow slope of the frequency-of-seeing curve, which is associated with greater uncertainty (Fig. Regions of the visual field with high retinal sensitivity typically have sharp frequency of seeing curves with a good estimate of true threshold.
In addition, there is a strong tendency for the perimetrist to make the current visual field test conform to the results of previous tests.
These data are consistent with earlier clinical experience with manual techniques in which variable responses in localized areas were interpreted as early manifestations of glaucomatous damage.
Homogeneous LTF refers to a unidirectional change in sensitivity throughout the entire visual field and is typically about 1 dB in normal eyes. In a group of clinically stable glaucoma patients, LTF was correlated with initial sensitivity (Fig. Note that areas with high initial sensitivities have fairly narrow 95% confidence intervals for subsequent tests. Understariding the phenomenon requires knowing the bracketing strategy used to make threshold measurements at each location of the visual field.
Stimulus presentations are not performed sequentially at a single location but are moved randomly throughout the entire visual field. The patient is asked to maintain gaze on an illuminated diamond that is projected inferior to the standard central fixation target used throughout the remainder of the test. This is because a location's threshold result is statistically correlated with its neighboring location's threshold value. Early in the test strategy, the Humphrey perimeter tests 4 seed locations (circles), each located 9° from the horizontal and vertical meridians. If the blind spot checks are not seen, fixation is assumed to be central, which is not necessarily the case. The rate of false-positive responses can often be improved if the perimetrist coaches patients to respond only when they are certain that they have seen the stimulus. False-negative errors are less influenced by coaching; however, the perimetrist should ensure that the patient is awake and consider giving the patient a short break.
The inexperienced examiner may find the printout overwhelming at first, but familiarity with the overall organization and the derivation of the plots and indices will greatly ease interpretation. Many of these variables can significantly affect the raw or calculated data, and they can be invaluable in interpreting results.
The number of fixation losses estimates how stably the patient main-tained gaze at the fixation target.
The same 10 locations are always measured twice and are used to calculate the STF of the test session (Fig. Statpac modifies the total deviation plots in an attempt to display any superimposed patterns of localized loss hidden under generalized depression.
Each zone is subsequently scored ac-cording to its pattern deviation values, and each upper zone is then compared with the corresponding lower zone. Program 24-2 deletes the outer row of the 30-2 test grid with the exception of the two nasal locations. Fastpac saves up to 40% of test time in normal or near-normal fields and provides less advantage in patients with larger amounts of field abnormality.
Testing with size III allows application of the Statpac 2 sophisticated statistical analysis. For each test session, four plots are displayed (from left to right): graytone threshold plot, numeric threshold plot, total deviation p value plot, and pattern deviation p value plot. The plots from left to right include graytone, numeric dB, total deviation, probability, and pattern deviation probability plots. To create this plot, deviation values at each location are ranked from least to most depressed.
If this plot is not worsening, it is likely that most of the field is not worsening, although a stable MD with an increasing CPSD may indicate early progression of a localized scotoma. Some patients, however, may demonstrate a dramatic improvement in the second test, compared with the first, despite previous experience with manual perimetry (Fig. The patient with a tendency toward high false-positive errors can be thought of as trigger-happy, eager to perform well.
Note the patchy reduction in sensitivity near the periphery as well as the high Use-negative error ratio in the reliability section.
Reasons for this change include a more reproducible, standardized test that is readily quantifiable and that provides the opportunity for data storage, statistical analysis, and comparability among patients and offices.
Accurate detection of the boundary between nonseeing and seeing requires a sloping hill of vision in the tested area. Automated techniques of stimulus presentation are particularly suited to making static measurements since the computer algorithms are relatively straightforward. Static threshold measurements are relatively sensitive to shallow depressions of the visual field when the stimuli are sufficiently close together.
Figure 17.14 indicates that these probabilities can never be 0 or 100% because of the influence of false-positive and false-negative responses, respectively.
Regions or the field with a reduction of stimulus intensity characteristically produce a broadening of the frequency of seeing curve, indicating increased uncertainty in defining the threshold. While double threshold determinations accurately measure global STF, it may be necessary to rethreshold a location as many as five times to accurately assess the local STF.
