If cheap loud and long sparks are your aim, a Marx generator delivers them with excellent simplicity. Marx generators are mainly used to simulate the effect of lightning on technical high voltage components. With a uni-polar output voltage, the Marx generator has generally as many spark gaps as it has stage capacitors. Preferably, the input windings of the two pulse transformers are connected electrically in series and are connected to a common pulse generator. The pulse generator or generators can be differently controlled, either electrically or via an optical signal transmission.
To increase the reliability, the winding direction of the input winding for the pulse transformer is such that the voltage induced in the input winding as a result of the increase of the discharge current of the Marx generator is oriented opposite to the voltage induced by the output winding in accordance with the principle of the transformer. As in Marx generators triggered by conventional methods, the static breakdown voltage of the spark gaps is set to about 5 10% above the charge voltage of the individual stages. What I think is happening is the transient is changing the ground reference in the form of random induced voltage pulses.
4- If you have an oscilloscope, try to see the pulse that is applied to the pin 2 during the transient. The wooden spark gap holder is attached to the side of the pulse capacitor using some two-part epoxy putty. This relatively low resistance of 8KOhm allowed for rapid charging and low voltage drop due to corona and other leakage currents, but also caused the output voltage pulse to decay with a time constant of around 30us. Such a pulse transformer is switched into at least one of the charging branches of the Marx generator which, together with the associated stage capacitor bridges a spark gap--except for the spark gap at the output side of the Marx generator. For repetitive operation, it has been found suitable to place a charging winding into the charging branches and complete at least one of these charging coils to the pulse transformer.
As a result, a Marx generator for an industrial application may be built which has a long-term constant operating behavior.
The use of semiconductors usually requires special circuit precautions and shielding from the EMP generated by most of the discharges.
To trigger repetitively operated Marx generators spark gaps are attempted to be operated in accordance with the principles mentioned with regard to minimum wear (see [1]) or to make the triggering operationally secure by optimized trigger generators (see [2]). If each pulse transformer has its own pulse generator then the construction components pulse transformer--pulse generator, are as far as isolation is concerned, equal at each stage. In this connection, for example, the grounded charging winding L1 also comprises the pulse transformer.
Since there is no current in either of the two branches up to the breakdown of the spark gap FS1--except for the small charging current of the stray capacities--the voltage across the spark gap FS1 is not reduced like in the first case by the inductive voltage drop at the stray inductivity of the pulse transformer L1. Thus the operation takes a DC voltage and steps it up by a factor roughly equivalent to the number of capacitors and 'sub-gaps' that act as switches to connect the capacitor sections together producing a pulsed output of extremely high voltage, energy and short time frame. A large charging resistor is recommended, however, as it protects the DC source and makes the generator controllable by slowing down the repetition rate. A disadvantage of this circuit variant however resides in the higher insulation expenditures for the pulse transformer L2, which must be additionally insulated for the stage voltage. Even though this equates out to a destructive event the current rise is not as fast as the man made impulse generator.
I could push this generator to give over 3 to 4 inch arcs, but then the resistors start arcing and the leads on the capacitors sometimes arced - so I brought the arc distance back to 2.5 inches and it performed well without problems. The trigger unit consisting of the voltage supply, the pulse generator and the transformer can then simply be integrated into any stage of the Marx generator. This measurement was taken outside the Marx generator during testing of the trigger circuit. An EMP (or Electromagnetic Pulse) has the power to knock out all electronic devices within its range.
An EMP (or Electro-Magnetic Pulse) has the power to knock out all electronic devices within its range. Unlike Cockcroft-Walton multipliers, the Marx Generator needs no diodes, and only uses one cap per stage. How It Works : Marx generators are basically very simple in theory, a stack of capacitors is charged in a parallel configuration to a voltage "E" and then discharged in series with a voltage of "nE" where "n" in the number of capacitors charged. Marx generators which can be triggered in a controlled manner either have three-electrode spark gaps or spark gaps with a trigger pin similar to a spark plug, known also as Trigatron Principle.

