It explains what emergency preparedness is and how to achieveit in an effective, appropriate way.
Assistance funds are diverted fromthose otherwise provided for development, thus reducing development opportu-nities in areas most vulnerable to emergencies and disasters. Of the susceptible communities, some, like SanFrancisco, and many communities in Japan, are highly resilient and some, likeArmenia, less resilient.
Without emergencypreparedness and response mechanisms, an emergency can escalate into a disas-ter, causing great harm and setting development back years. Thus,emergency preparedness can be based on common strategies and systems for themany different types of emergencies and disasters that might harm a community.Certain hazards are of neither natural nor technological origin. Many forms ofsocial exclusion can lead to social unrest, economic disruption, and violence.Such social exclusion may be caused by marginalization of the poor, tensionbetween different ethnic and cultural groups, and other social inequities.
These risk-managementpractices can be applied to communities: vulnerability reduction and emergencypreparedness components should be built in to each new development, andwhenever existing developments are reviewed (see Fig. Six sectors at each administrative level should beinvolved in implementation, with a representative task force to coordinate thework. The control of government organizations should not be consideredexcept in exceptional emergency circumstances.In particular, it is imperative that organizations are not limited to the areasof emergency management in which they seem most active. If preparedness measures are taken seriously, families and the wholecommunity will learn this type of self-reliance.Local communities are at the centre of immediate response and recovery activi-ties.
Communitymembers, resources, organizations, and administrative structures should be thecornerstones of an emergency preparedness programme.
This context will vary from country to country and fromcommunity to community, but some relevant aspects are shown in Fig. It will mainly relate tothe responsibility for emergency preparedness and special emergency powers.Fig.
What is missing from thesefactors is the feeling of common interest, the social networks, and the sharedexperiences that exist within a community. In this latter case, the community plays an active and direct part in allaspects of the development process and has the power to ensure that itsopinions are taken into account.Spontaneous, induced or compulsory participation.
Coverage of community emergency preparedness a manual for managers and policy-makers a vast quantity of the smaller cities individual sets out to build a survival kit.


Nevertheless, the processes ofemergency preparedness can be used to develop systems and programmes forcoping with every scale of adverse events. 5).Badly coordinated humanitarian assistance clearly is not the answer and is a poorinvestment of time, resources, and money. An assessment ofvulnerability may identify and describe vulnerable groups, but this is only part of the overall picture.
Emergencies are a direct threatto development, diverting development money to humanitarian assistance anddamaging the structures that assist development.
9).The comprehensive approach combines prevention (and mitigation), prepared-ness, response, and recovery (rehabilitation). The multisec-toral and intersectoral approach will also help link emergency management todevelopment, by institutionalizing emergency management and the use of itsprinciples in development projects.Fig. Most communities are adequately prepared to deal with the harmcaused by minor emergencies because experience has taught them to establish thenecessary systems and resources. A capacity in each of these elements is a precondition for effective responseand recovery when an emergency or disaster strikes. Vulnerability assessment is alsouseful for response and recovery and for prevention and preparedness. Since communities are groups ofindividuals, most of whom need social interaction, there are many emotional andother mutual bonds between community members.
Real community par-ticipation requires methods for actively involving even the most marginalizedcommunity members, e.g. WHO collaborated with a number of organizations during this process,including the International Civil Defense Organisation and the InternationalFederation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
A community is the smallest social grouping in a country with aneffective social structure and potential administrative capacity. 7 shows the prevalence of malaria before and after a hurricane.Malaria is just one of the health aspects of this emergency, and health is just oneof the sectors affected. It is important that all sectors andorganizations are active in each of these areas.The responsibility for vulnerability reductionVulnerability reduction is often perceived as the exclusive domain of one organi-zation, sector, or level of society and government.
Existing routine emergency experience, organi-zation, and resources can be built on to create disaster management preparedness.Emergencies arise every day worldwide.


13) is a series of relatedmethods for preparing a community, an organization, or an activity for emergen-cies.
Monitoring and evaluation are continuous processes, and any conclu-sions drawn should be included in policy development, vulnerability assessment,emergency management, and training and education.Each section of this emergency preparedness process can be followedsequentially, but in practice, policy, vulnerability assessment, and emergencyplans are often developed simultaneously. Participation can becharacterized in terms of three stages: marginal, substantive, and struc-tural. Marsh for developing the planningprocess that formed the basis of Chapter 4, Emergency planning; and MrP. Hazards are the potentialsources of emergencies of natural, technological, or social origin. This approach entails developingstrategies for all of the needs created by different types of potential emergencies.Each possible hazard can cause similar problems in a community, and actionssuch as warning, evacuation, mobilization of medical services, and assistance withcommunity recovery may be required during and following emergencies. Prevention and preparedness measuresshould be integrated into development planning, in order to minimize the disaster impact.Response and rehabilitation are humanitarian activities which should contribute to sustain-able development. Substantive participation is characterized by the community beingactively involved in determining priorities and carrying out activities, eventhough the mechanisms for these activities may be externally controlled. This has led toa restructuring of the insurance industry, with insured parties bearing morecosts, and governments assisting the insurance and reinsurance markets (2).Uninsured and economic losses are creating immense burdens on communities,economies, and governments. It is possible for a community to have either high or lowsusceptibility and resilience.For example, many communities are susceptible to frequent severe earthquakesbecause of their geographical position and geological environment, while othersdo not experience them. Policy and standards for vulnerability reduction should come from thenational level but implementing the various measures should begin at the com-munity level (see Fig.
Instructural participation, the community is involved as an integral part of theINTRODUCTION17project and its participation becomes the ideological basis for the projectitself.



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