All business activity is subject to disruptions, such as technology failure, flooding, utility disruption and terrorism.
An organization should analyze impacts of disruptions to its operations and identify critical business operations that are given high priority for restoration to set up recovery time objectives (RTOs).
They do so within the context of increasing security risks and threats, more stringent legislation and regulation, heightened awareness of the need for adequate emergency response and remediation planning, concerns of interested and affected parties, and the need to assure operational continuity. This paper discusses an approach for creating a good disaster recovery plan for a business enterprise.
The process of preparing a disaster recovery plan begins by identifying these causes and effects, analyzing their likelihood and severity, and ranking them in terms of their business priority.
When a disaster strikes, the normal operations of the enterprise are suspended and replaced with operations spelled out in the disaster recovery plan. The disaster recovery plan does not stop at defining the resources or processes that need to be in place to recover from a disaster.
The second section of this paper explains the methods and procedures involved in the disaster recovery planning process. The first step in planning recovery from unexpected disasters is to identify the threats or risks that can bring about disasters by doing risk analysis covering threats to business continuity. Human caused: These disasters include acts of terrorism, sabotage, virus attacks, operations mistakes, crimes, and so on. Supplier: These risks are tied to the capacity of suppliers to maintain their level of services in a disaster. Water: There are certain disaster scenarios where water outages must be considered very seriously, for instance the impact of a water cutoff on computer cooling systems. Once the disaster risks have been assessed and the decision has been made to cover the most critical risks, the next step is to determine and list the likely effects of each of the disasters. Simple "one cause multiple effects" diagrams (Figure 3) can be used as tools for specifying the effects of each of the disasters.
The intention of this exercise is to produce a list of entities affected by failure due to disasters, which need to be addressed by the disaster recovery plan. It may be noticed that two or more disasters may affect the same entities, and it can be determined which entities are affected most often. Once the list of entities that possibly fail due to various types of disasters is prepared, the next step is to determine what is the downtime tolerance limit for each of the entities. The cost of downtime is the main key to calculate the investment needed in a disaster recovery plan.
How the disaster affected entities depend upon each other is crucial information for preparing the recovery sequence in the disaster recovery plan. Once the list of affected entities is prepared and each entity's business criticality and failure tendency is assessed, it is time to analyze various recovery methods available for each entity and determine the best suitable recovery method for each.
In the case of data systems, for example, the recovery mechanism usually involves having the critical data systems replicated somewhere else in the network and putting them online with the latest backed up data available.
Considering multiple options and variations of disaster recovery mechanisms available, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the best suitable recovery mechanism for an affected entity in a particular organization.
The roles, responsibilities, and reporting hierarchy of different committee members should be clearly defined both during normal operations and in the case of a disaster emergency.
Note that not all the members of the Disaster Recovery Committee may actively participate in the actual disaster recovery. Quick and precise detection of a disaster event and having an appropriate communication plan are the key for reducing the effects of the incoming emergency; in some cases it may give enough time to allow system personnel to implement actions gracefully, thus reducing the impact of the disaster. Emergency ManagementAssists residents by preparing for, responding to, or recovering from emergencies or disasters. Integrated communications - ability to send and receive information within an organization, as well as externally to other disciplines.
EOP Base Plan - Provides an understanding of how the organization responds and how it interfaces with the outside environment during response. Though both concepts are related to business continuity, high availability is about providing undisrupted continuity of operations whereas disaster recovery involves some amount of downtime, typically measured in days. The plan should also define how to restore operations to a normal state once the disaster's effects are mitigated.

