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Pratt & Whitney's F100 series fighter engines has accumulated more than 20 million flight hours in service. To supply then engine with oxygene for burning, it inputs huge quantities of air via its air intakes (6). These go through and spin the high pressure turbine (3) which extracts some energy from the flow to power the high pressure compressor.
The gases leaving the 'inner' parts of the engine meet the outer 'airflow' here and leave the engine at high speeds, thus producing thrust. The annular combustion chamber is fabricated of Haynes-188 cobalt-based alloy with film cooling. The high pressure turbine is a 2-stage design and it uses directionally solidified alloy blades. Its predecessor was the Pratt & Witney F100-PW-100, an engine developed especially for F-15A and B models. Needless to say, USAF was not happy with the reliability of the engines, they even seriously considered switching to General Electric engines in their F-15 jets.
PW-220 produced slightly less thrust than PW-100 (23,450 lbs against 23,830 lbs), but the DEEC system reduced fuel consumption and wear and tear on engine components as well. The most visible difference between PW-220 and PW-229 is the color of the flame coming out from them in afterburner mode.
Differences in afterburner flame color between -220 engines (above) and -229 engines (below). The PW-229 variant was introduced in 1992, the first jet to be equipped with it was 90-0233. PW-229 features an Improved DEEC (IDEEC) and 22% more take-off thrust than its predecessor. The PW-229 has bigger cooling requirements, hence CFT's had to be redesigned to equip with cooling scoops that reached further than the relatively slower CFT boundary layer airflow.
Another big difference between these two engine types is the presence of ATDPS (Assymmetric Thrust Departure Prevention System). Engines are mounted to the airframe by standard mounting links (2) resting on all-titanium mounting frames (8).
Engine induction and air inlet system and the Jet Fuel Starter (JFS) are covered in another articles (see section 'Engines' in the left menu).
The ignition system is a capacitor-discharge type and contains an independent engine mounted generator and four igniter plugs (two for the engine combustor, two for the afterburner).
The engine control system (ECS) comprises a primary (PRI) digital control and a secondary (SEC) hydromechanical control mode.
The DEEC schedules engine and afterburner fuel flows, compressor inlet variable vanes (CIVV), rear compressor variable vanes (RCVV), start bleed position, anti-ice and nozzle position.
If a fault is detected by in the PRI mode software, then SEC mode is entered automatically.
Note that engine start can be accomplished with the engine control switches in either ON or OFF position, but after engine start they should be left in their position for at least 1 minute, otherwise DEEC will switch to SEC mode.
The afterburner is equipped with a high-energy ignition system which allows a modulated light-up. In PW-220 engines the afterburner has 5 stages which are progressively selected as the throttle moves from MIL to MAX.
All major afterburner assemblies are made of titanium, while the interior liner is coated with Haynes-188. The exhaust nozzles (12) are axially symmetrical and they follow a convergent-divergent profile. The engine anti-ice system is covered in another article, see it in 'Miscellaneous Systems' in the left menu. The Assymmetric Thrust Departure Prevention System (ATDPS) is present only in the F100-PW-229 engine. The engines are controlled by direct linkage between two sets (one for the pilot and one for the WSO) of split throttles, mounted on the left hand console in both cockpits.
Engine start and shutdown is a fairly simple process, which is described in the article on the Jet Fuel Starter (JFS) - see the article in the 'Engines' section in the left menu. The secondary power system is discussed in detail in another article - see it in the 'Power Systems' section in the left menu.
L BLEED AIR, R BLEED AIR - There is a left or right bleed air leak or an overtemperature situation. The engine control panel contains the necessary switches and lights for the pilot to control the engine and its accessories. The external power control switch (2) controls application of external power to the aircraft's electrical buses. The engine control switches (4) are used to place the engines (left and right) either in PRI or in SEC mode.
The STARTER switch and light (also on this console) are for the Jet Fuel Starter (JFS), hence they are discussed in another article.
PW-220 engines have another switch (not visible on the illustration above since it is located below the front cockpit left canopy sill), this is called the VMAX arm switch. The following charts show engine-related Class A rates for all engines used in the A-10, F-15, F-16, F-22 and F-35 aircraft. The following chart compares the engine-related Class A rates for USAF single engine fighter and attack aircraft.
People get into the custom truck hobby for different reasons, and some just come by it, naturally.
They first started by modifying the frame for a four-link rear suspension, Air Ride Technologies ShockWaves, and a Fat Man Fabrications front-end that would eventually drop the vehicle 12 inches at all four corners. With the body off at the painter, they turned their attention to deciding what was needed to motivate the truck. It actually designates two different models of Pratt & Whitney engines: one is F100-PW-220 and the other is F100-PW-229, this latter being the newer, more powerful and more reliable version. Today's engines are extremely complex systems requiring precise and high-tech manufacturing.

