Author: admin | at 29.05.2015 | Categories: Emergency Management Courses
Electricity is a form of energy, associated with electric charge and atomic particles such as electrons and protons.
Electromagnetism or electromagnetic force is a science of charge and of the forces and fields associated with charge. To understand the relation between the electricity and magnetism, we will discuss that how electromotive force gets induced due to the change in magnetic flux.
Mathematically,$\epsilon \propto$ $\frac {d\phi}{dt}$= $(\frac{\phi_{2}-\phi_{1}}{t})$ Where,$\frac {d\phi}{dt}$ is the rate of change in magnetic flux. This is the most important formula which states the relation between electricity and magnetism.
Magnetism is a property associated with the materials which respond to the applied magnetic field. Antiferromagnetic materials spontaneously align themselves at relatively low temperatures into opposite, or antiparallel, arrangements throughout the material so that it exhibits almost no gross external magnetism. When the conductor is exposed to the changing magnetic field, the changing magnetic field can cause the circulating flow of the electrons or the circulating flow of the current, which flow within the body of the conductor. In 1831, the famous scientist Faraday discovered that whenever the number of magnetic lines of force or magnetic flux passing through the circuit changes, an emf is produced. The motion of the magnet in either direction causes a change in strength of the magnetic field linked with the coil and this causes a current to be induced in the coil. It is evident from Faraday's law that whenever there is a change in the magnetic flux passing through a closed circuit, an electric current is induced in the circuit. Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object or a metal by electromagnetic induction, where eddy currents are generated within the metal and resistance leads to Joule heating of the metal. Magnetic force is the same as gravitational and electrical forces in that no one knows truly what it is. The existence of a magnetic field is a necessary consequence of the laws of electrostatics, and the principles of special relativity. The classical development of magnetics started when Oersted deflected a compass needle with a electric current carrying wire. Because it is very easy to move charges through an wire, most all knowledge about magnetics comes from the study of a current through a wire. In the early development of magnetic theory, bar magnetics were used to provide a fixed magnetic source. Till recently, moving electric fields outside wires, which corresponds to a constant net electric field with respect to an observer has not occurred. In a circular wire conducting a current, the magnetic field created is about the wire in circular form. In relating force to magnetic fields and currents in a length of wire L, within a uniform magnetic field B, carrying a current of density J, moving from left to right can be used.
For a conductor of any shape making any angle with the magnetic field, the force is a product of q times the vector product v cross B. Since magnetics is a vectored quantity and its field and force are perpendicular to charge motion, a rule of hand is in order to visualize what is happening.
The terms of the magnetic moment are the same as gyroscopic moment and electro dipole moment. Suppose there is a conductor of length l, in a magnetic field B, perpendicular to the length of the conductor. This equates to an electromotive force which is equal to the rate of change of flux across the area bounded by the system in the opposite direction. If two conductors were connected at the ends such that loops were formed, one end of a loop in a magnetic field, and the other loop out of the field, then the resultant electric field equals the electric field due to a electrostatic field, plus the electric field due to the nonelectrostatic field. Over simplified, mutual induction is the source magnetic field affecting an adjacent material. From these Michael Faraday (1791-1867), a English chemist and physicist deduced: the line integral of an induced electric field around a closed path, or the electromotive force e in the path, equals the time rate of change of magnetic flux across the area bounded by the path. Suppose there were a disk of a conductor with a radius R rotating at an uniformed velocity w about an axis which is perpendicular to a magnetic disk. An interesting experiment with the disk shows eddy currents are set up which affect the force and torque on the disk. The terms inductance and magnetic power were developed primarily for current carrying wires, however, they are close to the characteristics of any components associated with magnetics. An interesting note here, is that current can not be cut off instantly, because this would create an infinite counter electromagnetic force. In the development of electrical systems, it became important to increase mutual inductance, and decrease losses. To improve the transformer requires a grater degree of mutual inductance, which is dependent upon the magnetic field.