In Figure 3, the entities that fail due to the earthquake disaster are office facility, power system, operations staff, data systems, and telephone system. This information becomes crucial for preparing the recovery sequence in the disaster recovery plan.
The disaster recovery system cannot replace the normal working system forever, but only supports it for a short period of time. Finally, ongoing procedures for testing and improving the effectiveness of the disaster recovery system are part of a good disaster recovery plan. To mitigate the risk of disruption of business operations, a recovery solution should involve disaster recovery facilities in a location away from the affected area. To minimize disaster losses, it is very important to have a good disaster recovery plan for every business subsystem and operation within an enterprise. Nowadays most of the meteorological threats can be forecasted, hence the chances to mitigate effects of some natural disasters are considerable. After the disaster detection, a notification should be sent to the damage assessment team, so that they can assess the real damage occurred and implement subsequent actions. As recovery progresses, recovery management transitions to regular agency management processes or some intermediate method defined by the responsible organizations.
An effective mitigation effort should begin with, and be based on, a valid HVA as this will help an organization prioritize issues during follow-on mitigation and preparedness planning. The three tiers in figure 1 are sometimes referred to as “governance, process and technology” or “policy, people and process, and technology,” with some variations in semantics. Assessing Disaster Recovery GovernanceGovernance sets the strategy of what DR activities to undertake and, to a lesser degree, how to carry them out.
When defining the how, governance bodies do not spell out operational details of disaster recovery, but rather define guiding principles and rules that management must follow, including roles, responsibilities, decision rights and processes, and standards or professional practices such as those from the Business Continuity Institute4 (BCI) or the Disaster Recovery Institute International5 (DRII). Assessing Technical OperationsWhile management may be the most challenging aspect of the framework, the operations of technology and infrastructure may be the most straightforward, provided that one has addressed the other two aspects of the framework. The organization should plan for incident response and recovery, taking into account core activities, contractual obligations, employee and neighboring community necessities, operational continuity, and environmental remediation. ICT continuity should ensure that required ICT services are resilient and can be recovered to the predetermined levels within the time frame required and agreed upon by top management.
In this new financing method, we use our specialized disaster prevention ratings to evaluate corporate disaster response activities and offer preferential financing to companies involved in disaster response businesses. The best strategy is to have some kind of disaster recovery plan in place, to return to normal after the disaster has struck. The ultimate results are a formal assessment of risk, a disaster recovery plan that includes all available recovery mechanisms, and a formalized Disaster Recovery Committee that has responsibility for rehearsing, carrying out, and improving the disaster recovery plan. Figure 1 depicts the cycle of stages that lead through a disaster back to a state of normalcy.
Only when these are assessed and the affected systems are identified can a recovery process begin. An effective disaster recovery plan plays its role in all stages of the operations as depicted above, and it is continuously improved by disaster recovery mock drills and feedback capture processes. The effects of a disaster that strikes the entire enterprise are different from the effects of a disaster affecting a specific area, office, or utility within the company. A key factor in evaluating risks associated with telephone systems is to study the telephone architecture and determine if any additional infrastructure is required to mitigate the risk of losing the entire telecommunication service during a disaster.
The likelihood that something happens should be considered in a long plan period, such as 5 years. A higher value would mean longer restoration time hence the priority of having a Disaster Recovery mechanism for this risk is higher.
This committee should have representation from all the different company agencies with a role in the disaster recovery process, typically management, finance, IT (multiple technology leads), electrical department, security department, human resources, vendor management, and so on. During a disaster, this committee ensures that there is proper coordination between different agencies and that the recovery processes are executed successfully and in proper sequence.
Execution Phase: In this phase, the actual procedures to recover each of the disaster affected entities are executed. A hurricane affecting a specific geographic area, or a virus spread expected on a certain date are examples of disasters with advance notice.

At the end of this phase, recovery staff will be ready to execute contingency actions to restore system functions on a temporary basis. The Emergency Management Division is responsible for the County's emergency disaster planning, preparation and coordination of County agencies during emergencies.
And the fourth section explains what information the disaster recovery plan should contain and how to maintain the disaster recovery plan. At the earliest possible time, the disaster recovery process must be decommissioned and the business should return to normalcy.
Moreover, due to the rising frequency and severity of disasters1, 2 and the high value of data and processes hosted, data centers are required to provide disaster recovery capabilities. A sufficient capital and operating budget must be in place to help the organization implement and maintain an appropriate level of recoverability.
For example, when governance does not take a position on DR testing, DR training, DR plan activation or continuous improvement, or when there are misunderstandings and disagreements on roles and responsibilities, these gaps need to be addressed. Templates and checklists can help identify such gaps with respect to, for example, the recovery team organization, emergency contacts, activation procedures, tiering of applications, source-to-backup mapping, application dependencies, recovery of critical suppliers and return- home guidelines for reestablishing normal operation after the disaster. Specifically, it is important for testing to follow a structured project plan that comprehensively covers all DR functions.
Determining whether the backup, restoration and recovery strategies are implemented, managed and maintained in accordance with management’s directive is relatively black and white. Management is largely the provider’s responsibility, but the client retains certain management rights in, for example, the planning and execution of DR tests or the execution of audits. For an enterprise, a disaster means abrupt disruption of all or part of its business operations, which may directly result in revenue loss.
Effects of disasters range from small interruptions to total business shutdown for days or months, even fatal damage to the business. Recovery from this type of failure may be lengthy and expensive due to the need to replace or update software and equipment and retrain personnel. The entities with less downtime tolerance limit should be assigned higher priorities for recovery. Depending on the data system, there may be options of autorecovery or manual recovery, and the cost and recovery time factors of each mechanism vary. It should have trusted information sources in the different agencies to forestall false alarms or overreactions to hoaxes.
Procedures should contain the process to alert recovery personnel during business and nonbusiness hours.
Examples include the use of emergency notification procedures for disseminating preparedness information, the use of a management- by- objective approach when planning preparedness tasks, and using tightly managed meetings with detailed agendas.
The critical task in preparedness planning is to define the system (how assets are organized) and processes (actions and interactions that must occur) that will guide emergency response and recovery. To ensure and improve the quality of these capabilities, it is common to conduct disaster recovery (DR) assessments. The DR vision, objectives and budget are accordingly derived based on how important the availability and recovery of IT systems are to the business. As awareness of the need for disaster preparedness grows among Japan's leading corporations, an increasing number of companies are creating business continuity plans. Main ContentIn the past, the HCO EOP was commonly (and inaccurately) referred to as the disaster plan. The organizing body must have the ability to manage ongoing EMP activities and, during response, to perform incident management processes, such as incident action planning and disseminating information to its participants. Hospital staff and other healthcare personnel might equate emergency management activities to a hospital's Disaster Committee (hence the recommended name change to Emergency Management Committee).

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