Heterogeneous LTF refers to different directions and amounts of change in sensitivity at different visual field locations. Commonly used algorithms to estimate threshold employ a double crossing of the threshold (Fig.
Because question number 1 is subthreshold (not seen), the stimulus is increased in intensity by 4 dB.
This discourages "cheating," since the patient does not know where to expect the next stimulus presentation. The initial stimulus intensity is 30 dB, and the regular 4-2 bracketing strategy is used to determine foveal sensitivity. In practice, the Humphrey machine initially tests four "seed locations," one per quadrant, located 9° from the horizontal and vertical meridians. These locations are each tested twice and used to determine starting values for surrounding locations.
A high number of fixation losses may result from wandering fixation, but they may also result from a displaced blind spot or from many false-positive responses. Clearly, that patient is unlikely to respond to stimuli presented in the blind spot, despite poor fixation.
False-negative errors are produced both by patient inattentiveness and by a diseased, easily fatigued visual system. To create the pattern deviation value, the seventh-best total deviation value is used to adjust the entire total deviation plot. For example, a miotic pupil or incorrect refraction can reduce threshold values, while an incorrectly entered birth date will create wrong age-compared deviations.
The number of false-positive errors aims to identify the "trigger-happy" patient, while the number of false-negative errors indicates patient fatigue. These plots are displayed in the lower left portion of the printout, both numerically and with probability symbols. This is done by correcting the seventh-best deviation value within the Program 24-2 test grid to zero deviation and "adjusting" the entire field by that value (Fig. MD is relatively insensitive to localized defects and is strongly affected by generalized trends; (b) PSD, pattern standard deviation, represents the unevenness of the surface of the hill of vision. In addition, a general height of the field is determined by analyzing the most normal region of the field. Program 24-2 only tests out to 21°, except for preserving the important-nasal extent of Program 30-2. Fast strategies can cause misinterpretation in the initial evaluation of patients whose visual field may be a bit supranormal.
The time savings is accompanied by a small reduction in the estimate of scotoma extent and severity and higher STF. Central tests are useful in carefully defining central or paracentral scotomas and are more sensitive in detecting subtle progression within the central visual field.
In fields where most test locations are markedly reduced, it is often preferable to increase the stimulus size to V (1.72° in diameter). Above these four plots are listed the glaucoma hemifield test results, reliability data, pupil size, and Snellen acuity. As can be seen from the legend at the left side of the print-out, each box contains the 15th to 85th percentile deviation values from this ranking, with a central line representing the median value. The box plots are created by ranking total deviation values and displaying the 0, 15th, 50th, 85th, and 100th percentile graphically. If the MD value is declining, the examiner must inspect the other indices and actual fields to discern confounding developments such as cataract formation. The glaucoma change probability averages the a and b first two fields into a base-line field. The seventh-best total deViation value of +16 is used to define the general height of the field and correct it to 0. The reader is reminded that patients with diseased visual systems are also more easily fatigued. The seventh-highest value in the total deviation plot of –3 has been corrected to 0, wIth a reduction in the abnormality of the pattern deviation plot. Several clues to diagnosing general reduction sensitivity include a reduced foveal sensitivity. This has reduced the foveal sensitivity as well as fairly uniformly reducing the total deviation plot. Parsing HTML of each message and modifying the font sizes (typically specified in fixed size, pt) WITHOUT affecting its original presentation seems like a rather messy task.

In addition, because automated perimetry uses a computer-controlled test algorithm, the role of the physician or technician performing the test may be less demanding in terms of time and training required. Adjacent similar-sensitivity boundary points are connected to produce linear maps of transition zones, termed isopters.
Threshold is defined as the stimulus intensity that has a 50% probability of being seen at that particular location. In mathematical terms, threshold is the stimulus luminance that is seen on 50% of repeated presentations.
Note that false-negative and false-positive responses will limit the maximal and minimal frequency of seeing values, respectively. Careful objective static measurements have uncovered fluctuations in visual field thresholds.
