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The first trick was to work out how to run the original DOS version of Fractint on Windows I found that DOSbox works well. Note that is you may wish to use an alernative method of generateing large fractals eg 10240 x 7680 pixel images etc. 4) Enter the number of X and Y multiples that you want eg 10 x 10 produces a 10240 x 7680 pixel image.
This should generate 100 fractals which will then be saved into a single GIF file called fractmig.gif this is a special type of GIF file that Photoshop can not open corectly.
Dave is a retired programmer (who worked for IBM for many years)and amongst his current interests is kite aerial photography. Dave has very kindly provided an editor that allows you to conveniently examine or change all the menu-accessible SDM configuration parameters using your PC.
For convenience, the parameters are arranged in the same order as they appear in the menus and submenus and the SDM version number is displayed at the bottom of the listing. To use the programme, simply double-click the JAR file and navigate to the CFG file that you wish to edit.
As from SDM version 1.82, the editor supports standard CFG files and those with a numeric extension that are required for cameras with non-standard colour palettes. When setting colour option with the editor, the appropriate values will be used for that CFG version.
At the bottom of the window you will see the SDM version that the configuration file applies to.
Certain values (system parameters) are hidden from view until you click the 'System Parameters' button. The reason I made this thread (tutorial?) was because many people find mikeyk's tutorial a bit too complicated or vague. Before we actually start coding sprites, it would be best to start off with generators instead.
For all type of sprites, whether it's a normal sprite, a generator or a shooter, all of them 2 main routines. So what we did was start the initial and main routine, and both of them simply return and do nothing.
Now that we know where the initial and main codes are written in a generator, let's actually make some code for it. For this, we'll just need to create a code which makes Mario's coins 00 in the main code (not INIT - as I said, you can't write code in a generator's INIT routine).
Now here's one more important thing to note: Once a generator's code is run, it will always be run unless you exit that level. Well, for a generator you don't actually edit the normal "cfg options" as you would in a sprite. To make it execute the code from our file or "point" to our code, open up the .cfg file with Notepad or any other text document editor.
The proper way to fix this error would be to open up a file generated by TRASM.exe (The program that actually assembles your code) and look at the line number containing the error. What this means is that we've got a symbol after a branching command which is okay, but what's wrong is that this symbol name doesn't even exist in the file. Now you feel you're really efficient at coding generators, and it's time to move onto sprites.
This means that if in any way you need to use the X register, you need to preserve it (PHX), and then pull it (PLX) after you've finished your routine that uses the X register. For this, we'll need to jump to another routine, commonly known as GET_DRAW_INFO right after we we call the graphics routine.
Now that we've got GET_DRAW_INFO into our sprite, we're now ready to draw tile data for it.
Before we actually start writing tiles and data for the graphics tile, make sure you've JSR'd to GET_DRAW_INFO. The first thing we do is write the X and Y position (horizontal and vertical) of the sprite.
The first part of the code get's the sprite X position to $00 after the call to GET_DRAW_INFO.
The second part of the code get's the sprite Y position to $01 after the call to GET_DRAW_INFO.
So if you wanted your sprite to use palette F, you'd need to use 111 as the CCC portion of the byte.
I already stated that when you start SP3 and 4, there are new values for 00-FF for the tiles. As you can see, all I needed to do was set the CCC part to 011 (the value for palette B is 011).
So I've got the binary value 00000110, or #$06 in hex (I used the Windows Calculator for Binary -> Hex). Before storing the property byte to $0303,y, it is also necessary to add in the sprite priorites byte ($64) as well. Additionally, it is possible that you can configure the palette and graphics page through the .cfg file. PHX ; This is only necessary if you are using X for something else in the graphics routine. PLX ; This is only necessary if you are using X for something else in the graphics routine. So we've written the X and Y position, the graphics tile, the properties byte of the sprite. You'd need to increase Y (the OAM) 4 times to make it draw all 8x8 tiles of our 16x16 sprite. Now we just need to load A with the number of tiles drawn -1 and Y with the size of the tile and then call the routine at $01B7B3 through a JSL.
