Hurricane Sandy, a late-season post-tropical cyclone, swept through the Caribbean and up the East Coast of the United States in late October 2012.
Seawater surged over Lower Manhattan's seawalls and highways and into low-lying streets. Sandy will end up causing about $20 billion in property damage and $10 billion to $30 billion more in lost business, making it one of the costliest natural disasters on record in the United States, according to IHS Global Insight, a forecasting firm.
At one point, Sandy's hurricane-force winds (at least 74 mph) extended up to 175 miles (280 kilometers) from its center and tropical storm-force winds (39 mph) out to 485 miles (780 km). Sandy's strength and angle of approach combined to produce a record storm surge of water into New York City.
Hurricanes generally form, travel and dissipate between the 10 and 30 degree marks north of the equator. Most of the damage is done by the incredibly strong and persistent winds, whipped up by the Coriolis Effect that causes the hurricane to spin but the extreme low pressure, sometimes down as low as 870mbar, causes a storm surge as the water under the hurricane rises to fill the void caused by the low pressure.
Hurricane Katrina may have been the most infamous hurricane of recent times, killing hundreds in its path but Hurricane Sandy is likely to supplant it in many people’s minds. If you’re planning a holiday in the Caribbean or along the eastern seaboard of the United States between June and November, you will need to be aware that this is the hurricane season. For over half a century, scientists have been able to predict where hurricanes will form and even have a good idea of their direction and travel time; plenty of information for people to evacuate danger zones or to work on protecting property. Hurricane Sandy may be a surprise and unwelcome visitor to New York but you can at least be reassured it won’t happen too often! The water inundated tunnels, subway stations and the electrical system that powers Wall Street and sent hospital patients and tourists scrambling for safety.

Even so, according to the NHC, Sandy was still only the second-largest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record. That’s roughly between the north coast of Venezuela and the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Walls of water, sometimes up to 25ft can form, especially in conjunction with strong tides, crashing into coastal towns and sweeping inland up to thirty miles. However, the most damage ever caused by a hurricane is attributed to an unnamed one that hit Miami in 1926 causing an estimated US$157bn of damage that crippled the Florida economy for the best part of the following decade. It’s exclusively between those dates as a hurricane needs very warm water to form and prior to June and after November, sea temperatures are too cool. It quickly developed, becoming a tropical depression and then a tropical storm in just six hours.
After leaving that island, the storm gained strength over open water and became a Category 2. Skyscrapers swayed and creaked in winds that partially toppled a crane 74 stories above Midtown. Hurricane Olga, another late-in-the-year storm, set the record in 2001, with tropical-force winds extending 600 miles (965 km). He gave brief non-political remarks and spent less than an hour collecting hurricane relief donations and loading them into a truck. Parts of four states seen as pivotal to this election were hit — North Carolina, Virginia, Ohio and New Hampshire. Records show that only 1 in 7 hurricanes ever break out of this range because of the Coriolis Effect caused by the earth’s rotation.

One person died in Canada, and at least 67 people were killed in the Caribbean, including 54 in Haiti.
A full moon made high tides 20 percent higher than normal and amplified Sandy's storm surge. He declared states of emergency in New York and New Jersey to allow federal aid to start flowing into damaged areas.
It’s estimated that only 1 in 100 make it as far north as Hurricane Sandy has and when they do, the remains can blow across the Atlantic towards the UK as happened in 1987 with devastating results. Streets were flooded, trees and power lines knocked down and the city's famed boardwalk was ripped apart. Most gas stations in New York City and New Jersey were closed because of power shortages and depleted fuel supplies. Along the Jersey shore, people were left stranded in their homes and waited for rescue teams in boats to rescue them. 27, then gained strength again to become a Category 1 hurricane before turning north toward the U.S.

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