Under such legislation as the Northwest Territories Waters Act, the Territorial Lands Act, the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) has responsibilities with respect to the protection of land and water in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. These Guidelines update and expand on the Northwest Territories Water Board's 1987 Guidelines for Contingency Planning and are intended to complement other existing guidelines and requirements for Spill Contingency Planning in the North. Under the NWT Waters Act and Section 6 g (i) and (ii) of the NWT Waters Regulations all operations requesting licences for water use and waste disposal must prepare comprehensive spill contingency plans. The plan must reflect current state-of-the-art containment and clean up procedures and methods. It is recommended that a process for response to media and public enquiries should be discussed in the plan, as guidance for their employees. The action plan should address spills of all sizes including the probable worst case scenario. Projects with a large and complex scope, usually requiring a Type A licence, in some cases requiring Type B licences, may warrant a risk-based method of spill contingency planning.
There are several regulatory requirements, regulations, guidelines that are directly or indirectly linked to spill contingency planning in the NWT. Waste oil is stored in empty 200 L drums in either of the fuel storage areas, and shipped out by plane for off-site disposal at an appropriate waste facility.
As planning for an emergency situation is imperative due to the materials stored on-site and the remoteness of the site, an employee and contractor training program has been prepared. However, it is the developer's responsibility to comply with relevant regulators' requirements.
All the information necessary to effectively control and clean up a spill should be included in the plan.
All employees and contractors are aware of the locations of the plan on the site at Lake Invisible and in the head office in Yellowknife.
In the event of a spill involving danger to human life these phones will be used to contact emergency response personnel in Yellowknife. A flowchart should be prepared to depict communication lines and the response duties of each member of the response team. Index tabs further increase the usability of the plan by improving access to specific information. If a spill occurs, the level of success of the response effort should be examined and lessons learned should be incorporated into an updated spill plan.
If spill response is primarily reliant on an off-site contractor, a written contract, mutual aid agreement or memorandum of understanding is strongly advised to ensure timely access to cleanup equipment. If a reporter or member of the public arrives at the site unexpectedly, the official in charge of responding to their questions will be the camp manager or acting camp manager. This involves a sensitivity analysis to identify areas of the plan where a change in assumptions renders a change in results. Be sure to identify any regulatory steps that must be taken to acquire regulatory approval for the waste management options outlined in the plan.
Spills of petroleum products and other hazardous materials cannot be entirely prevented; however, the impacts of spills can be minimized by establishing a predetermined line of response and action plan.

The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for the preparation of acceptable Spill Contingency Plans. Training employees to familiarize them with the action plan and testing the plan's elements through mock spill exercises is critical to ensuring the success of the plan. Land and Water Boards in the NWT issuing licences occasionally require general contingency plans that address all types of emergency situations, not just spills. Company Unknown has prepared this spill contingency plan for drilling and exploration activities being undertaken at their camp on the west shore of Lake Invisible, Northwest Territories. Motorized equipment on site includes two all-terrain vehicles, a small loader, a drill rig, three snow machines, a zodiac boat (for emergency response; eg.
Of particular concern to INAC is the occurrence of spills and subsequent response and follow-up. The plan should be updated annually, at a minimum, to reflect changes such as fuel storage locations, new hazardous materials on site, new construction and new personnel and contact information. The duties of various response personnel are summarized, contact information is provided including 24-hour phone numbers for responsible people and the location of communications equipment on site is discussed. The quantity of waste oil drums would be quite limited as they would be shipped out by plane as they are filled up.
The basic approach to preparing a general contingency plan is very similar to that used for spill contingency plans. Specific instructions for spill contingency planning provided above should be used to develop general contingency plans, bearing in mind the additional situations that must be addressed. An example flowchart is presented in Appendix B as part of the example Spill Contingency Plan. The company is committed to keeping personnel up to date on the latest technologies and spill response methods. The process of risk assessment will help reduce areas of uncertainties in the spill contingency plan as assumptions are tested. Spill contingency planning and risk assessment for larger projects involving more complex infrastructure and activities are often required as a part of licencing. The purpose of this plan is to outline response actions for potential spills of any size, including a worst case scenario for the Company Unknown site at Lake Invisible. Planning for an emergency situation is imperative, due to the nature of the materials stored on site as well as the remoteness of the site. The remote location of developments in the NWT and the environmental sensitivity of the region underline the necessity for good spill contingency planning. This part of the plan describes the communication system put in place by the plan holder to ensure an expedient response to a spill. In this case, an emergency response mobile unit would have to be called in to deal with the spill using appropriate equipment.
It details spill response procedures that will minimize potential health and safety hazards, environmental damage, and clean-up efforts.
The plan has been prepared to ensure quick access to all the information required in responding to a spill.

If materials are to be disposed on or off-site, the plan should describe the disposal method and approved location. Prior to responding to their questions, they should make every effort possible to contact the head of public relations to discuss the situation.
A Spill Contingency Plan identifies lines of authority and responsibility, establishes proper reporting and communication procedures and describes an action plan to be implemented in the event of a spill.
Several copies of the plan are kept on-site at all times at the two fuel storage areas, in the office and in the kitchen building. These plans are required to establish a state of readiness which will enable prompt and effective response to possible spill events.
Training and training exercises can prepare personnel, evaluate the plan holder's ability to respond to a spill and demonstrate to government and to the public that there is adequate preparation should a spill occur. However, it is the responsibility of the operator to ensure that they meet all applicable regulatory requirements. Additional copies of the plan can be obtained by contacting the company directly at the phone number, fax or email presented in section 1i).
All employees and contractors are shown where spill kits are stored, are aware of their contents and are trained in using spill equipment and responding to spills. The flow chart depicted in Figure 3 identifies the response organization and when applicable their alternates, as well as the chain of command for responding to a spill or release.
The recommended structure and content of a spill contingency plan including response organization, action plan, resource inventory, and training is provided in Section 2.0.
The plan demonstrates that Company Unknown has appropriate response capabilities and measures in place to effectively address potential spills at its Lake Invisible site. The plans submitted to Land and Water Boards must demonstrate that the Licence Holder is capable of responding and taking appropriate action in the event of a spill. The Land and Water Board issuing licences for specific projects will review all submitted plans and may require changes prior to final approval. The lake is used for landing float planes in the summer and planes on skis in the winter on the north shore of the camp.
Have a contingency plan ready in case spill worsens beyond control or if the weather or topography impedes containment. The plan identifies key response personnel and their roles and responsibilities in the event of a spill, as well as the equipment and other resources available to respond to a spill.
In some cases, general contingency plans are also required to address all types of emergency situations.
General contingency plans follow the same basic format as spill contingency plans, and are discussed in Section 4.0.

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