In clinical practice, the Humphrey machine calculates global STF by thresholding 10 locations twice during the course of a given test and displays this number on the test printout. Heterogeneous LTF varies according to location and presence of disease, with a typical normal value of 1.5 dB. Although STF is weakly correlated with LTF, the relationship is not strong enough to accurately predict LTF from STF in an individual patient. Once this portion of the test is completed, the fixation diamond is removed, and the patient is asked to fixate on the central target. The initial stimulus intensity at these four seed locations is 25 dB, and the full 4-2 strategy is used. Throughout the remainder of the test, an additional 6 locations (squares) are intentionally tested twice, and these 10 locations are used to calculate the global short-term fluctuation. High plus lenses tend to shift the blind spot toward fixation, while myopic correction moves the blind spot peripherally. If the threshold results are markedly reduced, the machine may not be able to generate suprathreshold stimuli. At the bottom of the printout is a general legend that explains the graytone and probability symbols. In this case, most locations are corrected by 2 dB, producing a slightly less significant pattern deviation plot. The final items of information displayed with the reliability data are test duration and the optional selection, foveal sensitivity. The duplicate values are dis-played in parentheses in the numeric print-out and are averaged for the graytone display.
The p values take into account the wider range of normal values as the distance from fixation increases. It is calculated by taking a location-weighted standard deviation of all the threshold values.
The GHT has not been specifically validated in neuro-ophthalmic patients, but several of the responses may be useful.
Because the outer row of locations are typically least reliable, this is often an attractive tradeoff between test speed and the ability to detect disease. The resulting test contains 54 locations, a 29% reduction compared with the Program 30-2 grid, and considerably shortens the test duration.
In comparisons of Fastpac and full threshold strategies, Fastpac shortens test time by 35 to 40%. This test is useful to better define dense paracentral defects as well as small remaining central islands of Vision. This larger size is often preferred by the patient and may reduce fluctuation, although the option of using the glaucoma change analysis is lost. For the plot of MD over time, a linear regression analysis, titled MD slope, is performed, which describes the slope in decibels per year and assigns a significance level.
Occasionally, patients continue to improve over the initial three, four, or (rarely) five automated fields. The typical high false-positive printout will demonstrate physiologically supranormal sensitivity values, which will be depicted as "white scotomas" on the graytone printout.
One suggestion for confirming or disproving the absence of true peripheral defects is to test the patient with a different-sized test grid to see if the defects are reproducible in location. The graytone plot is uniformly darkened, and the general height correction of the total deviation plot will produce a fairly normal-appearing pattern deviation plot. The general height correction does a good job of removing the generalized depression, leaving a clean-appearing pattern deviation plot indicating absence of localized scotomas. The Humphrey perimeter is currently the most widely used automated perimeter in the United States, and example.
Kinetic techniques are not optimal for the examination of relatively flat areas of the visual field. The LTF at a single test location increases by approximately 0.2 dB for each 1 dB decrease in sensitivity. Knowledge of the magnitude of LT11 in an individual is necessary for comparisons of visual fields for change over time. For instance, if the initial stimulus is subthreshold (not seen), intensity is increased in 4-dB steps until the patient responds with a "yes" (seen). Each location is thresholded twice, and the results from these four seed locations are used to determine the starting stimuli in adjacent areas (Fig. Throughout the remainder of the test, additional locations that deviate unexpectedly from normal values are also thresholded twice, with the results presented in parentheses. The general indices include mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), short-term fluctuation (SF), and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD). The testing algorithm also rethresholds locations where the initially obtained values deviated greatly from the age-matched normal data (these doubly determined values are not included in the STF calculation). PSD is insensitive to the overall average height and is strongly affected by localized defects; (c) STF, short-term fluctuation, is the standard deviation of the 10 doubly thresholded locations.
Fastpac may be most suitable for following up reliable patients with previously near-normal results, although few longitudinal data are available on its use in these populations, and the effect on LTF is presently unknown.
