Most nuclear electricity is generated using just two kinds of reactors which were developed in the 1950s and improved since. Over 11% of the world's electricity is produced from nuclear energy, more than from all sources worldwide in 1960.
A nuclear reactor produces and controls the release of energy from splitting the atoms of certain elements.
The principles for using nuclear power to produce electricity are the same for most types of reactor. The world's first nuclear reactors operated naturally in a uranium deposit about two billion years ago. Today, reactors derived from designs originally developed for propelling submarines and large naval ships generate about 85% of the world's nuclear electricity.
If graphite or heavy water is used as moderator, it is possible to run a power reactor on natural instead of enriched uranium. Thermal MWt, which depends on the design of the actual nuclear reactor itself, and relates to the quantity and quality of the steam it produces. Gross electrical MWe indicates the power produced by the attached steam turbine and generator, and also takes into account the ambient temperature for the condenser circuit (cooler means more electric power, warmer means less). This is the most common type, with over 230 in use for power generation and several hundred more employed for naval propulsion. Some reactors (only one in commercial service) do not have a moderator and utilise fast neutrons, generating power from plutonium while making more of it from the U-238 isotope in or around the fuel. Apart from over 200 nuclear reactors powering various kinds of ships, Rosatom in Russia has set up a subsidiary to supply floating nuclear power plants ranging in size from 70 to 600 MWe. The Russian KLT-40S is a reactor well proven in icebreakers and now proposed for wider use in desalination and, on barges, for remote area power supply.


Most of today's nuclear plants which were originally designed for 30 or 40-year operating lives.
The advent of some of the designs mentioned above provides opportunity to review the various primary heat transfer fluids used in nuclear reactors. Water cooling of steam condensers is fairly standard in all power plants, because it works very well, it is relatively inexpensive, and there is a huge experience base.
The world's oldest known nuclear reactors operated at what is now Oklo in Gabon, West Africa. In a nuclear power reactor, the energy released is used as heat to make steam to generate electricity. If the summer figure is quoted plants may show a capacity factor greater than 100% in cooler times. They may be run on recycled uranium from reprocessing LWR used fuel, or a blend of this and depleted uranium left over from enrichment plants.
These will be mounted in pairs on a large barge, which will be permanently moored where it is needed to supply power and possibly some desalination to a shore settlement or industrial complex. This is because their power output cannot readily be ramped up and down on a daily and weekly basis, and in this respect they are similar to most coal-fired plants. About 2 billion years ago, at least 17 natural nuclear reactors achieved criticality in a rich deposit of uranium ore. The initial radioactive products have long since decayed into stable elements but close study of the amount and location of these has shown that there was little movement of radioactive wastes during and after the nuclear reactions. The steam is used to drive the turbines which produce electricity (as in most fossil fuel plants).
The ability of a PWR to run at less than full power for much of the time depends on whether it is in the early part of its 18 to 24-month refuelling cycle or late in it, and whether it is designed with special control rods which diminish power levels throughout the core without shutting it down.


However, supercritical water around 25 MPa can give 45% thermal efficiency – as at some fossil-fuel power plants today with outlet temperatures of 600°C, and at ultra supercritical levels (30+ MPa) 50% may be attained.
Some design options, such as powering the main large feed-water pumps with electric motors (as in EPR) rather than steam turbines (taking steam before it gets to the main turbine-generator), explains some gross to net differences between different reactor types.
At the end of a 12-year operating cycle the whole plant is taken to a central facility for 2-year overhaul and removal of used fuel, before being returned to service.
Data needs to be transferable across several generations of software and IT hardware, as well as being shared with other operators of similar plants.* Significant modifications may be made to the design over the life of the plant, so original documentation is not sufficient, and loss of design base knowledge can have huge implications (eg Pickering A and Bruce A in Ontario). Thus, though the ability on any individual PWR reactor to run on a sustained basis at low power decreases markedly as it progresses through the refueling cycle, there is considerable scope for running a fleet of reactors in load-following mode. Also, periodic safety reviews are undertaken on older plants in line with international safety conventions and principles to ensure that safety margins are maintained.
Knowledge management is often a shared responsibility and is essential for effective decision-making and the achievement of plant safety and economics. In Candu reactors, pressure tube replacement has been undertaken on some plants after about 30 years operation. See further information in the Nuclear Power in France paper and the 2011 Nuclear Energy Agency report, Technical and Economic Aspects of Load Following with Nuclear Power Plants. The larger VBER-300 PWR is a 325 MWe unit, originally envisaged in pairs as a floating nuclear power plant, displacing 49,000 tonnes. The development of nuclear power based on Pb-Bi cooled fast neutron reactors is likely to be limited to a total of 50-100 GWe, basically for small reactors in remote places.



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