Disaster response in America traditionally has been handled by State and local governments, with the Federal government playing a supporting role. The Founders created a constitutional framework in which each State, upon ratification of the Constitution, ceded some of its powers to the Federal government to create one united yet limited central government.2 The Constitution sets forth the specific and delegated powers that delineate Federal and State roles.
Accordingly, State and local governments assume the first and foremost line of defense against civil disturbance and threats to public safety.
Today, the centerpiece legislation for providing Federal aid in disaster relief, the Robert T. In a 21st Century world marked by catastrophic terrorism and natural disasters, the Federal government must build upon our foundation of disaster relief and prepare for the larger role we will be called upon to play in response to a catastrophic event.
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the Federal government realized that additional measures were needed to ensure effective coordination with State and local governments and took steps to alter how it responds to emergencies. In February 2003, the President issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5).
HSPD-5 further directed the heads of all Federal departments and agencies to adopt the NIMS, use it in their individual domestic incident management activities, participate in the NRP, and assist the Secretary of Homeland Security in its development and maintenance.26 The NIMS and the NRP were completed in 2004 and provide the foundation for how the Federal government organizes itself when responding to all disasters, including Hurricane Katrina. Unity of command: The concept by which each person within an organization reports to one and only one designated person. Unified command: An application of the Incident Command System used when there is more than one agency with incident jurisdiction or when incidents cross political jurisdictions. ICS requires that a command system be established from the onset of incident operations, thereby ensuring a unified command and the efficient coordination of multi-agency and multi-jurisdictional efforts.32 Recognizing that most incidents are managed locally, the command function under ICS is set up at the lowest level of the response, and grows to encompass other agencies and jurisdictions as they arrive. However, the specific triggers for the National Response Plan and its various components are unclear.
Most importantly, however, regardless of how an INS is defined or whether an INS must be formally declared by the Secretary or not, the NRP fails to articulate clearly which specific actions should be taken and what components should be utilized under the NRP as a result of an INS coming into effect.
When applied together, the components of the NRP should provide for a unified command structure to serve as the local, multi-agency coordination center for the effective and efficient coordination of Federal, State, local, tribal, nongovernmental, and private-sector organizations with primary responsibility for incident-related prevention, response and recovery actions.51 In many cases, this takes place at a Joint Field Office (JFO). President Carter created FEMA through a 1978 reorganization plan that merged several elements of the Federal response into one agency.60 In 2003, FEMA became a component of the newly created Department of Homeland Security. The operational teams that FEMA is responsible for administering, such as the Urban Search and Rescue (US&R) teams, are State and local first responders from around the country that volunteer to be activated, deployed, and reimbursed by FEMA for their help during response activities. Under the Stafford Act, requests for major disaster declarations must be made by the Governor of the affected State.
The system for providing Stafford Act assistance, set forth in the NRP and FEMA regulations, reflects the American system of federalism, allocating roles and responsibilities between levels of government by utilizing a layered system that requires local governments to first request assistance from their State. Traditionally, it is only after local, State, and mutual assistance resources are depleted, or prove insufficient, that the Federal government is requested to help. After a Stafford Act declaration, FEMA, on behalf of the Federal government, receives State requests for assistance and fulfills them by tasking other Federal departments or agencies with the appropriate expertise or resources to meet the specific needs. However, in some instances the State and local governments will be overwhelmed beyond their ability to satisfy their traditional roles in this system. During the development of the NRP, such a catastrophic scenario was considered and planning for such an eventuality began. Because it was recognized that a proactive Federal response can create strains on Federal resources and presents practical challenges for Federal responders not familiar with the terrain or infrastructure in a disaster area, the NRP Catastrophic Incident Annex required that a “more detailed and operationally specific NRP Catastrophic Incident Supplement .
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) is considered to be the most powerful institute in the United States, it has more power than the President of the USA or the Congress, it has the power to turn the United States into a police state in time of a real crisis or a manufactured crisis. Executive Order Number 12656 appointed the National Security Council as the principal body that should consider emergency powers.
During an emergency crisis there are a number of executive orders that would suspend the Constitution and the Bill of Rights and gives FEMA complete control over the United States. There have been documented over 60 secret underground virtual cities, built by the government, Federal Reserve Bank owners, and high ranking members of the Committee of 300. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) obligated $12.7 billion from the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) for its administrative costs from fiscal years 2004 through 2013 and has taken some steps to reduce and better control these costs.
FEMA leads federal efforts to respond to and recover from disasters, and provides grants to states and localities through the DRF. This report addresses the extent to which DRF funds were obligated to cover (1) FEMA's administrative costs for major disasters during fiscal years 2004 through 2013, and the steps FEMA has taken to control these costs, and (2) Grantee and subgrantee administrative costs for PA grants, and the impact FEMA's 2007 policy changes had on PA program administrative costs reimbursements.
