Electromagnetic energy is familiar to most people as light and heat, but it can take many other forms, such as radio waves and X-rays.
In the Sun's core, four hydrogen nuclei combine, in a series of steps, to form a helium nucleus that has slightly less mass, and therefore less energy.
High frequency EMR, such as gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet light, carries enough energy to cause chemical changes in biological molecules.
You are correct; all electromagnetic waves carry with them some level of energy based on the specific nature of the wave. These are all types of radiation originating from the electromagnetic force, which is responsible for all electrical and magnetic phenomena. He found that the energy of the electrons was entirely dependent on the frequency, and not the intensity, of the light.
It emerged during the development of quantum theory and applies to everything at the subatomic scale; electrons, for example, can behave as waves as well as particles. A lower energy state can also be achieved when atoms or molecules combine with one another in a chemical reaction. An increase in frequency produced higher energy electrons, but an increase in brightness made no difference. There is no overall consensus among scientists as to what this duality actually means about the nature of electromagnetic energy. Maxwell's findings gave rise to the study of electrodynamics, according to which EMR consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to one another and to the direction of motion. This means that high energy gamma rays do not travel any faster than low energy radio waves; instead, they have much shorter wavelengths and much higher frequencies. Its transferred energy may be sufficient to break chemical bonds, ionising the matter on which it impinges. Very low frequency radiation from power cables, electric motors, domestic appliances, transformers and battery chargers.
Very low frequency radiation from electric fields radiating from high voltage electricity grid transmission lines, transformers and power cables. High energy, short wavelength electromagnetic radiation such as ultra-violet rays, X rays and gamma rays can cause ionisation of other materials when present at high enough energies and this can cause serious and permanent damage to human tissue. The individual electric and magnetic fields in an electromagnetic wave are orthogonal (at right angles) to eachother with the plane of oscillation of the fields determined by the orientation of the radiating element such as an antenna. Electromagnetic waves may also be circularly polarised, in which case, the tip of the electric field vector E, describes a helix along the direction of propagation. The spectrum above shows that the individual photons in visible light have energies of a few electron Volts while the particles in cosmic rays with an equivalent frequency of around 1025 Hertz have relatively enormous energies of over 10 billion electron Volts (1.6 nanoJoules).
The lamp actually emits a wide spectrum of radiation, most of which is infra red radiation but we are only considering the visible energy here which amounts to about 10% of the total radiated energy.
Before the invention of particle accelerators such as the cyclotron and the synchrotron, nuclear physics experimentors often used cosmic rays as the source of high energy particles in their experiments. Similar to nuclear radiation, the high energy cosmic ray particles can cause ionisation of materials on which they impinge and as such can have dangerous physiological effects.


Fortunately the earth's magnetic field deflects much of the cosmic radiation away from the earth and some of what get's through is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.
Note that as a consequence of the shorter wavelength, each photon of cosmic radiation contains 5 x 109 times as much energy as the green light photons and can consequently be much more damaging. By the same token, green light radiation needs correspondingly 5 x 109 more photons to make up one Joule of radiated energy than cosmic radiation because of the lower energy level of the photons emitted by green light.
In the case of electromagnetic radiation ionisation occurs in a more forcible manner when matter is bombarded with high energy photons. The electromagnetic radiation spectrum diagram above shows how the photon energy increases with frequency and that at frequencies above the visible light spectrum, the photon energy of the radiation is sufficient to cause ionisation of the matter on which it impinges. At frequencies above the upper end of the visible light spectrum, starting with ultra violet (UV) radiation, the photon energy becomes sufficient to cause ionisation damage to human body tissue. Electromagnetic radiation is the propagation of energy by means of electromagnetic waves (interlinked, varying electric and magnetic fields) such as heat, light, radio waves, X rays and gamma rays, all travelling with the speed of light. Nuclear radiation is the flow of diiscrete, high energy sub-atomic matter particles, not waves, resulting from the natural decay of nuclear materials or from nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion. The microwave energy used in the oven does not actually transform or oxidise the organic compounds which make up the ingredients in the food as in normal cooking. At 2,450 MHz, the frequency of the microwave radiation is in the non ionising region of the electromagnetic spectrum and hence the radiation does not have the energy to cause tissue damage by ionising and breaking down the molecules or atoms in the food. The magnetrons used in the microwave oven produce between 600 and 1000 Watts of microwave power a frequency of 2,450 MHz but the energy is confined in a shielded compartment. The user's exposure to microwave energy leaked from a microwave oven follows the inverse square law, as is the case with all omnidirectional radiation, falling off rapidly as the distance of the user from the source (the oven) increases.
The connection between light and electromagnetism was revealed in the 19th century by physicist James Clerk Maxwell's work on electric and magnetic fields. Plain and simple: All electromagnetic energy (know matter what its frequency or energy) is a pressure wave in normal space.
According to QED, photons are the particles that carry the electromagnetic force, and the interactions of electrically charged objects are explained in terms of the production and absorption of these particles, which themselves carry no charge.
The reason it seems particle- like in some circumstances is that all E-M energy is derived from particle interactions. Combustion is a familiar example: typically, a molecule combines with oxygen from the air, forming products that collectively have less energy than the original molecule. Solar energy is converted to chemical energy that powers the processes that allow plants to make the glucose they need to survive from carbon dioxide and water. He showed that a varying magnetic field induces an associated varying electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field and this varying electric field in turn induces an associated varying magnetic field in the plane of the initial magnetic field. The diagram below shows all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and the corresponding photon energies and some of the applications for which they are used. In practice this means that some properties of radiation can best be explained by wave theory while others can better be explained by particle theory which describes electromagnetic radiation as an energy flow carried by particles called photons, each with a characteristic energy which depends on the frequency of the radiation.
Though a nanoJoule is very small, the total energy flow associated with the radiation is many, many times greater due to the very high number of photons making up the overall photon flux (See below).


