Evaluating site-specific modifications to default approaches, scenarios and parameters for risk assessmentAn organized process used to describe and estimate the likelihood of adverse health outcomes from environmental exposures to chemicals. Key issues for using human health risk assessment to support risk management decisions about site cleanup are highlighted throughout this document. The four steps are hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization (Commission 1997a). Uncertainty may be reduced by collection of additional data., and ecological risk assessment. The study further noted that some screening values are not risk based, but rather are based on other criteria such as background concentrations, laboratory detection limits, nuisance issues, historical values, or technology limits. The study found that differences in sampling requirements, treatment of background concentrations, application of tiered approaches, site characterization requirements, and data interpretation and use all contributed to variability in the outcome of risk assessments and related decisions.
Fire Risk Assessment Process4 Risk Assessment Objectives, Metrics and Thresholds Some of the most important steps in the FRA process are identifying the objectives of the risk assessment, the measure(s) that will be used to express risk, and how the risk measures will be presented or communicated for decision making purposes. The toxicity value incorporates the findings of the hazard and dose-response assessments with safety factors to address uncertainties.
Exposure assessment includes the following activities (see Figure 1-3):Characterizing exposure setting. The SFPE Fire Risk Assessment Guide does not specify particular risk assessment methods or techniques. However, it highlights A recommended process for fire risk assessment (Figure 1) Tools that may be used for hazard identification Sources of data for risk assessment Approaches to consequence modeling Methods for calculating fire risk Documentation of fire risk assessment The SFPE Guide is structured to follow the flowchart represented in Figure 1, providing guidance and information association with each step in the process. This guidance document is directed at those responsible for approving or evaluating fire and life safety solutions based on a fire risk assessment. NFPA 551 Review Process (Reprinted with permission from NFPA 551-2013, Guide for the Evaluation of Fire Risk Assessments, Copyright © 2013, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA. In ISO 16732-1, principles underlying the quantification of risk are presented in terms of the steps to be taken in conducting a fire risk assessment. As described by ISO 16732-1, risk management includes risk assessment, but also typically includes risk treatment, risk acceptance, and risk communication (see Figure 4). This book was authored by an expert in the field who has developed models for fire risk assessment. Risk Analysis in Building Fire Safety Engineering, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, England, 2007.
The use of risk management decision-making is an essential part of the Fish Habitat Management System. The System is modeled on a national Risk Management Framework developed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. The Risk Management Framework has two main components: the Pathway of Effects and the Fish Habitat Risk Assessment Matrix. If there are still negative effects that can't be entirely eliminated, they must be assessed using the second component mentioned above, the Fish Habitat Risk Assessment Matrix. Two ITRC studies (ITRC 2005; ITRC 2008) examined state site cleanup programs that incorporated risk assessment, the differences in these programs, and the effect of the differences on site cleanup decisions.

