Leave a space between adjacent groups of bars but not between bars within a group (see Figure 4.22).
Do not use a scale break, because the reader could easily misinterpret the relative size of different categories. Figure 4.20 shows the number of deaths among persons ages 25–34 years for the six most common causes, plus all other causes grouped together, in the United States in 2003.
It deviates from the grouped bar chart in that the different groups are differentiated not with separate bars, but with different segments within a single bar for each category. While you may not find yourself constructing these figures often, our objective is to equip you to properly interpret these displays when you encounter them. Therefore, breaks in the scale could cause the data to be misinterpreted and should not be used in bar charts. This makes it difficult to compare causes of death for the 2 groups without reading the labels.

The wedges should be labeled and arranged from largest to smallest, proceeding clockwise, although the “other” or “unknown” may be last. Selected notifiable disease reports, United States, comparison of provisional 4-week totals ending December 11, 2004, with historical data.
EpiMap is an application of Epi Info for creating maps and overlaying survey data, and is available for download. The dot plot displays not only the clustering and spread of observations for each category of the x-axis variable but also differences in the patterns between categories.
An area map, also called a choropleth map, can be used to show rates of disease or other health conditions in different areas by using different shades or colors (Figure 4.35).
The trends or patterns of the subgroups can be difficult to decipher because, except for the bottom categories, the categories do not rest on a flat baseline.
For example, after receiving information that a person has a family history of a disease (colorectal cancer for this example), that person may decide (choose) to seek medical advice or choose not to do so.

Even when a spot map shows a large number of dots in the same area, the risk of acquiring disease may not be particularly high if that area is densely populated. Statistical tools such as linear regression can be applied to such data to quantify the correlation between variables in a scatter diagram.
If a study's horizontal line does not cross the vertical line, that study's result is statistically significant.

United states map with cities
Map of us rivers and streams


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