Cosmic rays are in fact streams of high energy particles originating from outside the earth's atmosphere. Their particle energy levels are close to the photon energies in the higher frequency electromagnetic waves and simply for convenience, cosmic rays are often included in graphical representations of the electromagnetic spectrum with an equivalent wavelength or frequency for their energy levels (as in the diagram above). If the photon energy is high enough it can knock electrons out of molecules or atoms leaving positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons.
Below the frequency of visible light, and this includes the emissions from microwave ovens and all the frequencies used for radio communications, the radiation is non-ionising since the photon energy of the radiation is so small that ionisation is not normally possible unless the intensity is exceptionally high. It is relatively harmless below the frequency of X rays, but at X ray frequencies and above, the electomagnetic wave carries sufficient energy to cause ionisation of the materials on which it impinges and hence can be hazardous to humans and other life. Electrodynamics was very successful in describing electromagnetic energy in terms of fields and waves, but early in the 20th century, Albert Einstein's investigation of the photoelectric effect, in which light dislodges electrons from a metal surface, raised a problem. The excess energy is released as high frequency gamma rays that are absorbed by matter further out, which then emits this energy, mostly in the form of visible light and heat.
They may be superimposed on eachother or swamp eachother and they may pick up electrical noise during their travels but they do not mix to form sum and difference frequencies as they would in a non linear device and so no miraculous engineering solution is needed to decode or operate upon the new frequency components to reconstruct the original signal.
Together these two varying fields form an electromagnetic wave propagating at the speed of light in a direction perpendicular to both the electric and magnetic fields as shown in the diagram below.
It arises simply because the surface enclosing the source is a sphere, centred on the source, through which all the energy must pass and the surface area of this sphere increases as the square of the distance d from the source.
In the diagram above the polarisation is vertical as represented by the direction of the electrical field E and is said to be linear.
Since the frequencies and the associated quantum energies used by all of these applications, including microwave ovens, are a million times lower than those of x-rays (see the radiation spectrum above), they cannot produce the damaging ionisation associated with high frequency electromagnetic radiation. The alternating electric field of the microwaves causes the molecules to rotate with each cycle as they try to align themselves with the field. To make doubly sure of safety, microwave ovens have safety interlocks which switch off the magnetron completely if the oven door is open and in addition they incorporate shielding to ensure that the maximum leakage of radiation from the oven when the door is closed is limited to agreed national standards. Plants make use of the Sun's electromagnetic energy for photosynthesis, the method by which they produce food. The corresponding photon energies occupy a similar range, from the unmeasurable to the highly dangerous. The cosmic energy dosage however increases with altitude which can be a health hazard for airline crews and frequent fliers and is positively dangerous for astronauts. At progressively higher frequencies, such as X-rays and above, the greater photon energy of the radiation not only causes increased damage but it penetrates deeper into the body with even more serious consequences. Every attempt is made to contain the radiation produced in controlled nuclear reactions employed in the electrical power industry, but very rarely things may go wrong.



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