Sprites use some sprite tables for normally used options, like "can be jumped on", "dies in a puff of smoke" etc.
This controls the sprite clipping - which is actually the hit box of the sprite, meaning it's interaction field can be 16x16, 16x32, 32x32 etc depending on what you write here.
We've talked about the .cfg editor now, and it's time we work on our blue Mushroom sprite again. Place the sprite anywhere in Lunar Magic on the ground and set the Extra Info in Lunar Magic to 02. At the end of this lesson, our blue Mushroom sprite will actually be made to do something - give Mario 10 ten coins along with playing a sound effect when touched and then erase itself. Both of these will work, but I'll use the second one (STZ $14C8,x) because it's obviously faster and efficient.
Well, now that we've made a working sprite, we're going to move onwards to make an animated sprite.
Next, in many sprites, it's a good practice to change the data bank to the one you're reading from.
The JSR SpriteCode should already be there, from above it we pushed the data bank and loaded from our new one and below the JSR SpriteCode, we pulled back the old data bank.
The reason we change the data bank is because otherwise setting some sprite tables, such as the X speed values, wouldn't work.
From now on, we won't be touching the main routine again, we'll focus on the sprite's code instead.
Now that our main routine and our sprite routine has been separated, our sprite code will be much easier to work with. Right after the call to the graphics routine and before our JSL $01A7DC (or whatever you had after the graphics routine), we add this basic behaviour to our sprite.
The first makes sure that the sprite is alive and functioning before it continues with our code. The second check makes sure that the sprite doesn't do anything when sprites are locked or frozen. Our last behaviour to add is calling a subroutine that handles the sprite if it's offscreen. If you place a walking sprite near it, you'll notice that it will go through the blue Mushroom. I don't want you to go through the trouble of setting up the basic template for a sprite, so you could use this sprite to start this lesson. The walking frame of the Bob-Omb is tile CC, if you look carefully at the 8x8 editor in GFX02.bin.
In the place of the LDA #$CA STA $0302,y, we're going to put the code that animates our sprite.
What we're doing here is getting bit 0 of $13, and putting it into X (because it's free since we preserved it). Now what we're doing to do here is depending on if it's 0 or 1, we'll either load tile CA or tile CC.
When bit 7 of $13 is 0, it'll load the first value from the table, which happens to be CA - the still frame.
When bit 7 of $13 is 1, it'll load the second value from the table, which happens to be CC - the walking frame. Since $13 increments all the time, it will either be 0 or 1, so it will "switch" between these 2 tiles. You don't need to know why LSRs slow the animation rate, unless you want to confuse yourself.
Anyway, we've made our Bob-Omb sprite animate between 2 frames - the walking one and the still one. To store to Mario's X speed, you either store a postive (01-7F) or negative (FF-80) depending on the direction.
I've named my speed table XSPEED and set the sprite's speed to 08 and F8, which is a normal walking speed.
Then we set the Y speed to #$10, and called the routine that applies our speed to update the sprite's position. Then we can use $02 as an index in X and make a table and store to $0303,y the same way we did with our first method. Then once we've reached the property byte part of the graphics routine, we can index with X.
We've pushed and pulled X 2 times, even though we're not using a sprite table in between these 2 codes!
This makes our code more efficient, and it's prefered that you stick to the second method - using $02 - to X-flip your sprite. So we're going to make a slight additional to our sprite's routine before writing the X and Y speed.
This routine, once again, can be found in many sprites, the library.asm file from Sprite Tool's tutorial folder or here if you're still lazy. This is where we'll learn about the "don't use default interaction with Mario" option in the .cfg editor.
Anyway, note that if you uncheck "default interaction with Mario" in the .cfg editor, you directly JSL to $01A7DC.
We're going to make our sprite have some custom interaction - so uncheck that option in the .cfg editor.