In a more complicated arrangement, each input winding is connected to its own pulse generator. The pulse generator and the input winding or windings connected thereto may be different in design. The trigger arrangement for a multi-stage Marx generator with at least one self-triggered spark gap will be described in greater detail below on the basis of the accompanying drawings. The numbers given in these exemplary embodiments are based on an actual embodiment of a Marx generator triggered in the manner as described.
As the pulse is so short, all the gaps must fire at exactly the same moment - but this is automatically assured: as soon as G1 fires, G2 sees twice the charging voltage, making it fire quickly, and so on with the rest of the gaps.
Another trigger method resides in the voltage inversion principle of the LC-Marx generator.
In the latter case, at least the pulse transformers all have the same isolation arrangement.
The Marx generator shown herein is designed for the repetitive operation and is therefore equipped with the charging coils L1 to L4, which switch the capacitors C1 to C3 in parallel for the charging process (see FIGS.
The system is triggered manually or by a +5 volt level that generates a high voltage pulse to a third trigger electrode of the bottom spark switch. In order to keep the electrical insulation expenses as low as possible or within limits at least at the ground-side charge branch such a charging coil which has been changed or expanded to an pulse transformer is placed.
To this end, the trigger pulse is supplied at the same time to both branches via a suitable primary side series or parallel circuit (claim 4 or 5) and with the same polarity in both branches.
On the other hand, with a small source impedance of the trigger pulse generator, the stray inductivity of L1 cannot be arbitrarily reduced, because otherwise, after firing of the Marx generator, an increased current would flow through L1 and the trigger pulse generator connected thereto. Note that connecting the Marx Generator ground to the electrical wiring ground is a potential fire hazard as well as a deadly electrical hazard. With a charging voltage U at each of the stage capacitors at the output of the Marx generator, a voltage pulse with a peak value of n*U is obtained at breakdown. Also be mindful young padawan, that the entire Marx Generator unit is then floating, and that there is NO SAFE PLACE that you can touch it when it is operating.
Since there are 10 capacitor sections, our ultimate voltage amplification should be a pulse of about 140KV.
Also, several triggers may be installed in a simple manner in order to bring the triggering behavior of the generator into a narrower time window, particularly with a relatively large number of stages.
Schematic 4-stage Marx generator and actual realization, photographed in the moment of discharge.
It is the object of the present invention to trigger Marx generators with little wear by an over-voltage breakdown of one or more spark gaps at predetermined points in time particularly with regard to repetitive operations. As voltage source, for example a capacitor with a switch or, for large power output, a Marx generator which is small in comparison to the Marx generator to be operated may be used. As primary or input winding of the pulse transformer L1, a winding comprising only a few turns is used.
The Marx Generator is a nifty way to charge up capacitors in parallel, and discharging them in series. The ladder-like construction is the actual generator, the caps are mounted horizontally on the grey PVC tube.
With a primary pulse voltage of a suitable level which in this case is for example 6 kV, the Marx generator is triggered reproducibly below the static trigger voltage. The achievable spark length was thus limited by the short duration of the pulse to around 30cm.
The HV generator consists of a 555 timer oscillator that drives a HV transistor, which drives a small modern TV flyback capable of providing about 12kV to 20kV. I am cautious about over-stressing these caps, they don't really look like they were built for pulse service. The voltage generated by this transformer is added to the charge voltage of the capacitor of the first stage, and, with a suitable polarity, generates the excess voltage at the spark gap FS1 of this stage.
Below is a picture of the updated marx generator in operation (FYI: it fired twice while the camera's shutter was open). 1, a voltage pulse with an amplitude of for example about 6 kV is applied to the charging winding which includes a pulse transformer for triggering at the input winding. The Marx generator can be constructed in two ways depending on its intended use for repetitive operation or single shot operation.

In order to need the lowest possible power for the triggering, it is expedient if the charging coil L2 is expanded to form also an pulse transformer (see FIG. Note also that the ground used on the generator is strictly a 'local' ground, and that it IS NOT in any way attached to the electrical ground from the wall outlet. The inductive voltage divider formed thereby comprising the charge winding L2 and the stray inductivity of the pulse transformer L1 with a negligibly large capacity of the stage capacitor C2 reduces the voltage across the spark gap with respect to idle operation. Grounding the marx generator seperately and decoupling the charging voltage ground with a resistor helps somewhat. The Marx generator, however, is a clever way of doing this switching automatically, via spark gaps. In another embodiment for providing energy from an electric power source, a current pulse is applied which drops within for example about 300 nsec from for example 120 A to 0A and which generates at the output winding of the pulse transformer, the charging winding, a voltage pulse which increases up to the breakdown of the spark gap. One pop of an EMP generator, and that car next to you—you know the one, with the bass pumping so loud it makes your bones rattle—goes silent.
If the Marx generator is charged by way of a charge resistor, at least into one charging branch an pulse transformer is switched. The increased insulation expenditure can be avoided if the charging current of the Marx generator is utilized for the energization of the trigger unit. To this end, during the charging, the energy for at least the next trigger pulse is stored in a suitable energy storage device, preferably a capacitor.
Flash x-rays and the simulating of electro magnetic pulse (EMP) from nuclear detonations are possible using this device. This may turn out to be a major problem, as the marx generator naturally produces a huge voltage step with a risetime probably in the microsecond range, and the subsequent discharge produces a similarly steep current pulse which might be kA or more. In a Marx generator all spark gaps except for the output spark gap are bridged twice by a charging branch and an associated stage capacitor. Well, I'm not so professional with this of electromagnetic fields generating out of nowhere and making circuits go crazy, jejeje.
In principle, the novel triggering method may also be used in connection with Marx generators with stage voltages of a few up to several 100 kV and particularly also with a higher stage number. As a result, there are altogether 2(n-1) charging branches associated with an n-stage Marx generator. The "quick and dirty" marx generator shown above has been rebuilt in a neat manner on a small wooden platform and now runs off a compact high voltage generator. The input winding or primary winding of the pulse transformer is connected to the output of the pulse generator. Check that the grounding globe is positioned within 4 inches maximum of the generator output.
In the latter case, a choke coil (with core or core-less) is arranged in the charging branch in series with the output winding at the pulse transformer for limiting the current. Oh well, back to the drawing board—which is where we come in: we'll show you how to build a small EMP generator for fun. Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit You can use shielded wire to the push-button (shield connected to your circuit GND), or you can use a ferrite bead on the fan power leads - the first sugesstion is the most likely to work. Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit You can also put a capacitor across the other end of the wires from the push button. Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit The suggestion to shield the wires is good, but don't forget that you have to shield the cable on both ends (inside and outside the bathroom) otherwise you won't have any effect. Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit Place A Low Pass Filter on the input of your circuit with some debouncing circuit.
Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit Your last posts made a bit clear the situation. Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit First of all I think the induction is coming through the ground because this is the only electrical connection between the alarm box and the noisy environment. Electromagnetic pulse turns ON my circuit When you have a chance just try to diconnect the wire that is tied to the ground of the box and try to provoke the interference.

Fema answers quizlet
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