Tsunamis are also often confused with storm surges, even though they are quite different phenomena. As well as travelling at high speeds, tsunamis can also travel large distances with limited energy losses. Tsunamis have great erosion potential, stripping beaches of sand that may have taken years to accumulate and undermining trees and other coastal vegetation.
In 1995 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began developing the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) system. An undersea earthquake in the Indian Ocean on 26th December 2004 produced a tsunami that caused one of the biggest natural disasters in modern history. The waves devastated the shores of parts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand and other countries with waves reported up to 15 m high, reaching as far as Somalia on the east coast of Africa, 4500 km west of the epicentre. As the tsunami propagates across the ocean, the wave crests can undergo refraction (bending), which is caused by segments of the wave moving at different speeds as the water depth along the wave crest varies.
So a tsunami with a height of 1 m in the open ocean where the water depth is 4000m would have a waveheight of 4 to 5 m in water of depth 10 m. Capable of inundating, or flooding, hundreds of metres inland past the typical high-water level, the fast-moving water associated with the inundating tsunami can crush homes and other coastal structures. The data were taken by a radar altimeter on board the satellite along a track traversing the Indian Ocean when the tsunami waves had just filled the entire Bay of Bengal.
A numerical model was used to replicate the generation and propagation of the tsunami and it shows how the waves propagated around the world's ocean basins. The term "tidal wave" is misleading; even though a tsunami's impact upon a coastline is dependent upon the tidal level at the time a tsunami strikes, tsunamis are unrelated to the tides. These stations give detailed information about tsunamis while they are still far off shore. The acoustic sensor emits a sound pulse which travels from the top of the tube down to the water surface, and is then reflected back up the tube. This system filters out small-scale effects like wind-waves and has the capacity to measure sea-level changes within 1mm accuracy. Their terminology, a nuclear warhead detonated hundreds likely go down and not monitoring your heart.
For tsunamis that are generated by underwater earthquakes, the amplitude of the tsunami is determined by the amount by which the sea-floor is displaced. As a tsunami leaves the deep water of the open-ocean and travels into the shallower water near the coast, it transforms.
Just like other water waves, tsunamis begin to lose energy as they rush onshore - part of the wave energy is reflected offshore, while the shoreward-propagating wave energy is dissipated through bottom friction and turbulence. In the deep ocean, a tsunami has a small amplitude (less than 1 metre) but very long wavelength (hundreds of kilometres).
Tide gauges measure the height of the sea-surface and are primarily used for measuring tide levels. The tide gauge at Cocos Island observed the tsunami on December 26th 2004 as it passed by the island, as shown in these observations made during December. Due to the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours (for Somalia) to reach the various coastlines. On its arrival on shore, the height of the tsunami varied greatly, depending on its distance and direction from the epicentre and other factors such as the local bathymetry.

19shares Share on Facebook Share on Twitter+Tsunami is a series of huge water waves caused by an earthquake or volcano eruption under the sea or a landslide or meteoroid impact or any kind of underwater explosion. Most of the causalities occur around the 250 miles radius of the tsunami centre and usually within 30 minutes. The series of tsunami waves is also known as wave train and the time between any two waves can range between a few minutes and couple of hours. An area of seafloor more than the total area of California State got dislocated and moved about 30 feet upward. Meaning 'great harbour wave' in Japanese, tsunamis are sometimes called 'tidal waves', but their strength has nothing to do with the tides. A normal wind wave travels at about 90kmh, but a tsunami can race across the ocean at an incredible 970kmh!
To save lives, scientists established the Pacific Tsunami Warning System, based in Hawaii, in the USA. Emi- Jess 10I was ill one day,but i still found myself up on the computer googling facts about Tsunamis for my group at school. AnnabellAwesome never new that, I was surprised how big it is I am now interested in tsunamis.
Then a wave blasts onto the shore minutes later, then another and another for two hours or more.
In an emergency, you good quality facts about tsunamis for kid foil is a non-permeable gas and moisture barrier - that paper or poly plastic alternating.
If you read the "The physics of a tsunami" section, you will know that a tsunami travels at a speed that is related to the water depth - hence, as the water depth decreases, the tsunami slows.
These are sent down to the ocean surface from the satellite and the height of the ocean surface can be determined by knowing the speed of the pulse, the location of the satellite and measuring the time that the pulse takes to return to the satellite. Refraction and diffraction of the waves meant that the impact of the tsunami was noticed around the world and sea-level monitoring stations in places such as Brazil and Queensland also felt the effect of the tsunami. With a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale, it was the largest since the 1964 earthquake off Alaska and equal fourth largest since 1900, when accurate global seismographic record-keeping began. The tsunami's energy flux, which is dependent on both its wave speed and wave height, remains nearly constant.
The northern regions of the Indonesian island of Sumatra were hit very quickly, while Sri Lanka and the east coast of India were hit roughly two hours later. However, during the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26th 2004, the Jason satellite altimeter happened to be in the right place at the right time.
The surface buoy then radios the information to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) via satellite.
Please listen to your local radio and TV announcements or call 1300 TSUNAMI (1300 878 6264) for latest warning information.
Similarly, the wavelength and period of the tsunami are determined by the size and shape of the underwater disturbance. It was a rare megathrust earthquake and occurred on the interface of the India and Burma tectonic plates. The first fact in these interesting tsunami facts is about the 2004 tsunami in Indian Ocean. This is one of the most interesting tsunami facts about the tsunami due to meteorite showers.

At the coastal areas if people feel earthquake they should consider it a warning for potential tsunami waves and get moved towards some higher region. But according to some scientists, almost 3.5 billion years ago there was a huge meteorite strike which created a tsunami so big that it wiped out all the life from the earth. Out in the open ocean, tsunami waves are only about one-metre high because the water is deep.
About four out of five tsunamis happen within the Ring Of Fire, a zone in the Pacific Ocean where earthquakes and volcanic eruptions frequently take place. Underwater landslides or volcanic eruptions can also displace water (cause water to spread across the ocean) and may lead to a tsunami. Depending on whether the first part of the tsunami to reach the shore is a crest or a trough, it may appear as a rapidly rising or falling tide. Each station consists of a sea-bed bottom pressure recorder which detects the passage of a tsunami. The system has considerably improved the forecasting and warning of tsunamis in the Pacific.
Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level, often called a run-up height, of tens of metres. One problem with this kind of satellite data is that it can be very sparse - some satellites only pass over a particular location about once a month, so you would be lucky to spot a tsunami since they travel so quickly. The data shown are the differences in sea surface height from previous observations made along the same track 20-30 days before the earthquake, showing the signals of the tsunami. In this interesting list of tsunami facts, this fact is about the unbelievable speed of tsunami waves. The tsunami waves can travel with a speed of 600 miles per hour which is equivalent to the speed of a jet plane.
There is another theory about tsunami caused by an asteroid 4800 years ago in Indian Ocean which raised huge 180 meters high tsunami waves. Sometimes, before a tsunami hits, there is a huge vacuum effect, sucking water from harbours and beaches. Thailand was also struck about two hours later, despite being closer to the epicentre, because the tsunami travelled more slowly in the shallow Andaman Sea off its western coast. This large vertical displacement of the sea-floor generated the devastating tsunami, which caused damage over such a large area around the Indian Ocean. If an earthquake lifts or drops part of the ocean floor, the water above rises and starts spreading across the ocean, causing a tsunami. Because of this shoaling effect, a tsunami that is unnoticeable at sea, may grow to be several metres or more in height near the coast. However, the scariest thing about a tsunami is its wavelength, as this determines how far inland it can travel.

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