The primary objective of risk management and fratricide avoidance is to help units protect their combat power through risk reduction, enabling them to win the battle quickly and decisively with minimum losses. Risk management is the process of identifying and controlling hazards to conserve combat power and resources. Hazard assessment is the process of determining the direct impact of each hazard on an operation (in the form of hazardous incidents).
Thoroughly brief all aspects of the mission, including related hazards and controls, and ensure that subordinates know the plan. Drink plenty of water, eat well, and get as much sleep as possible (at least 4 hours in any 24-hour period). During mission execution, leaders must ensure their subordinates properly understand and execute risk management controls. Demonstrating consistent and sustained risk management behavior through leading by example and stressing active participation throughout the risk management process. Understanding their own and their soldier's limitations, as well as their unit's capabilities.
Demonstrating full confidence in subordinates' mastery of their trades and their ability to execute a chosen COA. Make informed risk decisions; establish and then clearly communicate risk decision criteria and guidance. Accurately evaluate the unit's effectiveness, as well as subordinates' execution of risk controls during the mission.
Reduction of fratricide risk begins during the planning phase of an operation and continues through preparation and execution. A thoroughly developed, clearly communicated, and completely understood plan helps minimize fratricide risk. Graphics are a basic tool commanders at all levels use to clarify their intent, add precision to their concept, and communicate their plan to subordinates.
Confirmation briefs and rehearsals are primary tools for identifying and reducing fratricide risk during the preparation phase.
During execution, in-stride risk assessment and reaction can overcome unforeseen fratricide risk situations. Similarities and differences in equipment, vehicles, and uniforms between friendly and enemy forces. Figure E-3 parallels the five-paragraph OPORD and contains key factors and considerations in fratricide prevention.
Risk is the chance of injury or death for individuals and damage to or loss of vehicles and equipment. The primary objective of risk management is to help units protect their combat power through accident prevention, enabling them to win the battle quickly and decisively with minimal losses. Potential stability and support operations involving contact with civilians (such as NEOs, refugee or disaster assistance, or counterterrorism).Potential for media contact and inquiries. A soldier who believes that the risk decision is part of his job and does not want to bother his platoon leader or section leader.
Subordinates who do not fully understand the higher commander's guidance regarding risk decisions. Demonstrate consistent and sustained risk management behavior through leadership by example and emphasis on active participation throughout the risk management process.
Demonstrate full confidence in subordinates' mastery of their trade and their ability to execute a chosen COA. Accurately evaluate the platoon's effectiveness as well as subordinates' execution of risk controls during the mission. This step is done during the COA development, COA analysis, COA comparison, and COA approval of the military decision-making process. Leaders must continuously evaluate the unit's effectiveness in managing risks to gain insight into areas that need improvement.
Every leader is responsible for obtaining the assets necessary to mitigate risk and for providing them to subordinate leaders.
Ensure that subordinates understand the who, what, when, where, and why of managing risk and how these factors apply to their situation and assigned responsibilities. Fratricide can be defined broadly as employing friendly weapons and munitions with the intent of killing the enemy or destroying his equipment or facilities but resulting in unforeseen and unintentional death or injury to friendly personnel. The tempo of operations is rapid, and the nonlinear nature of the battlefield creates command and control challenges for unit leaders. Risk, or the potential for risk, is always present in every combat and training situation the platoon faces. This appendix outlines the process leaders use to identify hazards and implement a plan to address each identified hazard.


After assessing each hazard, develop one or more controls that either will eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk (probability, severity, or both) of potential hazardous incidents. A key element in the process of making a risk decision is determining whether accepting the risk is justified or, conversely, is unnecessary.
Implementing controls is the most important part of the risk management process; this is the chain of command's contribution to the safety of the unit.
Leadership and unit discipline are the keys to ensuring that effective risk management controls are implemented. Whenever possible, the risk management process also should include an after-action review (AAR) to assess unit performance in identifying risks and preventing hazardous situations. IMPLEMENTATION RESPONSIBILITIESLeaders and individuals at all levels are responsible and accountable for managing risk. Successful preservation of combat power requires him to embed risk management into individual behavior.
Risk is the chance of injury or death for individuals and of damage to or loss of vehicles and equipment.
Controls are the procedures and considerations the unit uses to eliminate hazards or reduce their risk. Implementing controls includes coordination and communication with appropriate superior, adjacent, and subordinate units and with individuals executing the mission.
Leadership and unit discipline are the keys to ensuring implementation of effective risk management controls.
Whenever possible, the risk management process should also include an after-action review to assess unit performance in identifying risks and preventing hazardous situations.
This section focuses on actions leaders can take to reduce the risk and occurrence of fratricide using current resources. The accuracy and lethality of modern weapons make it possible to engage and destroy targets at extended ranges. Using this structured approach, commanders can predict the most likely causes of fratricide and take action to protect their soldiers. To assign a risk value to each direct cause of fratricide, pair the most critical METT-TC contributing factors associated with each cause. The results must be clearly communicated up and down the chain of command so risk assessment can begin. Each commander must understand the definitions and purposes of operational graphics and the techniques of their employment. Leaders should apply them as appropriate based on the specific situation and METT-TC factors. Enforce fratricide prevention measures and emphasize the use of doctrinally sound tactics, techniques, and procedures. Use position location and navigation devices (GPS and POSNAV); know your location and the locations of adjacent units (left, right, leading, and follow-on) through use of FBCB2 and other means.
Risk management must take place at all levels of the chain of command during each phase of every operation; it is an integral part of all tactical planning. It also includes a detailed discussion of the responsibilities of the platoon's leaders and individual soldiers in implementing a sound risk management program. The decision-maker (the platoon leader, if applicable) must compare and balance the risk against mission expectations.
Techniques include spot checks, inspections, SITREPs, confirmation briefs, buddy checks, and close supervision. They ensure that imminent danger issues are addressed on the spot and that ongoing planning and execution reflect changes in hazard conditions. They must ensure that hazards and associated risks are identified and controlled during planning, preparation, and execution of operations.
To fulfill this commitment, the platoon leader must exercise creative leadership, innovative planning, and careful management. They must consider the essential tactical and operational factors that make each situation unique. Leaders must identify the hazards associated with all aspects and phases of the mission, paying particular attention to the factors of METT-TC.
After assessing each hazard, develop one or more controls that will either eliminate the hazard or reduce the risk (probability, severity, or both) of potential hazardous incidents. The decision-maker must compare and balance the risk against mission expectations, then decide if the controls are sufficient and acceptable and whether to accept the resulting residual risk.
The commander must ensure that specific controls are integrated into OPLANs, OPORDs, SOPs, and rehearsals.
All leaders are responsible for supervising mission rehearsals and execution to ensure standards and controls are enforced.


