The Cold War ended over two decades ago, and many people have never lived under the shadow of nuclear and radiological threats.
Airfields and naval bases, especially those known to house nuclear bombers, ballistic missile submarines, or ICBM silos.
Fission (A-Bombs) are the most basic nuclear weapon and are incorporated into the other weapon classes.
Failing the above options, get indoors, if, and only if, you can be sure that the building will not suffer significant blast and heat damage. Once you have survived the blast and the initial radiation (for now at least; radiation symptoms have an incubation period), you must find protection against the burning black soot.
Severe burn: Known as a thermal burn, as it comes mostly from the high intensity blast heat, rather than ionizing particles, though it can be from the latter.
A nuclear blast is an explosion with intense light and heat, a damaging pressure wave, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around. These are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange, and certain to be attacked in an all-out nuclear war.
These are likely to be attacked even in a limited nuclear exchange and certain to be attacked in an all-out nuclear war.
This bomb's power comes from splitting heavy nuclei (plutonium and uranium) with neutrons; as the uranium or plutonium split each atom releases great amounts of energy - and more neutrons. Aside from the geopolitical warning signs, your first warnings of an imminent nuclear attack will most likely be an alarm or warning signal; if not, it will be the blast itself. You will need to ration to survive, obviously; therefore you will eventually expose yourself to the radiation (unless you are in a specific shelter with food and water).
A nuclear weapon detonated at a very high altitude will generate an electromagnetic pulse so powerful that it can destroy electronic and electrical devices. A metalized "space blanket" (costing about $2.00 USD) wrapped securely around a device wrapped in newspaper or cotton may act as a Faraday shield, helpful if one is far from the blast.

If a nuclear attack does happen, it won't be safe to venture outside for food — you should stay sheltered for at least 48 hours, preferably longer. A nuclear device can range from a weapon carried by an intercontinental missile launched by a hostile nation or terrorist organization, to a small portable nuclear devise transported by an individual.
Having food and medical supplies on-hand can put your mind at-ease, and allow you to focus on other aspects of survival. The bright light from a detonation of a nuclear weapon can be seen tens of miles away from ground zero. Whether this will be a viable option depends on the construction of the building and how close you will be to the likely ground zero of a nuclear strike.
If the detonation was a surface blast or the fireball hits the earth, large amounts of fallout occurs. Alpha particles will survive for only a couple inches in the air before they are absorbed by the atmosphere.
If within the vicinity of the blast (or ground zero), your chances of survival are virtually nonexistent unless you are in a shelter that provides a very (VERY) good blast protection.
For, unlike the blast and heat effects, the prompt radiation dose received decreases in relation to the square of the distance from the blast. Called improvised nuclear devices (IND), these are generally smaller, less powerful weapons than we traditionally envision. For some, especially those in large population centers, it may seem like an entirely futile endeavor.[2] If it is survived at all, it will be by those who are mentally and logistically prepared for such an event and that live in very remote areas with no strategic significance. The fallout may rain down as contaminated black soot known as "black rain," which is very fatal and may be of extreme temperature. Devair Alves Ferreira received a dose of approximately 7.0 Sv during the Goiania accident and survived, partially due to his fractionated exposure. This will determine the extent of blast effects.Nature of the surface beneath the explosion.

Most electronic equipment within 1,000 miles of a high-altitude nuclear detonation could be affected. Although an EMP is unlikely to harm most people, it could harm those with pacemakers or other implanted electronic devices.Radioactive FalloutEven if individuals are not close enough to the nuclear blast to be affected by the direct impacts, they may be affected by radioactive fallout. Blasts that occur near the earth’s surface create much greater amounts of fallout than blasts that occur at higher altitudes. This is because the tremendous heat produced from a nuclear blast causes an up-draft of air that forms the familiar mushroom cloud. When a blast occurs near the earth’s surface, millions of vaporized dirt particles also are drawn into the cloud. This fallout material decays over a long period of time, and is the main source of residual nuclear radiation.Fallout from a nuclear explosion may be carried by wind currents for hundreds of miles if the right conditions exist. You may want to prepare a kit for your workplace and a portable kit to keep in your car in case you are told to evacuate.Make a Family Emergency Plan. The following describes the two kinds of shelters:Blast shelters are specifically constructed to offer some protection against blast pressure, initial radiation, heat and fire. But even a blast shelter cannot withstand a direct hit from a nuclear explosion.Fallout shelters do not need to be specially constructed for protecting against fallout. If the explosion is some distance away, it could take 30 seconds or more for the blast wave to hit.Take shelter as soon as you can, even if you are many miles from ground zero where the attack occurred - radioactive fallout can be carried by the winds for hundreds of miles.

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