GAO recommends that FEMA (1) develop an integrated plan to better control and reduce its administrative costs for major disasters, (2) assess the costs versus the benefits of tracking FEMA administrative costs by DRF program, and (3) clarify the agency's guidance and minimum documentation requirements for direct administrative costs.


Recommendation: To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of processes related to administrative costs for major disasters, the FEMA Administrator should develop an integrated plan to better control and reduce FEMA's administrative costs for major disasters. Comments: As of August 2015, FEMA continues to assess the costs versus the benefits of tracking administrative costs by program. Recommendation: To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of processes related to administrative costs for major disasters, the FEMA Administrator should assess the costs versus the benefits of tracking FEMA's administrative cost data for major disasters by Public Assistance, Individual Assistance, Hazard Mitigation, and Mission Assignment, and if feasible, track this information.
Recommendation: To increase the efficiency and effectiveness of processes related to administrative costs for major disasters, the FEMA Administrator should clarify the agency's guidance and minimum documentation requirements for direct administrative costs claims by grantees and subgrantees of the Public Assistance program.
Limits on the Federal government’s role in disaster response are deeply rooted in American tradition.
The Federal government guarantees its assistance to protect the States in their existence as representative republican governments from the external threat of invasion or attack, and against internal subversion or rebellion.6 Federal laws reinforce the concept that the Federal government should respect State sovereignty. In 1905, Congress chartered the American Red Cross as a charitable organization to provide disaster relief support during crises.
The ICS was developed and refined over many years by incident commanders at the Federal, State, and local levels and was being successfully implemented throughout the country prior to being included in the NIMS.29 The ICS provides a means to coordinate the efforts of individual responders and agencies as they respond to and help manage an incident.
The purpose of unity of command is to ensure unity of effort under one responsible commander for every objective. Consistent with the traditions and customs that have developed under American federalism, the NRP is built on the premise that incidents are generally handled at the lowest jurisdictional level possible.36 Local authorities provide the initial response capabilities to every incident, including man-made and natural disasters, and when overwhelmed, request assistance from neighboring jurisdictions. It is a small organization that primarily manages the operational response, relief, and recovery efforts of the rest of the Federal government. Additionally, each office can draw upon civilian reservist personnel to support the response when a Presidential major disaster or emergency declaration is issued.64 When State governments request Federal assistance, FEMA deploys personnel to the appropriate regional office and the incident area.
States, in turn, must use their own resources, if available, before requesting Federal assistance. Indeed, in some instances, State and local governments and responders may become victims themselves, prohibiting their ability to identify, request, receive, or deliver assistance.
When the affected State’s incident response capability is incapacitated and the situation has reached catastrophic proportions, the Federal government alone has the resources and capabilities to respond, restore order, and begin the process of recovery. A Presidential Executive Order, whether Constitutional or not, becomes law simply by its publication in the Federal Registry. FEMA's 2007 rule was intended to simplify and clarify the method FEMA uses to reimburse grantees and subgrantees for certain costs incurred for administering PA grants. For each major disaster, funds can be obligated from the DRF to cover administrative costs—the costs of providing and managing disaster assistance—for FEMA, states, tribes, localities, and certain nonprofits, among others.
According to FEMA officials, the Disaster Administrative Cost Integrated Project Team has been working over the past several months to analyze FEMA's historic administrative costs, identify cost drivers, document and evaluate the delivery of disaster assistance, set cost targets by disaster, and establish an improved framework to standardize the way FEMA does business.
The pilot applies a fixed percentage administrative allowance to reduce the administrative burden of the current DAC process.
When incidents are of such a magnitude that these resources are overwhelmed, resources are requested from the State, which draws on its own internal emergency response capabilities or requests assistance from neighboring States through mutual-aid agreements. First, it is unclear whether satisfaction of one or more of the stated criteria is sufficient for an INS to exist, or whether additional considerations must apply. An ESF is staffed by specialists from multiple Federal departments, agencies, and the private sector. Under the current Catastrophic Incident Annex, however, the general operating presumption is that Federal pre-deployed resources remain at staging areas until requested by the State and local incident command authorities.
This is a responsibility that must be more explicitly acknowledged and planned for in the NRP, and we must resource, train, and equip to meet this obligation when such a contingency arises.
It also provides that when a state of emergency is declared by the President, Congress cannot review the action for six months.
