Nuclear fallout shelters have been stigmatized as the ultimate prep for the paranoid and the butt of many jokes. As you can see from the illustration above, typical homes provide little protection against radiation.
I myself do not think a lot of the people building shelters and giving good information to others so they know how to protect their loved ones is so bad, I don’t have a shelter but am happy for those who do and I do not think the main concern is nuclear power plant fallout, I think it is probably nuclear bombs most people who build the shelters are thinking of. My grandparents actually built a fallout shelter because it was part of the building code for the area in the 80s. The second is for the best radiation protection, the shelter should be at least 8 feet underground at the roof.
My final thought of course is to bear in mind while this would make an excellent fallout shelter, it is by no means a blast shelter.
Shielding — The more you have heavy, dense materials — thick walls, concrete, bricks, books or earth — between you and the fallout particles, the better. Remember that any protection, however temporary, is better than none at all, and the more shielding, distance and time you can take advantage of, the better.

So the air entering the shelter must be filtered to prevent fallout particles from being carried inside.
Solar panels would run the risk of being covered with fallout, so some kind of human power generator backup would need to be available. While this seems crazy at first it actually makes sense because the number one thing that will hurt you in a nuclear disaster (after blast effects) is inhaling or ingesting radioactive material. If you’ve got a stick-built house with a basement, consider putting on a steel roof with a water pipe at the top, so you could wash fallout down the roof, into the gutters and into a cistern.
Here are some examples of small buildings I’ve some across in the past that would make decent fallout shelters. A floor near the middle of a high-rise may be better than a ground floor, depending on whether fallout particles can accumulate at a similar level.
They can be any protected space, provided that the walls and roof are thick and dense enough to absorb the radiation given off by fallout particles.
Radioactive fallout poses the greatest threat to people during the first two to four weeks, by which time it may decline to as little as 1% of its initial radiation level.

The thick walls would provide a lot more shielding than the stick-framed home, but the roof would still allow radiation from any airborne fallout to penetrate the home from above. An underground area, such as a home or office building basement, offers more protection than the first floor of a building. This house would provide the most protection and is the recommended minimum thickness for an above ground concrete fallout shelter. If radioactive material gets into your bloodstream through a cut, eyes, mouth, etc, it can’t be washed off.

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