The viewer familiar with the single field analysis printout will have no difficulty understanding terms used in the overview printout. A change in box plot location with a retention in dimension indicates a generalized trend, while lengthening of tails indicates more localized processes. Each subsequent field then undergoes a point-by-point comparison with baseline presented as a change in dB from baseline with accompanying probability symbols. The general height adjustment of the total deviation plot to produce the pattern deviation plot may artifactually depress most of the field, producing a highly significant pattern deviation plot. The glaucoma hemifield test has correctly identified the field as containing abnormally high sensitivity values, The general index mean deviation is extremely positive, and the field contains high pattern standard deviations and short-term fluctuation. The influence of high false-negative responses on the printout is, in many ways, the opposite of the high false-positive patient. Although the mean deviation index may be statistically significant, the PSD, SF, and CPSD should be normal (Fig.
While this type of screening is rapid, it does not detect some early abnormalities such as shallow localized depressions or increased variability of responses in localized areas. This sensitivity has led to a higher detection rate of early visual field defects than with manual techniques and has enhanced the ability to meaningfully compare successive visual field examinations.
Thus, 10 dB equals 1 log unit or a 10-fold change in intensity, and 30 dB equals 3 log units or a 1000-fold change in intensity.
As a rough guideline, a location with a 10-dB defect may fluctuate by as much as 10 dB without reaching the 95% confidence interval for a change. The stimulus intensity is then decreased in 2-dB steps until the patient does not respond (not seen).
The graytone plot is extrapolated from the numeric plot, and although it implies uniform sampling of the 30° field, in reality, less than 1% of this area is actually tested. The examiner should always keep in mind that statistical significance does not always mean clinical significance.
The threshold value of this seventh most elevated location, has been termed the general height value, although it is not routinely displayed on the printout. One potential advantage of Fast-pac over the fast threshold program is the ability to use the Statpac 2's programs that analyze for change over time.
This strategy provides the advantage of testing more areas with measurable threshold and seems to in.
If the box changes in location over time with a stable size, a generalized change is likely occurring.
These symbols were derived from the fluctuation of a population of glaucoma patients tested four times over a 1-month period. Whenever possible, a patient new to perimetry should undergo several test sessions to establish a baseline for subsequent comparisons.
The mean deviation general index is often above +2 dB, and these patients typically have high pattern standard deviation and STF (Fig. If the seventh-best value on the total deviation negative patient will plot is affected by fatigue, then the general height correction of the total deviation plot will create a false good-appearing pattern deviation plot.
Suprathreshold screening techniques may be used to make qualitative estimates of the visual field.
The maximum bulb intensities vary; Goldmann and Octopus perimeters generate a maximum stimulus luminance (0 dB) of 1,000 asb, while the Humphrey perimeter uses a 10,000-asb bulb (0 d 13). These are short-term fluctuations (STFs) and the homogeneous and heterogenous components of long-term fluctuation (LTF). The magnitude of LT11 is usually greater than that of STF and is not routinely presented to the examiner numerically.
Threshold results from these adjacent areas are, in turn, used to determine their neighbor's starting,locations, until the entire test is completed. The gray-tone plot remains useful to alert the examiner to problem areas and is an effective way of showing visual field results to the patient. This increase may be due to poor patient cooperation or attention, but STF also tends to Increase in scotomatous areas, particularly at their borders; (d) CPSD, corrected pattern standard deviation, calculated because STF influences PSD.
A linear regression of the MD slope is performed with an accompanying significance of value.
The magnitude of the learning effect can be reduced by an attentive, thoughtful, operator who takes the requisite time to explain the examination thoroughly to the patient. Threshold measurements are required to obtain the quantitative data needed for the early diagnosis and careful follow-up of patients. This attempts to better represent the unevenness of the surface of the hill of vision by accounting for the influence of STF. The other two possible GHT descriptions, borderline or abnormal, may result from asymmetric loss across the horizontal meridian.
Statpac provides probability values for each global index value, compared with age-matched normals. While these descriptions more typically result from glaucomatous visual field defects, they can be seen with any nerve fiber bundle defects. For example, if the MD value is accompanied by a p< 2% symbol, the MD of the field is depressed by an amount greater than that found in 98% of the same age normal population.

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