To define the nature of material we can introduce a magnetic field in, the term magnetic susceptibility Ms was developed and is the ratio of magnetization to intensity.
Possibly over simplified, diamagnetic material opposes the development and paramagnetic material helps the development of a magnetic field. The truth of the matter is that these magnetic material differences is not well understood. There is also an effect which allows a material to keep the magnetic field when the inducing magnetic field has been removed. For the Earth's core there is no hysteresis because of the liquid and high temperature but, the material is still highly susceptible to magnetization from a moving electric field. One complete chapter in the Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell by Faraday was dedicated to the magnetics of a sphere within a magnetic field.
This rendition of the affects of a conducting sphere revolving in a magnetic field is rather short. The axis along y is such that the magnetic field tends to turn back to the axis of x by electric tension. The force - work relationship for a conducting sphere spinning in magnetic field is in part what the Earth is doing. The last things which should be noted are the affects of angular velocity and the material's magnetic resistance.
The fundamental particle electrons and protons carry negative and positive charges which are the reason for electricity. When electricity and magnetism are studied together, the effect of changing magnetic field is very important.
Faraday and Henry performed lots of experiments to learn about the connection between electricity and magnetism.
It means that whenever a current was induced in the coil there is a relative motion between the coil and the magnet.
They normally travel parallel to the coil's winding and the flow is limited to the area of the inducing magnetic field. Induction heating works on the principle on production of induced electric current within a magnetic field. Thus, it became believed, all so called magnetic phenomena result from forces between electric charges in motion. However, with the advent of nuclear reactions, it is possible to observe an expanding electric field from a point origin.
The magnetic moment is a term given to the torque applied to a loop carrying a current in a magnetic field. The magnetic intensity at any point is connected with the quantity of magnetic induction by a set of equations called equations of conduction.
Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in the year 1831 independently proved that electromotive force gets induced in a closed circuit due to changing magnetic field. The results of these experiments have led to the life styles of today's men, who made life easy by using lots of electrical applications. The magnitude of the current depended on the strength of the magnet and also on the magnitude of their relative velocity.
If we consider the electrical nature of the Diamagnetic material we will find that it does not have unpaired electrons because of which bulk effect is not produced by the magnetic moments of the electrons. A positive charge q1 within the wire drifting right with a velocity v1 is acted upon by an upward force F, of magnitude q1*v1*B, the drift velocity of a negative charge is in the opposite direction.
For example, it was known that iron had greater magnetic properties than other materials, so someone stuck iron in the center of the transformer (called core), and as expected the inductance increased. Electromotive force or current also gets induced when a closed loop of wire or conductor is moved under the influence of magnetic field. This induced emf and the induced current lasts as long as the change in the magnetic flux continues. If another coil is brought near the first coil, the changes in the magnetic flux of the first coil produces similar changes in the second. It seems the magnetic moment of a loop is independent of the shape of the loop and is dependent upon the area of the loop.
As supported by the Pauli exclusion principle, compound atoms of the elements have some inner electron shells that are incomplete, causing their unpaired electrons to spin like tops and orbit like satellites, thus making the atoms a permanent magnet tending to align with and hence strengthen an applied magnetic field. Electricity is both a basic part of nature and one of our most widely used forms of energy.
Magnetic forces, on the other hand, are produced only by moving charges and act solely on charges in motion. When the magnetic field of external origin is applied to a current carrying loop a torque is developed.
Since the force due to the magnetic field would generate a nonelectrostatic field Fn = q * En.
We see electricity in the example lightning which is a spark or flash light.Electricity dominates many parts of the world.
Because the electric field is due to motion, the emf is call motional electromotive force.
Typical ferrimagnetic materials are iron oxide magnetite , nickel-zinc ferrite , and nickel ferrite .
When electricity gathers in one place it is known as static electricity (meaning something that does not move); electricity that moves from one place to another is called current electricity. ### Comments

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