Now if Mario doesn't have a star, we can directly JSL to the hurt routine, (JSL $00F5B7) because it's common for sprites to hurt Mario. The first JSL displays the "contact" graphics that's often shown in many sprites when they're hit. We've played around with a 16x16 sprite for a long time now, so it's time we make a bigger sprite.
Firstly, we MUST push the sprite index, as once again, we need X to indicate the number of tiles to draw -1 (which is 01 in our case, because we're drawing 2 tiles). We store the X position normally (keep in mind this is for the second tile and the first tile).
For the second tile to draw, which we are doing first because X was initially loaded with 01, we don't need to apply any Y displacement to the sprite. Then we push X because we need to add the properties based on the direction of the sprite, which we stored to $02 earlier on. We pull back the X register which we pushed RIGHT at the beginning of the routine which contains the sprite index. Drawing a 32x32 sprite is almost the same, it's just that we add some X displacement as well as some Y displacement. The 4th byte (tile) in the table would load the tile whose offset hasn't been changed at all.
The 3rd byte (tile) in the table would load the tile whose Y offset hasn't changed, but it's X offset has, so it'll be shifted 1 tile to the left.
The 2nd byte (tile) in the table would load the tile whose X offset hasn't been changed, but the Y offset has, so it'd be shifted 1 16x16 tile higher.
The only other thing which we have changed again is the number of tiles drawn at the end of the graphics routine in the accumulator. To fix this problem, we need to invert XDISP (not the Y displacement, only X displacement) when the sprite faces the left direction.
To fix it, we use some scratch RAM (RAM that can be used by anything), $03, to load along with X for the loop. This also means that our YDISP table must also have 4 more bytes, as well as the tilemap table. Firstly, we load the frame counter and add a a couple of LSR's to slower the animation rate. So every time the frame counter switches from animation 0 and 1, it will also change the tilemaps it will use. Animating a 32x32 sprite with more than 2 frames is going to be more complicated, so we won't go through that because this is supposed to be a simple-intermediate sprite tutorial. There is currently no text in this page, you can search for this page title in other pages or edit this page. Flight Simulator X creates an Application Data folder for the username that you use your computer under.
TweakFS has made a handy freeware utility that makes it a breeze for most users to directly edit their FSX.cfg file. A backup copy of that file will come in very handy should you ever want to rollback your changes. It is recommended that you make only one change at a time to the configuration of Flight Simulator X and then start the simulator and observe the affect of the change. This will allow the user to make modifications to the demo project (adding another module for example) that will not be replaced on a Repository Pull operation.
We could just run the demo as is, but for the sake of completion, let's rename them to something more appropriate for the project.
Now that the project has been successfully moved and renamed, we will now modify the contents of the project so that it will build properly.
The main purpose of the .cfg file is to provide the c compiler with the locations of all the fixed header files in the project. If the C compiler states that a .h cannot be found, then a include folder will be need to be added to point to the directory.
In simulator mode, everything seems to work fine, but the code isn't actually running on the host uC. There are several compiler checks in the code that ensures the right MSP430 has been selected. Running Simplgif.exe will convert this multiple image GIF file into a simple GIF file that Photoshop can edit. Not only are they simpler to start off with, but it's also something reasonable to start off before moving on to something a bit more advanced.
It's pretty handy if you want your sprites to initially walk in the direction Mario is going, or set health points for a boss. This routine is run every frame, being that will be executed all the time as long as the sprite is on screen.
You write all of the code you want in the main routine, but still write the initial routine at the beginning of a file. Stuff like "Takes 5 fireballs to hit" or "Can be jumped on" are null in a generator; You can't really edit options for them. This will help us to pinpoint the exact line where the error is and we can easily fix it that way.
Coding sprites is a bit more difficult, but at the same time, it's not so complicated unless you start off by creating a "z0mg, 64x64 boss who jumps and throws hammers at Mario and has 10 HP!!!". If you read my ASM tutorial, I stated that the X register must be preserved if you want to use it in a sprite for purposes other than the sprite tables itself.
The first thing to do though, is place a routine that will get the sprite index ($15E9) to the OAM.
