The overall pattern of movement of the tectonic plates is a widening of the Atlantic Ocean and a shrinkage of the Pacific Ocean.
Paleomagnetism (the study of magnetism in ancient rocks) also provides evidence of plate movement.
When such a rock was hot and liquid, the magnetic particles moved too rapidly to be influenced by Earth’s magnetic field.
So when the plate containing the rock either drifts to a different latitude or rotates, the particles no longer align with Earth’s magnetic field. The circulation of mantle rock as it rises to the top of the asthenosphere, cools, and then sinks it is known as convection current.
A new technique for measuring the Earth’s magnetic field back to the days of the dinosaurs and beyond has revealed that the field was as much as three times stronger in ancient Earth than previous techniques suggested.
With the method tested, it was time to see what it revealed about the magnetic field back in the days of the dinosaurs. The polar field of the Sun seems to reverse every 11 years or so, taking about a year or more.
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have discovered that variations in the long-term reversal rate of the Earth’s magnetic field may be caused by changes in heat flow from the Earth’s core. The Siberian Traps and Deccan Traps, where huge amounts of magma poured out of the earth, were both synchronous with large mass-extinction events – the Great Permian extinction and the dinosaur extinction. It turns out that you can think of the Earth as having a gigantic bar magnet buried inside.
What seems amazing this year is the volcanic and seismic activity, in Italy, Tonga, Chile, Alaska, the Caribbean, Hawaii to name some areas. The Atlantic is widening because sea-floor spreading at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge continues to create lithosphere.
According to the commonly accepted description of plate movement, all the continents once formed part of an enormous single land mass called Pangaea.


These masses, in turn, broke up into the continents, which drifted to their present locations. They study surface features, such as mountains and ocean trenches, and investigate the frequencies and locations of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Scientists believe that these volcanoes are caused by mantle plumes, columns of very hot mantle that rise from deep inside Earth to the base of the lithosphere. For example, a hot spot under the Pacific Plate generated volcanoes that became the Hawaiian islands.
But as the rock cooled and solidified, the particles aligned themselves with Earth’s magnetic field, like tiny compass needles. A comparison of the direction in which the particles now point in the rock with the direction of Earth’s present magnetic field provides information about where the plate was when the rock solidified.
Its magnetization is in the direction of the local magnetic force at the time when it cools down. The scientists focused on the time interval between around 200 and 80 million years ago, when magnetic polarity started reversing very frequently – up to 10 times every million years. In order for the north end of the compass to point toward the North Pole, you have to assume that the buried bar magnet has its south end at the North Pole, as shown in the diagram at the right. The Pacific is shrinking because much of it is ringed by convergent plate boundaries that are consuming its lithosphere. These plumes generate magma that rises through the lithosphere and erupts in places called hot spots. Then, the particles continue to point in the direction of the magnetic field that was present during the time that the rock cooled. After about 25 million years of cooling and shrinking, the edge becomes so dense that gravity can pull it down into the asthenosphere. Besides possibly giving T-Rex a better northern lights show, the field strength gives researchers a glimpse into what the Earth’s hot, molten core was doing back then.


But at the very core, the pressure is so great that this superhot iron crystallizes into a solid. Because of the additional density, gravity pulls the plate edge into the asthenosphere even more strongly.
So the compass points toward the North Pole.To be completely accurate, the bar magnet does not run exactly along the Earth's rotational axis. Convection caused by heat radiating from the core, along with the rotation of the Earth, causes the liquid iron to move in a rotational pattern. It is believed that these rotational forces in the liquid iron layer lead to weak magnetic forces around the axis of spin.It turns out that because the Earth's magnetic field is so weak, a compass is nothing but a detector for very slight magnetic fields created by anything. This skew is called the declination, and most good maps indicate what the declination is in different areas (since it changes a little depending on where you are on the planet).The magnetic field of the Earth is fairly weak on the surface.
That is why we can use a compass to detect the small magnetic field produced by a wire carrying a current (see How Electromagnets Work).Now let's look at how you can create your own compass. After all, the planet Earth is almost 8,000 miles in diameter, so the magnetic field has to travel a long way to affect your compass.
PleatPak by GreenDustries Won Best in Show Award in the International Restaurant & Foodservice Show in New York 2013. Otherwise, there just isn't enough strength in the Earth's magnetic field to turn the needle.




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