Main ContentManagement of the State response (Tier 4) requires effective integration of State public health and medical assets with jurisdictional incident management (Tier 3). A challenging aspect of the State response is coordinating the efforts of multiple jurisdictions without infringing on their responsibility in incident management.
The State (Tier 4) also provides the interface between jurisdictional incident management (Tier 3) and Federal public health and medical assistance (Tier 6). NEC's Disaster Information System categorizes and analyses various disaster-related information and data gathered to governmental emergency operation centers and displays the necessary information and data on large screens to assist in decision making by government officials. USTRANSCOM's mission of global mobility management requires a responsive transportation system.
ALM, formerly the AALPS, is a computerized system used to produce air manifests containing all information required by the AMC.
ASPUR is an Intercomputer Data Communications Subsystem that interfaces between noncompatible automated movement systems. It interfaces with other systems such as the Presidential Command and Control Facilities, non-DOD systems, and tactical command and control systems that support subordinate military service units.
Also referred to as SIDPERS TACCS, it provides a standardized personnel system responsible for strength reporting and personnel administration. AMOPES provides mobilization and deployment definitions and guidance for planning and execution along with a detailed description of the Army's Crisis-Action System. Since unit and individual deployment are essential to the conduct of war, this chapter will briefly identify critical personnel automated computer systems.
The ITO, using the central computer, will consolidate requirements and transmit equipment lists and transportation requests to systems outside TC-ACCIS. The following pages examine key distinctions between emergency management and ICS and the roles that each is designed to fulfill during a major medical incident. Emergency management describes the science of managing complex systems and multidisciplinary personnel to address extreme events, across all hazards, and through the phases of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. It is important to note that the procedures and systems used to conduct preparedness activities (committee structure and meetings, memo writing, regular email notification of meetings, etc.) are typically not adequate for use during emergency response.
The ICS, as described in NIMS, refers to the combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications operating within a common organizational structure and designed to aid in the management of resources during incident response. Comprehensive resource management - systems in place to describe, maintain, identify, request, and track resources. When an incident generates demands on the response system, the issues addressed first are usually demands created by the hazard itself—hazard-generated demands. Appendix A highlights several critical assumptions that were made in developing the MSCC Management System.
Emergency Response and Disaster Management are different domains of activity with different information sharing requirements. The OGC's geospatial standards enable interoperability among and between systems used by organizations operating in different jurisdictions, knowledge networks and domains of activity.
OWS-9 scenarios involved aviation information systems, cross-community interoperability, security and services interoperability and OGC Web Services innovations of various kinds.  The OWS-10 marine oil spill and fire scenario advanced work in semantics, conflation, data provenance, linked data, field annotations the new GeoPackage "universal data format". For more information, review the procedures established for emergency response and evacuation at Duke. Planning for the continuity of instruction, student activities, research, and patient care at Duke University in response to an emergency is a complex task. Promote a culture throughout the university and the health system that both enables effective response in an emergency and helps prevent them through an open exchange of information about potential emergencies.
Emergency incidents that primarily impact the University (includes the School of Medicine and School of Nursing). Duke University has a tiered emergency response structure that encourages local management of incidents and coordinated communication involving senior leadership. The tiered structure for Duke’s Emergency Management Plan allows for modular organization based on the size and scope of the incident, as well as specifics of the hazard environment created by the incident.
Emergency Coordinator (EC): is appointed by the President and is responsible for assessing incidents and elevating them, when necessary, to a higher level of management. Each DOT should have a Department Operations Center (DOC) location (and at least one alternate location) for the team to use during the management of an incident.
Emergency Management Team: consists of all members of the Emergency Management Steering Committee, DOT Coordinators and others designated by the EC as key to the Emergency Management effort at Duke.