But first though, to avoid confusion, it's always a good idea to create a "header" for the graphics routine.
In case you don't know what that means, just assume that this sprite is the one being processed in terms of the GFX routine.
However, this won't actually put it on the screen; to draw the sprite's X and Y position, we write to the sprite OAM.
You'll notice that the tiles start fresh all over again, meaning that you'll see another tile 00 there. However, there's an option in the .cfg editor which determines the page number to use and it's called "second graphics page".
The property byte handles the Y-flip, the X-flip, the priority of the tile, the palette to use, and the page number to use. If you're confused, in comments, write down YXPPCCCT and below it, write your property data. There's just a bit of the graphics routine left - mainly to do with the call to the routine that writes our graphics to the OAM. It's always important you increase Y four times after writing your tile data unless you are drawing just one 8x8 tile.
For several sprites, the object interaction value is set to 00, because they interact best with objects at that value. The box where you can enter a value beside the RAM Addresses is the final value that address gets set to. Our sprite is very simple and doesn't use the extra info yet, so that's why we'll leave it as 02. In between the BCC NoContact and NoContact label, the code for "Mario touched the sprite" will be written. This is done by setting $14C8,x, the sprite status table to 00 so the sprite becomes non-existant.
The sprite still has the same functionality as before, but we've packaged the sprite's code in it's our routine.
This means that in the sprite's function, we'll replace will RTL with an RTS, because we called it with a JSR. This prevents the sprite from doing it's function if it's killed by a spin jump or a star etc. You know like when you collect a Mushroom or get hit, sprites are temporarily frozen right?
Now we're going to make a sprite that animates between 2 frames - for this, we'll make a sprite with Bob-Omb graphics. Nope, so we call preserve it (PHX) right before we write our tiles, and pull it back (PLX} after we've done writing our tiles.
Keep adding LSR's (until you've got about 4) and notice the difference in the speed of the animation. But remember though, depending on how many values you use with AND, you'll need to have that many values in your table +1.
However, unlike storing speed to Mario, we need to call a routine that applies the code that stores to the speed of the sprite.
Firstly, you'll notice that the sprite initially does not face Mario, but that's not what we're going to fix now.
Normally, to check if Mario is touching a wall, you would check if the LEFT and RIGHT bit are both 1.
Firstly note that you cannot index with X because LDX $157C,x is NOT a valid addressing mode. Then I load a table (NOTE: I've named my table PROPERTIES) which either has the value of 47 or 07 - it has 47 when the sprite faces right to X-flip the graphics and 07 when going left because the graphics won't be X flipped then. Note that we'll still have to preserve it, because we'restill using the X register for a purpose other than sprite tables - indexing with $02 isn't making a sprite table, is it?
We've added some generic behaviour to it and now it'll animate, move and interact with other sprites. Place the sprite on both sides of Mario - left and right - and you'll notice that on one side, it will face the wrong way or face the direction Mario is not in. What this routine does is get's the sprite's direction relative to Mario's in the Y register. I don't want to link to another update of our sprite, because all we did was add 3 lines of code in the INIT routine. Place the sprite on both the left and right side of Mario and you'll notice that it initially will walk towards his direction.
Again, if this doesn't branch, meaning $0E is less than E6, Mario is touching the sprite from above (jumping on it).
Since the star points routine is fairly common and is present in many custom sprites, you can find it here. The second one prevents Mario from being launched down again after stomping on the sprite and lifts him a bit up.
Usually for some sprites like the Rex, the sprite disappears in a puff of smoke when spin-jumped on or jumped on by Yoshi. Then we play the typical spin-kill sound effect and lastly, JSL to a routine that displays the "star animation" effect which is common in sprites which you spin-kill on.
It can be changed to mess around with the displacement the first tile gets, but we really don't need to do that.
Note that it doesn't give a separate property for each tile; X here contains the direction.


To do the next tile, we use DEX to make X 00 (so that the index makes it load the first byte in the tables).