One part of it is directed outwards (this is called the fan bypass airflow) while the other part of it is directed more inwards of the engine. The high pressure compressor works the same way as its low pressure counterpart and produces a high pressure and high temperature air which flows directly into the combustion chamber (9). Rotating on a co-axial way, the low pressure turbine (4)is the next, it powers the low pressure compressor. When it was introduced, PW-100 represented a quantum leap in modern turbofan engine design over the previous engines.
Pratt & Whitney realized the risk of losing a well-paying customer, so they pushed on with developmental work and the result was the PW-220, the first jet engine featuring Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC).
DEEC automatically trims to maintain performance as the engine deteriorates, and produces much quicker reactions to pilot's input than the previous analogue control system. PW-220 produces a yellowish flame, while PW-229's afterburner flame is bluish (see images below). Many people say that the PW-229 was not as reliable as the PW-220, but these criticisms are often dismissed in the light of the sheer power of PW-229.
It reacts more quickly to pilot inputs (only 4 seconds from minimum power to maximum power, compared to 7 seconds of PW-220). Numbered parts in the cutaway drawing will be discussed and referred by their number in the following text.
This way engine mounting and engine change is a relatively simple event, which can be done by front-line maintainers as well. During engine start (it is discussed in detail in the JFS article - see 'Engines' section in the left menu) moving the throttle from OFF to IDLE causes the engine igniter plugs to discharge. The DEEC controls engine performance by scheduling engine fuel flow to control airflow and nozzle position to control engine pressure ratio (EPR), this latter being a ratio between exhaust and inlet pressures. Note that SEC mode can be entered manually by placing the engine control switch to OFF position. If the engine is started with its engine control switch in OFF position then SEC mode will be entered immediately of course - this way ground starting time will be longer. This continuously monitors engine parameters and system states to detect engine operating failures. A light-up detector (LOD) is attached to the system which senses afterburner ignition and along with the DEEC permits faster throttle transients. There is a small fuel drain on the bottom of the afterburner, this is to gather unburnt fuel (for example after an unsuccessful light-up) thus avoiding fuel accumulation and probable flame-out. ATDPS's main purpose is to reduce the possibility of a directional departure following loss of a single engine at high airspeeds (that is 500+ KCAS or Mach 1.1+). The throttle can be freely moved and be put to any setting in between the two limits, OFF and full afterburner (MAX).
The pilot also have a smaller display called the Engine Monitor Display (EMD) near his right knee.
In case a caution situation occurs, the master caution light will be illuminated together with the engine caution light both in the front and the rear cockpits.
These are lever-locked switches which must be raised before they are moved to a new position. It has three positions: NORM allows aircraft electrical buses to be energized by external power, RESET established external power if it's not on the line (this position is spring loaded back to NORM), OFF disconnects external electrical power from the aircraft.
The switch has three positions: AUTO provides automatic activation of the emergency generator, MAN provides manual activation, while ISOLATE restricts the emergency generator to powering to a couple of critical systems only. More detailed descriptions on these modes can be found above where the engine control system (ECS) is discussed. Using their tried-and-true method of cutting cardboard templates from the frame buildup, B.J.
The duo knew that a truck with an attention-grabbing look would be a waste with a factory six-cylinder engine between the fenders. In fact, they are back in the same garage, building a '73 F-100 for his mom and dad that will roll side by side with B.J. First it goes through the stages of the low pressure compressor (1), often called simply as 'fan'.
The 'outer' airflow (7) avoids the combustion chamber, it goes directly towards the back of the engine and rejoins with the rest of the air before the afterburning stage. However when extreme thrust is required, extra fuel is sprayed into the leaving airstream by tiny nozzles of the afterburner spray ring (10).
The high pressure compressor is a 10-stage axial design, constructed primarily from titanium, Inconel and other high-temperature alloys.
It introduced computer technology (it was an analogue computer) the first time in jet engine design - previous engines used mechanical linkages to control the fuel flow. In fact the power of the 229 engine is such that an F-15E flying in a clean configuration (i.e. Its greater power and quicker reactions make the PW-229 the engine of choice among Strike Eagle pilots - especially when they are talking about missions flown with heavy weapons loads. Return of the engine oil to the pump reservoir is severely limited during 0 or negative G flight, that's why the duration of these kinds of flights is limited. By controlling airflow and EPR, the engine performance remains consistent for a new or deteriorated engine until the FTIT limit is reached. Engine operation failures (along with engine and aircraft data) are detected and logged in memory for further analysis by maintenance personnel.
If the LOD does not sense a light-up, it automatically retards the throttles to MIL, terminates fuel flow to the afterburner and checks all systems. During snap accelerations (when the pilot agressively snaps the throttle forward) the first afterburner segment may be lighted just above IDLE rpm and more segment may be lighted advancing towards MIL setting, depending on flight conditions.
For OFF setting the throttle must be pulled fully backward, afterburner is reached when the pilot pushes the throttle fully forward. When ATDPS test is selected, switching one engine control to OFF will result in both engines transferring to SEC mode.
Generators are discussed in more details in another article under the 'Power Systems' section in the left menu.

This topic is discussed in more details in another article under the 'Power Systems' section in the left menu.