The Emergency Management Team (EMT) will employ the Incident Command System (ICS) as the model for organization and communication flow. As part of its emergency preparedness plans, Duke will test the DukeALERT mass notification system at least once during the fall and spring semester and once during the summer session. Duke Emergency Management Team also participates in regular exercises to walk through specific scenarios to provide practical experience to those with emergency management responsibilities for managing different issues. In the event of an emergency, a manager from the impacted location must call the Duke Police Control Center by using the Duke Police number (911 from a campus phone or 919-684-2444 from any mobile phone or off-campus phone). The Control Center will then contact the Police Chief who will notify the Emergency Coordinator.
The Emergency Coordinator and the Initial Assessment Team will convene in person or by telephone to receive a briefing. How a State organizes its emergency services to promote integration will depend on many factors, including its geography, population distribution, and historical hazard experience.
The JPEC, and more specifically USTRANSCOM, obtains unit movement requirements from several systems. TC-ACCIS is an information management and data communications system that Army units use to plan and execute deployments.
CALM is an Air Force designed automated system used to create individual air cargo manifest for AMC organic aircraft.
DAMMS-R is the theater movement control system that will link to strategic systems to perform reception and onward movement tasks. TC-AIMS is the generic term for the computer hardware, software, procedures, and other systems used by transportation coordinators throughout the services to automate planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling unit deployment activities. It has been described as a capability integrating hardware, software, and communications system.
A well-defined information management function enables local medical and public healthcare providers to access guidelines for patient evaluation and treatment from State public health authorities.
Hospital staff and other healthcare personnel might equate emergency management activities to a hospital's Disaster Committee (hence the recommended name change to Emergency Management Committee).
In Comprehensive Emergency Management, mitigation activities are undertaken during the time period prior to an imminent or actual hazard impact. It includes activities that establish, exercise, refine, and maintain systems used for emergency response and recovery. This point is often missed by organizations as they attempt to utilize emergency preparedness committees and their associated structures and processes to manage response to an event.
The initial recovery stage (which actually begins in the late stages of response) is integrated with response mechanisms, and the EOP incident management process should be extended into recovery. Examples include the use of emergency notification procedures for disseminating preparedness information, the use of a management- by- objective approach when planning preparedness tasks, and using tightly managed meetings with detailed agendas.
Systems that implement OGC standards reduce the time required to find, analyze and update crucial information. This Emergency Management Plan documents the framework, processes, and communications required for a successful response and recovery from an emergency incident. The plan enables management of a broad range of emergencies, from small to complex incidents.
Members of the Emergency Management Team are trained to bring incidents to the attention of the EC when there is the possibility of an incident requiring coordination at a higher level.
The EC then coordinates with the Emergency Management Team to respond to inciddents in consultation with the Emergency Leadership Team (EMT).
During all levels the Vice President and University secretary serves as liaison between the Emergency Coordinator and University Leadership. The Department Operations Teams are managed by DOT Coordinators, who serve as members of the Emergency Management Team.
The group meets at least once a semester to review key developments in emergency management at Duke and to discuss current issues in emergency management. In addition to testing the notification systems, the tests help Duke community members become more familiar with how they will be notified in an emergency and what they should do in response.
Events that are likely to cause an activation of the plan will be made known to Duke Police, Facilities, or OIT and representatives in those areas will then notify the Emergency Coordinator to initiate the assessment process.
Information abstracted from Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) Guidelines for Special Districts.

Systems required to support the planners as they gather the transportation requirements of the supported CINCs, develop operational plans, and evaluate the effectiveness of those plans. COMPASS is a FORSCOM system that provides deployment planning systems with accurate Army unit movement requirements. Two primary personnel automation systems (SIDPERS and ROAMS) are used to accomplish this mission.
The Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) in California provides an excellent example of the latter situation and is briefly described here. The main features of the system are data entry, ad hoc query, word processing, spread sheet, C2SRS (battle rosters, personnel requirements reports, personnel summary reports, and task force summary), and miscellaneous personnel functions.
The sum of all emergency management activities conducted by a response organization may be collectively referred to as an Emergency Management Program (EMP) for that entity. The critical task in preparedness planning is to define the system (how assets are organized) and processes (actions and interactions that must occur) that will guide emergency response and recovery.
The EOP defines effective process and procedures for the context of emergency response (emergency notification procedures, establishing an incident management team, processing of incident information, etc.).
An effective EOP not only guides the initial (reactive) response actions but also promotes transition to subsequent (proactive) incident management. The management transition from response to recovery (both timing and methods) must be carefully planned and implemented to avoid problems. Arlington County emergency management officials, therefore, quickly knew they had to manage these other problems through their Emergency Operations Center (EOC), which was geographically separate from, but closely coordinated with, incident command at the Pentagon. Although SEMS provides a well-developed organization for public safety emergency services, it does not comprehensively address the incorporation of public health or private medical assets as the primary responders and incident managers.
The WPS is a single Standard Terminal Documentation and Accountability System (see Figures 2-4 and 2-5). The computer performs all coordination, internal and external communication, and central data management functions.
This chapter identifies critical automated mobility systems and shows their interface with other automated systems in support of strategic deployment planning and execution. This integrates the State with jurisdictional incident management (Tier 3) and facilitates coordination between affected jurisdictions.
As recovery progresses, recovery management transitions to regular agency management processes or some intermediate method defined by the responsible organizations. Incident complexity is considered when making incident management level, staffing, and safety decisions. In level 2 and 3 activations, the EMT may also meet via conference call using the Emergency Management conference bridge number. NEC's Earthquake & Tsunami Observation System promptly analyzes earthquake and tsunami information and predicts the intensity of the earthquake secondary big wave and the height of the possible tsunami for spontaneous announcement to the public. Rapid and responsive information and report generation to satisfy transportation management needs. Other States have established detailed State-driven management procedures that are outlined in extensive regulations. Although COMPASS is not a property accountability system, it describes unit property and equipment in transportation terms. Staff should be educated and trained on the system so they gain the knowledge and skills necessary to adequately perform their assigned roles. The net result of open standards is that Emergency Response and Disaster Management stakeholders have more information available to them before, during and after an emergency or disaster occurs.
However, because a defined scene is much less likely in a public health emergency, additional organizational guidance may prove helpful. MTMC area commands use this system to process and transfer unit and non-unit movement files between connected systems. With well-developed ICS and emergency management support, the incident response proactively addresses both types of demands and, in fact, reduces many response-generated demands to routine status.
It supports strength accounting, personnel management, personnel actions, and exchange of information with other automated systems.

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