Finally, Y is loaded with 02 to indicate that we drew 16x16 tiles, and A is loaded with 1, which is the number of tiles drawn -1 (2-1 = 01).
You should be able to see 2 16x16 tiles; a 16x32 sprite - one tile is the walking frame of the Bob-Omb and the other one is it's still frame.
All it does it involve a little loop with some Y displacement and more indexing, but other than that, it's not hard at all. A Rex has a clipping value of 2A and it's 16x32, so you can use that as your clipping value in the .cfg editor.
When facing both directions, it'll show correct graphics now and we're done with the graphics routine of our first 32x32 sprite.
Animating a 32x32 is a little bit harder, but the concept is still the same - you use the frame counter to swap through tiles. So although it'll switch between these bytes, the tiles used will be the same until we change them.
I've made the table less cluttered and made bytes 8-16 be used when the sprite is facing right.
Now the sprite will read from bytes 8-16 for the animations instead of 0-1, so nothing will mess up. It covers how to make a simple static sprite, and moving sprite, an animated sprite, a large (32x32) sprite and finally, a large moving sprite with many features (let's just call this a boss). Whatever code you write in a generator will always be executed if Mario has reached the screen number the generator is on. Or maybe you might want to clear all RAM Address you want to use for later in the initial routine so nothing messes up.
If you ever write an RTS to end the INIT routine, your sprite will cause the game to crash once you test it.
We cannot put any code there, like STZ $19 (make Mario small) in the INIT code because the code is run every frame (once Mario enters the screen the generator is on, of course) anyway. But what if, for example, your generator's code is about 100 lines, and you have no idea where exactly the error is? Because there are a maximum of 12 sprites being processed on screen, we use the X register to determine each one. If you don't preserve and pull it and use it in your own code, you'll probably mess up the sprite index, which probably means your sprites won't show up on screen or something buggy will happen.
You can find this routine is almost every sprite, the library file in the tutorial folder in Sprite Tool, or here if you're lazy.
Note that this won't be reported as an error because it's treated as a comment (because of the semi-colons).
You set all of the bits to your liking, and convert the value into hex and store it to $0303,y. For example, the user can set to 01 to make our sprite stay on ledges, and 00 if it doesn't stay on ledges. We already set the palette in the .ASM file ($0303,y, the sprite properties if you recall), so just set the graphics page unchecked so the Mushroom is drawn from SP1 and not SP3!
For example, if I only check the "can't be kicked by a shell" option in $167A, $167A will become #$10 in the sprite's code.
Since it's 16x16, a good sprite clipping for that size is 00 (the document I linked earlier helps a lot here). It might be a bit unclear to why we've done this, but it really helps to clean up the code a bit and simply things later.
What I've done was separated the sprite's function from the main function, and changed the data bank when the sprite's subroutine is run. We make our sprite do that as well, it won't do anything if you get a powerup or anything that freezes sprites temporarily.
We've now made our blue Mushroom sprite, but there's one thing we could add to make it slightly better. To make sure this works, make sure that the "don't interact with other sprites" is unchecked (in the cfg). All I did was change the property byte ($0303,y), and the tile to use ($CA, which is the Bob-Omb still tile). You can put this table at the beginning of the Graphics routine, before the Graphics label or at the end of it. This means that after writing to the X or Y Speed ($B6,x and $AA,x respectively), we need to JSL to another routine to update the sprite's position.
That means you'll use AND #$03 to check for the first and second bit (01 and 02 respectively). But you'll also notice something else - it's facing or looking towards one direction all the time. You already know that in the YXPPCCCT format of the sprite properties, the "X" bit is for the X flip. We'll need to index this by direction and either load 47 or 07 (47 for right, 07 for left) into $0303,y. Before storing, we MUST pull the Y register back to recover the OAM index so it stores properly. We are NOT going to store speed if it is in air - doing this will mess up the sprite's "gravity".
Since we're going to make it face Mario initially, we'll add a code in the INIT routine to make it face Mario's direction. This means that if Mario's facing left, the sprite's direction (in the Y register) will also be left.