This is discussed in more details in another article under the 'Power Systems' section in the left menu.
With the VMAX system armed, the throttle in MAX afterburner and airspeed above Mach 1.1, the engine control schedules a 22 Celsius increase in FTIT and a 2% increase in rpm. Caudill from Prestonsburg, Kentucky, is one of the few born with a passion for custom trucks flowing through his blood stream. It releases fuel stored energy by burning the fuel and transfers this to kinetic energy by letting hot fuel exhaust gases leave through the back of the airplane at very high speeds.The following figure is a schematic illustration of how an afterburning turbofan engine works.
This outer airflow is of much lower pressure and temperature, hence it helps cooling the engine thus reducing wear of engine parts. The intense burning results in very high temperature and high pressure mixture of air, fuel and exhaust gases.
This fuel immediately gets ignited in the very high temperature airflow and burns in the afterburner area (11). The first 3 stages of the high pressure compressor are equipped with variable stator blades to allow optimum airflow shceduling. First and second stage turbine blades are made from single crystals that dramatically increases engine life.
From October 1986, all F-15E's were equipped with this engine (and later C and D models got it too). When the throttle is moved into afterburner, afterburner ignition is activated for approximately 1 - 1.5 seconds in co-operation with the LOD system (see further below).
Since the PW-229 is more powerful than the PW-220, IDEEC incorporates a ground idle thrust (GIT) setting to mimic the PW-220 performance when taxiing on the ground.
The CIVV are in a fully closed position, the nozzle is closed near to its minimum area (below 5%). The system reacts very quickly and in the majority of cases it prevents loss of control of the aircraft due to a sudden dramatic increase of yaw rate.
There are two detents in between the two limits, one for IDLE power (minimal thrust possible with the engines running) and one for MIL military power (maximum thrust available without afterburner). The engines will return to PRI mode only after engine control switches are set to ON and ATDPS test is deselected. Placing the switch to ON opens the airframe mounted engine fuel shutoff valve of its respective engine and directs power to the fuel transfer pumps. If they really wanted to be noticed at the F-100 Nationals, they had to spend the time paying attention to the details. Typically one row is a 'static' row, which means that its blades are not moving, the next row is a 'rotating' row, which means that its blades are rotating at high speeds. The end result is an even higher temperature and higher speed gas mixture which go through the exhaust nozzles (5) producing a drastic increase in engine thrust at the price of dramatic fuel consumption and increased wear on engine parts. It often suffered stagnations and compressor blade stalls, not mentioning afterburner fires, this latter posing a considerable risk of losing the entire airframe.
This is called 'supercruise' ability, a term that was introduced with reference to the ultramodern F-22 Raptor! IDEEC also incorporates a transient idle control logic that gives the pilot freedom to snap the throttles to idle whilst the engines maintain about 79% rpm. If these are too unsuccesful, the LOD is disabled by the DEEC and one additional relight is attempted, using tailpipe pressure values for sensing afterburner light-up. Sudden and big sideslips can be dangerous, since air would be coming from the side of the intakes, thus not letting enough air into the engines, resulting in a possible flameout (not mentioning the structural stress the aircraft faces). The friction of throttle movement can be adjusted manually by a small lever at the base of the quadrant. In fact, it even placed in the top fifteen at the F-100 Super Nats in Pigeon Forge four years in a row. They started by shaving all of the normal goodies like the door handles, keyholes, and emblems. Note that while during normal operation only hot gases leave the exhaust nozzles (barely visible), the usage of afterburner produces a long, bright flame which is highly visible, especially by night. Thrust is reduced in accordance with requested throttle settings, but the engines maintain core rpm momentum for 20 seconds - after this they return to idle if no further throttle commands are given. As the throttles advance toward MIL, the nozzles are moving to their fully closed position.During flight the nozzles are at their minimum area at all times, except at MIL power or on afterburner. They felt confident with what they had learned and decided, "Why not chop the top 4 inches?" So, in their little two-bay garage they chopped the top 4 inches, smoothed all of the body seams, and even had time to make their own tailgate. Rotating blades has a cross-section very similar to the wings of an airplane, this helps increasing the pressure of the air. The engine remains in SEC mode until the fault is cleared or the engine control switch is put back to ON position. With the rolling chassis back from paint and the new motor installed, it was time to head off to the first show. Maybe it won't be too long before there is another young 'un with custom blood in his veins to take up space in that family garage.
Air pressure increase is also helped by the effect of the static blades, which also help regulate and deflect the airflow to the proper direction. The pilot has override authority on the operating mode of the ECS vie engine control switches, so the pilot can re-enter PRI mode and enter SEC mode if he desires so. The nozzles reach their fully open state only in full afterburner to compensate for increasing afterburner fuel flow. Each VMAX use is logged and a hot section borescope inspection may be performed after flight. With the body completed, it was time for the truck to make its first trip out of the family garage and over to Bud Bradley's for a slick coat of Tequila Sunrise Orange paint and some TLC.

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