This document is intended for state, local, and federal project managers and others producing, reviewing, or relying on risk assessments to support decisions regarding site cleanup. These individuals must have sufficient background in and knowledge of the various default scenarios, input parameters, calculation processes, and alternatives in order to make informed decisions about site-specific risk assessments and site cleanup.
Risk assessment is interconnected with risk communication (see Section 1.4) and other components within the interactive process for risk management decision making. While this document is written for a broad audience of stakeholders with varying knowledge of risk assessment, it is assumed that readers are generally familiar with the risk assessment process. While many regulatory agencies responsible for the cleanup of chemicals released to the environment have adopted regulations, guidance and policies that define default approaches, scenarios and parameters as a starting point for risk assessment, project managers and decision makers are often faced with difficult technical issues when evaluating site-specific risk assessments. This document provides resources for project managers and decision makers to use when evaluating site-specific approaches, scenarios and parameters for risk assessment. One way to determine whether such a potential exists is by undertaking a fire risk assessment of the building or facility. Characterizing the population and their risk thresholds is important as it will help drive scenarios of consideration and risk estimation and evaluation later in the process. One might also choose fire-per-building type, risk of untenable conditions, or some other metric.
This information is used to estimate potential risks for receptors and subsequent risk management decisions.
This process begins during the planning stage of the risk assessment with the development of the CSM.Identifying exposure pathways.
This information is supported with many references and a comprehensive list of information sources for further reading for each step of the risk assessment process. It provides a framework that describes the properties of a fire risk assessment, particularly where it is being used in a performance-based regulatory framework.
This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject, which is represented only by the guide in its entirety.) NFPA 551 defines five categories of fire risk assessment methods in order of increasing complexity, namely Qualitative methods Semi-qualitative criteria-based methods Semi-qualitative consequence methods Quantitative methods Cost-benefit risk methods It highlights the importance of identifying the objectives of any fire risk assessment and other factors that should be considered by those undertaking fire risk assessments. These quantification steps are initially placed in the context of the overall management of fire risk and then explained within the context of fire safety engineering.
As another indicator of the growing interest in fire risk assessment, and the desire for information relative to tools and techniques for fire risk assessment, a number of textbooks have been published in the last decade. Principles of Fire Risk Assessment in Buildings, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England, 2008. Human health risk assessment is the process of characterizing the nature and magnitude of health risks (for example, cancer, birth defects, or liver disease) to humans from chemicals and other stressors that may be present in the environment (USEPA 2012c).
This document provides project managers and others producing, reviewing, or relying on risk assessments with guidance to support consistent and effective site-specific risk assessment decisions for the cleanup of chemical contaminated sites. This interconnected and iterative process, along with a typical framework for risk assessment, is shown in Figure 1-1.
In some cases, FRA may be extended to assessment of options to mitigate the risk (either through reducing the likelihood of occurrence or magnitude of consequences), although this is also part of the risk management process.
What one chooses to address can influence the assessment, and whether or not all scenarios of concern are selected will depend on the focus.

As a result, this guide is suited to a building or fire official or other authority having jurisdiction required to evaluate or approve a building design where the design is being supported by a fire risk assessment. 11, 2001, the text Extreme Event Mitigation in Buildings: Analysis and Design17 was published to provide a resource for understanding and assessing building performance under extreme events.
While many guidance documents and training programs related to risk assessment are available, project managers still face challenges when making decisions that involve site-specific risk assessment conclusions. This process also begins during the planning stage of the risk assessment with the development of the CSM.Quantifying exposure. Qualitative approaches treat both frequencies and consequences qualitatively, and include methods such as risk matrices and risk indices. Like the SFPE Engineering Guide: Fire Risk Assessment, NFPA 551 neither specifies particular fire risk assessment methods nor attempts to set acceptance criteria. While not focused solely on fire, the text provides information on assessing likelihood of occurrence, potential impacts, and strategies for mitigation for a wide range of extreme events – natural, technological, and deliberate, while aiming to achieve a balance of acceptable levels of risk, performance, and cost.
This chapter provides an overview of the risk assessment process and touches on risk managementThe process of identifying, evaluating, selecting, and implementing actions to reduce risk to human health and to ecosystems. Risk assessment is an integral component of risk management (see Section 1.2) that provides a scientific and defensible rationale to support decisions for the protection of human health and the environment.
Dose-response assessment is the process of quantifying the relationship between the degree of exposure to the chemical and incidence or severity of adverse human health effects (USEPA 1989a). The NFPA Fire Safety Evaluation System,8 the risk matrix approach in MIL-STD-882D,9 and the risk binning approach outlined in DOE-STD-300910 are examples of this. The final document, Part 7, provides guidance for the probabilistic risk assessment of buildings.14 The document provides a framework for risk assessment commensurate with a number of approaches. The text outlines how risk-informed performance-based analyses can be used to help make important risk mitigation decisions. Specifically, the document provides guidance with regard to acceptance criteria for life safety and financial assessments, which may use either comparative or absolute methodologies. Consequence Ranking, Frequency Ranking and Risk Matrix11 Semi-quantitative approches combine quantitative and qualitative aspects.
Event trees are developed for a scenario, with frequencies and consequences described, and the risk then estimated. Rather, they are directed at assisting practitioners in selecting the appropriate methodology for any given building and ensuring that the process of risk assessment and approval is undertaken in a proper engineering manner. The document provides guidance on the selection and use of risk assessment techniques and provides a recommended process to follow.

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