First we check if Mario has a star (if $1490 is a non-zero value) and if he does, we branch to a separate piece of code that handles the star points routine.
I'll just add a JSL $00F5B7 followed by an RTS to end the "Sprite wins" code because there's nothing more that's left.
Then I make the sprite fall down by setting its status to 02, killed by a star, and setting a new Y speed for it so that it drops. It will require a bit of work and change in the graphics routine, so we're going to start afresh. This means it will first work on the second tile (or the upper tile), and then the first tile, or the bottom tile. This is because we've got 2 tiles to draw and we need to put 1 tile on top of the other one. If you'd like, you can change the SEC SBC YDISP,x to CLC ADC YDISP,x and change the F0's in the YDISP table to 10. There is no difference in the sprite's coding when you have a 16x16 tile or a 16x32 tile, it's the same. Because a 32x32 sprite requires you to draw 4 tiles, I've made our code loop thrice by making X 03 at the beginning of the loop.
You'll notice that when it faces the other way (right), the X and Y displacement are all messed up! This means that we can extend our table by 4 more bytes and those 4 bytes are used by the sprite's graphics when it faces left.
If you'd like, you can give it some interaction code like we did with our 16x16 sprite earlier.
The tile data is still the same, but because $03 is being affected by XDISP when sprite faces the right direction, the frames being animated start from byte 4 and then read from an invalid table. However, even if I go to screen 0C in the same level and collect coins, the counter will still remain 00. For that purpose, we'll intentionally write BCC Return2 and find out the proper way of handling errors. So it's best to stick to that in case you switch to assembling with xkas (we'll get to that later, as I said). Just copy that entire code (yes, all of it) into your .ASM file, at the very bottom of course. Alternatively, you can choose the page number to use in the property byte of the sprite, which we'll learn next.
We'll be using the .cfg editor from Romi's Sprite Tool though, because it covers what are "Unknown Bits" in mikeyk's (?) cfg editor. This is because for a null or unused sprite, we can easily choose our options without having to worry about how the sprite actually behaves.
The user can easily configure the time it takes to explode by then writing the # of frames in the Extra Property 1. From no onwards, when we need to return, we'll use RTS instead of RTL - because we called the sprite's code through a JSR.
If it did that, we terminate the entire code sprite because the sprite status is no longer 8, but 02.
We don't want it to do that - instead, we'll make it flip it's direction ($157C,x) if it comes in contact with a wall.
If it didn't, we'd be storing to $0303 + the direction value (which is in Y), which is NOT what we want. Since the Y register contains the sprite's direction relative to Mario's, we can transfer it to the accumulator and store to the direction table $157C,x (We can't directly do STY $157C,x because that doesn't exist).
Finally, the speed is updated because we modified it by JSL'ing to $01802A and a sound effect is also played. All we do is check if Mario is spin-jumping using $140D (if it's 01, Mario is spin-jumping) or check if Mario is on Yoshi by checking if $187A is non-zero, and then branch to another piece of code that handles the spin-kill. If we had stored the Y position directly, one tile would have overlapped the other one, which is what we don't want.
In the next lesson, we will learn how to animate our 32x32 sprite, which is extremely difficult somewhat complicated. I've coded many sprites including a few bosses so this tutorial should just be enough for one to code several sprites. This is because once a generator's code has started, it won't end until Mario enters a (sub)level without the generator near his entrance point. By the end of this lesson, we'll create a sprite that shows a blue Mushroom (but does nothing yet). Also ensure that the "Dont Interact with Objects" is unchecked, otherwise the sprite will fall down the screen!
If it's set, the sprite won't interact with any objects and will directly fall down the screen.
Unless you want your sprite to not interact with objects, like a Big Boo sprite, you should always turn this option on. By the end of this lesson, we will make a generator that crashes the game will play a sound effect and give Mario a fire flower, on the condition that he has atleast 50 coins and 3 lives.
This may sound a bit tough to make, but believe me, it's pretty simple once you've learnt it.



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