The earliest fire-making method consisted of twirling a pointed stick in a wooden block, creating an ember to light tinder. The boreal forests in the north of Canada, Russia and other countries that ring the Arctic burn every summer after lightning strikes their towering trees, releasing tons of carbon dioxide into the air as they turn to ash and charcoal in the flames. The two year anniversary of the Black Forest Fire is quickly approaching, and El Paso County is reminding people that important deadlines come with that anniversary. This will give the mountains scattered showers and thunderstorms today with some snow accumulations above 8000’.
In 2011, Richard Muller - perhaps the leading scientist who expressed doubts about global warming - told the House Science and Technology Committee that, contrary to what he expected, his comprehensive study shows unequivocally that the Earth is warming at an alarming rate. These emissions come mainly from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), with important contributions from the clearing of forests, agricultural practices, and other activities. Fuel is any flammable material surrounding a fire, including trees, grasses, brush, even homes.
In California wildfires are often made worse by the hot, dry Santa Ana winds, which can carry a spark for miles.Firefighters fight wildfires by depriving them of one or more of the fire triangle fundamentals.


They also act as a disinfectant, removing disease-ridden plants and harmful insects from a forest ecosystem.
And by burning through thick canopies and brushy undergrowth, wildfires allow sunlight to reach the forest floor, enabling a new generation of seedlings to grow. Yellowstone National Park forest fires of 1988 is nearly as visible today (2002) as in 1988.
The ecologists discovered this by leaving hundreds of bags containing either pure charcoal, or the natural leaf litter of the forest floor, or a mix of charcoal and leaf litter at three sites in Sweden for a decade.
In fact, some have proposed that the vast swathes of forest killed in recent years by the pine beetle in Alaska and western Canada should be turned into such biochar. Tip: To turn text into a link, highlight the text, then click on a page or file from the list above. Traditional methods include water dousing and spraying fire retardants to extinguish existing fires. Some experts have proposed using such charcoal, or biochar, as a way of offsetting the extra carbon dioxide emissions from a forest fire and dead trees.


Wardle says it's particularly important to see whether his findings apply to other ecosystems and types of charcoal.
Clearing vegetation to create firebreaks starves a fire of fuel and can help slow or contain it.
But Wardle warns that rather than serve as a carbon sink, trees turned to charcoal could end up releasing even more carbon dioxide from the forest floor. Firefighters also fight wildfires by deliberately starting fires in a process called controlled burning. These prescribed fires remove undergrowth, brush, and ground litter from a forest, depriving a wildfire of fuel.Although often harmful and destructive to humans, naturally occurring wildfires play an integral role in nature.



Planning for a disaster
Emergency response team organization chart


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