In addition, there exist underground Satellite Tracking Facilities which have the ability to punch your address into the computer and a satellite can within seconds bring a camera to bear on your property to the point that those monitoring can read clearly the articles of the newspaper on your doorstep.
FEMA's average administrative cost percentages for major disasters during the 10 fiscal years 2004 to 2013 doubled the average during the 10 fiscal years 1989 to 1998.
However, according to FEMA, the 2007 rule led to an unexpectedly high rate of claims for direct administrative costs. FEMA has identified some, but not yet all of the data which needs to be integrated in order to be able to track administrative costs by program area.
According to FEMA, if successful, results from this program could inform the development of additional guidance or regulatory modification and similar approaches could be applied in future disasters.


The Federal government’s supporting role respects these practical points and the sovereignty of the States as well as the power of governors to direct activities and coordinate efforts within their States. The National Response Plan requires senior officials from multiple levels of government to come together at a single location to establish a common set of objectives and a single incident plan. Second, the NRP is unclear as to whether the Secretary must formally declare an INS or, alternatively, whether an INS is triggered automatically when one or more of these criteria are satisfied, including when the President declares a disaster or emergency under the Stafford Act. The purpose of the ESFs is to integrate skills and capabilities that reside in disparate organizations to coordinate support to State and local response agencies, including both physical resources and staff. Instead, pursuant to the NRP structure, FEMA tasks the Departments of Health and Human Services, Defense, and Transportation, as well as the American Red Cross, to perform these operations. For example, the State of Louisiana Emergency Operations Plan states that “[t]he initial actions .
In many cases, the Federal government will satisfy a State request by providing commodities or assets to the State.
It is also important that we work with State and local governments to ensure they are better prepared to respond immediately, until Federal resources can arrive. People can be moved from their homes and have their property seized, including farms and businesses. FEMA recognized that administrative costs have increased and has taken steps intended to better control and reduce these costs, such as setting a goal in its recent strategic plan to lower these costs, and creating administrative cost targets. Grantee, subgrantee, and FEMA officials told GAO that FEMA policies and guidance do not adequately specify the requirements for determining reasonableness, eligibility, and supporting documentation to support reimbursement of direct administrative costs. The first data which needs to be connected to FEMA's financial data will come from the Deployment Tracking System (DTS). While we remain faithful to basic constitutional doctrine and time tested principles, we must likewise accept that events such as Hurricane Katrina and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, require us to tailor the application of these principles to the threats we confront in the 21st Century. The ESFs are structured so that resources and capabilities that are required to assist State and local officials in response and recovery operations can be handled by the appropriate Federal agency.
In so doing, the Federal government is helping the State meet the needs of their local governments and first responders, as well as various operational components of the State. On August 29, at the time Hurricane Katrina hammered into the Gulf Coast, the draft CIS had not been finalized and promulgated. Their children can be taken away from them and FEMA has the power to take over all communications, food and energy sources, health care, finance, education, welfare and transportation including your personal vehicles. However, FEMA does not require these targets be met, and GAO found that had FEMA met its targets, administrative costs could have been reduced by hundreds of millions of dollars.
Clarifying the agency's guidance and minimum documentation requirements would help grantees and subgrantees submit, and FEMA review requests for administrative costs reimbursement.
FEMA has a contract in place to connect data from DTS to the Enterprise Data Warehouse, which will allow that information to be imported into the Automated Common Operating Picture (COP).
This information will be incorporated into the Public Assistance unified guidance document that is scheduled to be issued in January 2016.
The organization exists primarily to coordinate other Federal agencies and departments during emergency response and recovery—acting as an honest broker between departments and agencies, providing a command structure, and serving as the single point of entry for State and local officials into the Federal government.
The Federal government does not always directly deliver its assistance to local governments or others in need. It was also given the duty of being a federal co-ordinating body during times of nationwide emergencies, such as floods, hurricanes and earthquakes.FEMA has only spent about 6% of its budget on national disasters, most of their funding has been used for building secret underground facilities to assure continuity of government in case of a major disaster, domestic or foreign. FEMA reports that it is in the process of identifying the remaining data that needs to be connected and the costs associated with connecting that data. The State’s role has been compared to retail sales in terms of organization, delivery, and management. It is also FEMA that controls the network of concentration camps, or ‘detention centers,’ in the United States that are in place and waiting for the dissidents and ‘troublemakers’ when the Illuminati fascist takeover is complete.
Yes, concentration camps in America."Not only is it the most powerful entity in the United States, but it was not even created under Constitutional law by the Congress.
In addition, GAO found that FEMA does not track administrative costs by major disaster program, such as Individual or Public Assistance, and has not assessed the costs versus the benefits of tracking such information.




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