Leaders should then incorporate lessons learned from the process into unit SOPs and plans for future missions.
However, the ability of US forces to acquire targets using thermal imagery and other sophisticated sighting systems exceeds its capability to identify these targets accurately. Whether used for an actual combat operation or a training event, this thought process complements the troop-leading procedures and analysis of METT-TC factors in planning. For each primary cause, favorable conditions lead to a lesser risk value, found in the cell on the left side of the corresponding sub-matrix.
The following paragraphs cover considerations influencing risk identification and focus on measures the leader can implement to make the identification process more effective and help prevent friendly fire incidents from occurring. Know at what ranges and under what conditions positive identification of friendly vehicles and weapons is possible. Ensure constant supervision in the execution of orders and the performance of all tasks and missions to standard.
The factors and considerations are listed where they would likely appear in the OPORD, but they may warrant evaluation during preparation of other paragraphs.
The platoon leader, his NCOs, and all other platoon soldiers must know how to use risk management, coupled with fratricide reduction measures, to ensure that the mission is executed in the safest possible environment within mission constraints. The platoon leader must identify the hazards associated with all aspects and phases of the platoon's mission, paying particular attention to the factors of METT-TC. He alone decides if the controls are sufficient and acceptable and whether to accept the resulting residual risk. The platoon leader must ensure that specific controls are integrated into operations plans (OPLANs), OPORDs, SOPs, and rehearsals.
Following the AAR, leaders should incorporate lessons learned from the process into unit SOPs and plans for future missions. The platoon leader and his senior NCOs must look at both tactical risks and accident risks.
Risk management must take place at all levels of the chain of command during each phase of every operation; it is an integral part of planning. Risk management must never be an afterthought; leaders must begin the process during MDMP (troop-leading procedures for company and below) and continue it throughout the operation. If the risk is determined unnecessary, the decision-maker directs the development of additional controls or alternative controls; as another option, he can modify, change, or reject the selected COA for the operation. Consequently, friendly elements can be engaged unintentionally and destroyed in a matter of seconds. Rather, in performing the steps, they must keep in mind the essential tactical and operational factors that make each situation unique. Risk management never must be an afterthought; leaders must begin the process during their troop-leading procedures and continue it throughout the operation. If he determines the risk is unnecessary, he directs the development of additional controls or alternative controls; as another option, he can modify, change, or reject the selected COA for the operation. The SBCT commander, battalion commanders, staffs, company commanders, and all soldiers must know how to use risk management, coupled with fratricide avoidance measures, to ensure the battalion executes the mission in the safest possible environment within mission constraints. Table E-2 lists possible sources of risk the battalion might face during a typical tactical operation.
If the leaders have conducted a thoughtful risk assessment, the controls will be easy to implement, enforce, and follow. Techniques include spot checks, inspections, SITREPs, confirmation briefs, and supervision. The worst precondition for each kind of fratricide is represented by the risk value in the cell on the right side of the sub-matrix. During mission execution, leaders must continuously monitor risk management controls to determine whether they are effective and to modify them as necessary.
Rain, dust, fog, smoke, and snow degrade identification capability by reducing the intensity and clarity of thermal images.
Figure E-2 is an example of a fratricide risk assessment matrix that should be used in assessing every mission.
The platoon leader manages accident risks with the assistance of his platoon sergeant, NCOs, and individual soldiers. 92-3, Fratricide Risk Assessment for Company Leadership, Section II, Fratricide Risk Assessment.



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